• Title, Summary, Keyword: Flight Route

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Development of Mission Analysis and Design Tool for ISR UAV Mission Planning (UAV 감시정보정찰 임무분석 및 설계 도구 개발)

  • Kim, Hongrae;Jeon, Byung-Il;Lee, Narae;Choi, Seong-Dong;Chang, Young-Keun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.181-190
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    • 2014
  • The optimized flight path planning which is appropriate for UAV operation with high performance and multiplex sensors is required for efficient ISR missions. Furthermore, a mission visualization tool is necessary for the assessment of MoE(Measures of Effectiveness) prior to mission operation and the urgent tactical decision in peace time and wartime. A mission visualization and analysis tool was developed by combining STK and MATLAB, whose tool was used for UAV ISR mission analyses in this study. In this mission analysis tool, obstacle avoidance and FoM(Figure of Merit) analysis algorithms were applied to enable the optimized mission planning.

Study on Technical Standard of Aviation GNSS for SBAS Performance Based Navigation (SBAS 성능기반 항행을 위한 항공용 GNSS 기술표준 분석 연구)

  • Park, Jae-ik;Lee, Eunsung;Heo, Moon-beom;Nam, Gi-wook
    • The Journal of Advanced Navigation Technology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.305-313
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    • 2016
  • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has recommended the adoption of performance-based navigation (PBN), which utilizes global navigation satellite system (GNSS). As a part of efforts to adopt PBN in South Korea, preparations have been made to implement GNSS. In Oct. 2014, Korea augmentation satellite system (KASS) was officially launched for development. A set of navigation devices need to be on-board for an airplane to utilize GNSS. GNSS navigation devices are used for different phases of flights through en-route, terminal, departure, approach and a wide variety of specification standards have been proposed for GNSS navigation. In this paper, we investigate the many proposed standards for GNSS navigation devices and their interfaces. This paper can be useful for designing procedures and flight test used in KASS implementation.

Centralized routing method of unmanned aerial vehicle using vehicular Ad Hoc networks (차량 네트워크 기반 중앙관리형 무인비행체 경로 유도 시스템)

  • Kim, Ryul;Joo, Yang-Ick
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.830-835
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    • 2016
  • With the relaxation of regulations on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the USA, the development of related industries is expected. Hence, it is anticipated that the number the UAVs will reach approximately 600,000 in the USA in 2017. However, automated flights of commercial UAVs are restricted owing to concerns about accidents. To deal with the possibility of collisions, several studies on collision prevention and the routing of UAVs have been conducted. However, these studies do not deal with various situations dynamically or provide efficient solutions. Therefore, we propose a centralized routing method for the UAV that uses vehicular networks. In the proposed scheme, vehicular networks regard UAVs as data packets to be routed. Accordingly, the proposed method reduces UAV processing power required for route searches. In addition, the routing efficiency for UAV flight paths can be improved since congestion can be minimized by using a vehicular network.

A design of UAV Simulation model for waypoint optimization method (웨이포인트 최적화 방법에 대한 UAV 시물레이션 모델의 디자인)

  • Niyonsaba, Eric;Jang, JongWook
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.239-242
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    • 2016
  • In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have been developed for both military and civilian activities in regions where the presence of onboard human pilots is risky or not necessary. However, UAV require a high demand of power to achieve its missions such as taking images/videos in a certain area or surveillance activities. Therefore, this situation triggers the need of techniques to reduce power consumption for UAV to complete its mission safely. One of the methods is to use a waypoint optimization procedure which deals with a pre-specified set of waypoints to find a minimum route to fly through those waypoints in order to reduce power consumption. In this paper, due to the UAV's multidisciplinary which makes it impossible to be represented as an analytical model, we design a simulation model of UAV using MATLAB Simulink and AeroSim Blockset, an analysis package in aerospace industry. The simulation model is then coupled with optimization algorithms along with a set of waypoints (flight path) in order to measure at which percentage power consumption can be minimized for UAV.

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Indonesia, Malaysia Airline's aircraft accidents and the Indonesian, Korean, Chinese Aviation Law and the 1999 Montreal Convention

  • Kim, Doo-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.37-81
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    • 2015
  • AirAsia QZ8501 Jet departed from Juanda International Airport in, Surabaya, Indonesia at 05:35 on Dec. 28, 2014 and was scheduled to arrive at Changi International Airport in Singapore at 08:30 the same day. The aircraft, an Airbus A320-200 crashed into the Java Sea on Dec. 28, 2014 carrying 162 passengers and crew off the coast of Indonesia's second largest city Surabaya on its way to Singapore. Indonesia's AirAsia jet carrying 162 people lost contact with ground control on Dec. 28, 2014. The aircraft's debris was found about 66 miles from the plane's last detected position. The 155 passengers and seven crew members aboard Flight QZ 8501, which vanished from radar 42 minutes after having departed Indonesia's second largest city of Surabaya bound for Singapore early Dec. 28, 2014. AirAsia QZ8501 had on board 137 adult passengers, 17 children and one infant, along with two pilots and five crew members in the aircraft, a majority of them Indonesian nationals. On board Flight QZ8501 were 155 Indonesian, three South Koreans, and one person each from Singapore, Malaysia and the UK. The Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 departed from Kuala Lumpur International Airport on March 8, 2014 at 00:41 local time and was scheduled to land at Beijing's Capital International Airport at 06:30 local time. Malaysia Airlines also marketed as China Southern Airlines Flight 748 (CZ748) through a code-share agreement, was a scheduled international passenger flight that disappeared on 8 March 2014 en route from Kuala Lumpur International Airport to Beijing's Capital International Airport (a distance of 2,743 miles: 4,414 km). The aircraft, a Boeing 777-200ER, last made contact with air traffic control less than an hour after takeoff. Operated by Malaysia Airlines (MAS), the aircraft carried 12 crew members and 227 passengers from 15 nations. There were 227 passengers, including 153 Chinese and 38 Malaysians, according to records. Nearly two-thirds of the passengers on Flight 370 were from China. On April 5, 2014 what could be the wreckage of the ill-fated Malaysia Airlines was found. What appeared to be the remnants of flight MH370 have been spotted drifting in a remote section of the Indian Ocean. Compensation for loss of life is vastly different between US. passengers and non-U.S. passengers. "If the claim is brought in the US. court, it's of significantly more value than if it's brought into any other court." Some victims and survivors of the Indonesian and Malaysia airline's air crash case would like to sue the lawsuit to the United States court in order to receive a larger compensation package for damage caused by an accident that occurred in the sea of Java sea and the Indian ocean and rather than taking it to the Indonesian or Malaysian court. Though each victim and survivor of the Indonesian and Malaysia airline's air crash case will receive an unconditional 113,100 Unit of Account (SDR) as an amount of compensation for damage from Indonesia's AirAsia and Malaysia Airlines in accordance with Article 21, 1 (absolute, strict, no-fault liability system) of the 1999 Montreal Convention. But if Indonesia AirAsia airlines and Malaysia Airlines cannot prove as to the following two points without fault based on Article 21, 2 (presumed faulty system) of the 1999 Montreal Convention, AirAsia of Indonesiaand Malaysia Airlines will be burdened the unlimited liability to the each victim and survivor of the Indonesian and Malaysia airline's air crash case such as (1) such damage was not due to the negligence or other wrongful act or omission of the air carrier or its servants or agents, or (2) such damage was solely due to the negligence or other wrongful act or omission of a third party. In this researcher's view for the aforementioned reasons, and under the laws of China, Indonesia, Malaysia and Korea the Chinese, Indonesian, Malaysia and Korean, some victims and survivors of the crash of the two flights are entitled to receive possibly from more than 113,100 SDR to 5 million US$ from the two airlines or from the Aviation Insurance Company based on decision of the American court. It could also be argued that it is reasonable and necessary to revise the clause referring to bodily injury to a clause mentioning personal injury based on Article 17 of the 1999 Montreal Convention so as to be included the mental injury and condolence in the near future.

The Status of North Korean Airspace after Reunification (북한 공역의 통일 후 지위)

  • Kwon, Chang-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.287-325
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    • 2017
  • Considering the development of aerospace, military science and technology since the 20th century, the sky is very important for the nation's existence and prosperity. The proverb "Whosoever commands the space commands the world itself!" emphasizes the need for the command of the air. This essay is the first study on the status of airspace after reunification. First, the territorial airspace is over the territory and territorial sea, and its horizontal extent is determined by the territorial boundary lines. Acceptance of the present order is most reasonable, rather than attempting to reconfigure through historical truths about border issues, and it could be supported by neighboring countries in the reunification period. For peace in Northeast Asia, the reunified Korea needs to respect the existing border agreement between North Korea and China or Russia. However, the North Korean straight baselines established in the East Sea and the Yellow Sea should be discarded because they are not available under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. It is desirable for the reunified Korea to redefine the straight baselines that comply with international law and determine the territorial waters up to and including the 12-nautical mile outside it. Second, the Flight Information Region (hereinafter "FIR") is a region defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization (hereinafter "ICAO") in order to provide information necessary for the safe and efficient flight of aircraft and the search and rescue of aircraft. At present, Korea is divided into Incheon FIR which is under the jurisdiction of South Korea and Pyongyang FIR which is under the jurisdiction of North Korea. If North Korea can not temporarily exercise control of Pyongyang FIR due to a sudden change of circumstances, it is desirable for South Korea to exercise control of Pyongyang FIR, and if it is unavoidable, ICAO should temporarily exercise it. In reunified Korea, it is desirable to abolish Pyongyang FIR and integrate it into Incheon FIR with the approval of ICAO, considering systematic management and control of FIR, establishment of route, and efficiency of management. Third, the Air Defense Identification Zone (hereinafter "ADIZ") is a zone that requires easy identification, positioning, and control of aircraft for national security purposes, and is set up unilaterally by the country concerned. The US unilaterally established the Korea Air Defense Identification Area (KADIZ) by the Declaration of Commitment on March 22, 1951. The Ministry of Defense proclaimed a new KADIZ which extended to the area including IEODO on December 13, 2013. At present, North Korea's military warning zone is set only at maritime boundaries such as the East Sea and the Yellow Sea. But in view of its lack of function as ADIZ in relations with China and Russia, the reunified Korea has no obligation to succeed it. Since the depth of the Korean peninsula is short, it is necessary to set ADIZ boundary on the outskirts of the territorial airspace to achieve the original purpose of ADIZ. Therefore, KADIZ of the reunified Korea should be newly established by the boundary line that coincides with the Incheon FIR of the reunified Korea. However, if there is no buffer zone overlapping with or adjacent to the ADIZs of neighboring countries, military tensions may rise. Therefore, through bilateral negotiations for peace in Northeast Asia, a buffer zone is established between adjacent ADIZs.

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Open Skies Policy : A Study on the Alliance Performance and International Competition of FFP (항공자유화정책상 상용고객우대제도의 제휴성과와 국제경쟁에 관한 연구)

  • Suh, Myung-Sun;Cho, Ju-Eun
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.139-162
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    • 2010
  • In terms of the international air transport, the open skies policy implies freedom in the sky or opening the sky. In the normative respect, the open skies policy is a kind of open-door policy which gives various forms of traffic right to other countries, but on the other hand it is a policy of free competition in the international air transport. Since the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, the United States has signed an open skies agreement with many countries, starting with the Netherlands, so that competitive large airlines can compete in the international air transport market where there exist a lot of business opportunities. South Korea now has an open skies agreement with more than 20 countries. The frequent flyer program (FFP) is part of a broad-based marketing alliance which has been used as an airfare strategy since the U.S. government's airline deregulation. The membership-based program is an incentive plan that provides mileage points to customers for using airline services and rewards customer loyalty in tangible forms based on their accumulated points. In its early stages, the frequent flyer program was focused on marketing efforts to attract customers, but now in the environment of intense competition among airlines, the program is used as an important strategic marketing tool for enhancing business performance. Therefore, airline companies agree that they need to identify customer needs in order to secure loyal customers more effectively. The outcomes from an airline's frequent flyer program can have a variety of effects on international competition. First, the airline can obtain a more dominant position in the air flight market by expanding its air route networks. Second, the availability of flight products for customers can be improved with an increase in flight frequency. Third, the airline can preferentially expand into new markets and thus gain advantages over its competitors. However, there are few empirical studies on the airline frequent flyer program. Accordingly, this study aims to explore the effects of the program on international competition, after reviewing the types of strategic alliance between airlines. Making strategic airline alliances is a worldwide trend resulting from the open skies policy. South Korea also needs to be making open skies agreements more realistic to promote the growth and competition of domestic airlines. The present study is about the performance of the airline frequent flyer program and international competition under the open skies policy. With a sample of five global alliance groups (Star, Oneworld, Wings, Qualiflyer and Skyteam), the study was attempted as an empirical study of the effects that the resource structures and levels of information technology held by airlines in each group have on the type of alliance, and one-way analysis of variance and regression analysis were used to test hypotheses. The findings of this study suggest that both large airline companies and small/medium-size airlines in an alliance group with global networks and organizations are able to achieve high performance and secure international competitiveness. Airline passengers earn mileage points by using non-flight services through an alliance network with hotels, car-rental services, duty-free shops, travel agents and more and show high interests in and preferences for related service benefits. Therefore, Korean airline companies should develop more aggressive marketing programs based on multilateral alliances with other services including hotels, as well as with other airlines.

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A Study on the Strategies for Incheon International Airport to be a Successful Hub Airport in Northeast Asia (인천국제공항의 동북아 허브화 성공을 위한 전략 -한·일 항공시장 분석을 중심으로-)

  • Yoo, Kwang Eui
    • The Journal of Advanced Navigation Technology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.81-94
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    • 1997
  • The construction of Incheon International Airport(IIA) was planned in order to meet the national air transport demand which has been rapidly increased, and to be a major hub airport in Northeast Asia. However, it is inevitable to compete with Japanese airports because Japanese government also planned to expand greatly the airport capacity in Tokyo area and Kansai Airport in Osaka area. Since a hub airport should have convenient connecting flights to spoke cities, it is required for IIA to have plenty of short-haul flights to the cities around Seoul, for example, to the cities in East China, Japan and other East Asian countries. IIA authority and Korean national air carriers should coordinate to develop air transport demand for short-haul international route and establish efficient hub-spoke flight schedules. This would be a essential precondition to function as a hinterland hub in Northeast Asia. Reflecting the geographical position, the function as a hourglass hub could be possible, if IIA is utilised by major airlines as a bridge to connect passengers between cities in Southeast Asia and 'cities in North America. To be a successful hourglass hub, the Korean national carriers must try to engage in the joint operations or the alliances with the major airlines of Southeastern countries or North American countries. All of these could be accomplished through the cooperation among government, airport and national air carriers.

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