• Title, Summary, Keyword: Flat electrode method

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Conformal coating of Al-doped ZnO thin film on micro-column patterned substrate for TCO (TCO 응용을 위한 패턴된 기판위에 증착된 AZO 박막의 특성 연구)

  • Choi, M.K.;Ahn, C.H.;Kong, B.H.;Cho, H.K.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.28-28
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    • 2009
  • Fabrications of antireflection structures on solar cell were investigated to trap the light and to improve quantum efficiency. Introductions of patterned substrate or textured layer for Si solar cell were performed to prevent reflectance and to increase the path length of incoming light. However, it is difficult to deposit conformally flat electrode on perpendicular plane. ZnO is II-VI compound semiconductor and well-known wide band-gap material. It has similar electrical and optical properties as ITO, but it is nontoxic and stable. In this study, Al-doped ZnO thin films are deposited as transparent electrode by atomic layer deposition method to coat on Si substrate with micro-scale structures. The deposited AZO layer is flatted on horizontal plane as well as perpendicular one with conformal 200 nm thickness. The carrier concentration, mobility and resistivity of deposited AZO thin film on glass substrate were measured $1.4\times10^{20}cm^{-3}$, $93.3cm^2/Vs$, $4.732\times10^{-4}{\Omega}cm$ with high transmittance over 80%. The AZO films were coated with polyimide and performed selective polyimide stripping on head of column by reactive ion etching to measure resistance along columns surface. Current between the micro-columns flows onto the perpendicular plane of deposited AZO film with low resistance.

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Property of the Nano-Thick TiO2 Films Using an ALD at Low Temperature (저온 ALD로 제조된 TiO2 나노 박막 물성 연구)

  • Yoon, Ki-Jeong;Song, Oh-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.515-520
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    • 2008
  • We fabricated 10 nm-$TiO_2$ thin films for DSSC (dye sensitized solar cell) electrode application using ALD (atomic layer deposition) method at the low temperatures of $150^{\circ}\;and\;250^{\circ}$. We characterized the crosssectional microstructure, phase, chemical binding energy, and absorption of the $TiO_2$ using TEM, HRXRD, XPS, and UV-VIS-NIR, respectively. TEM analysis showed a 10 nm-thick flat and uniform $TiO_2$ thin film regardless of the deposition temperatures. Through XPS analysis, it was found that the stoichiometric $TiO_2$ phase was formed and confirmed by measuring main characteristic peaks of Ti $2p^1$, Ti $2p^3$, and O 1s indicating the binding energy status. Through UV-VIS-NIR analysis, ALD-$TiO_2$ thin films were found to have a band gap of 3.4 eV resulting in the absorption edges at 360 nm, while the conventional $TiO_2$ films had a band gap of 3.0 eV (rutile)${\sim}$3.2 eV (anatase) with the absorption edges at 380 nm and 410 nm. Our results implied that the newly proposed nano-thick $TiO_2$ film using an ALD process at $150^{\circ}$ had almost the same properties as thsose of film at $250^{\circ}$. Therefore, we confirmed that the ALD-processed $TiO_2$ thin film with nano-thickness formed at low temperatures might be suitable for the electrode process of flexible devices.

ZnO nanostructures for e-paper and field emission display applications

  • Sun, X.W.
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.993-994
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    • 2008
  • Electrochromic (EC) devices are capable of reversibly changing their optical properties upon charge injection and extraction induced by the external voltage. The characteristics of the EC device, such as low power consumption, high coloration efficiency, and memory effects under open circuit status, make them suitable for use in a variety of applications including smart windows and electronic papers. Coloration due to reduction or oxidation of redox chromophores can be used for EC devices (e-paper), but the switching time is slow (second level). Recently, with increasing demand for the low cost, lightweight flat panel display with paper-like readability (electronic paper), an EC display technology based on dye-modified $TiO_2$ nanoparticle electrode was developed. A well known organic dye molecule, viologen, was adsorbed on the surface of a mesoporous $TiO_2$ nanoparticle film to form the EC electrode. On the other hand, ZnO is a wide bandgap II-VI semiconductor which has been applied in many fields such as UV lasers, field effect transistors and transparent conductors. The bandgap of the bulk ZnO is about 3.37 eV, which is close to that of the $TiO_2$ (3.4 eV). As a traditional transparent conductor, ZnO has excellent electron transport properties, even in ZnO nanoparticle films. In the past few years, one-dimension (1D) nanostructures of ZnO have attracted extensive research interest. In particular, 1D ZnO nanowires renders much better electron transportation capability by providing a direct conduction path for electron transport and greatly reducing the number of grain boundaries. These unique advantages make ZnO nanowires a promising matrix electrode for EC dye molecule loading. ZnO nanowires grow vertically from the substrate and form a dense array (Fig. 1). The ZnO nanowires show regular hexagonal cross section and the average diameter of the ZnO nanowires is about 100 nm. The cross-section image of the ZnO nanowires array (Fig. 1) indicates that the length of the ZnO nanowires is about $6\;{\mu}m$. From one on/off cycle of the ZnO EC cell (Fig. 2). We can see that, the switching time of a ZnO nanowire electrode EC cell with an active area of $1\;{\times}\;1\;cm^2$ is 170 ms and 142 ms for coloration and bleaching, respectively. The coloration and bleaching time is faster compared to the $TiO_2$ mesoporous EC devices with both coloration and bleaching time of about 250 ms for a device with an active area of $2.5\;cm^2$. With further optimization, it is possible that the response time can reach ten(s) of millisecond, i.e. capable of displaying video. Fig. 3 shows a prototype with two different transmittance states. It can be seen that good contrast was obtained. The retention was at least a few hours for these prototypes. Being an oxide, ZnO is oxidation resistant, i.e. it is more durable for field emission cathode. ZnO nanotetropods were also applied to realize the first prototype triode field emission device, making use of scattered surface-conduction electrons for field emission (Fig. 4). The device has a high efficiency (field emitted electron to total electron ratio) of about 60%. With this high efficiency, we were able to fabricate some prototype displays (Fig. 5 showing some alphanumerical symbols). ZnO tetrapods have four legs, which guarantees that there is one leg always pointing upward, even using screen printing method to fabricate the cathode.

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Study on Noise Reduction of Plasma Display Panel (플라즈마 디스플레이의 소음 저감 연구)

  • Park, Dae-Kyong;Kweon, Hae-Sub;Jang, Dong-Seob
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.693-698
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    • 2002
  • For the evaluation of the plasma display panel (PDP)'s noise, vibration and sound characteristics of fanless PDP are measured and investigated. PDP is a type of two-electrode vacuum tube which operates on the same principle as a household fluorescent light. An inert gas such as argon or neon is injected between two glass plates on which transparent electrodes have been formed, and the glass is illuminated by generating discharge. For this discharge, both high voltage and currents are needed and cause an acoustic noise. We investigated the noise characteristics connected with both a electromagnetic elements from SMPS to panel through X, Y and logic board, and a mechanical elements form panel to case through transfer path which related with vibration and heat. To reduce the noise of PDP, a discharge pulse memory design related with both higher brightness and lower power consumption is important and mechanical characteristics connected with dissipation process of both heat and vibration generated by panel discharge must be investigated.

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The dark-current and X -ray sensitivity measurement of hybrid digital X-ray detector having dielectric layer structure (a-Se 기반의 혼합형 X-선 검출기에서 유전층의 누설전류 저감효과)

  • Seok, Dae-Woo;Park, Ji-Koon;Joh, Jin-Wook;Lee, Dong-Gil;Moon, Chi-Woong;Nam, Sang-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.31-34
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    • 2002
  • In this paper, the electric properties of amophous selenium multilayer samples has been investigated. In order to develop the hybrid flat-panel digital· X-ray image detector, we measured and analyzed their performance parameters such as the X -ray sensitivity and dark-current for a amophous selenium multilayers X-ray detector with a phosphor layer, The hybrid digital X-ray image detector can be constructed by integrating a phosphor layer (or a scintillative layer) that convert X-ray to a light on a-Se photoconduction mulilayers that convert a light to electrical signal. As results, the dielectric materials such as parylene between the phosphor layer and the top electrode may reduce the dark-current of the samples. Amorphous selenium multilayers having dielectric layer(parylene) has characteristics of low dark-current, high X-ray sensitivity. So we can acquired a enhanced signal to noise ratio. In this paper offer the method can reduce the dark-current in the hybrid X-ray detector.

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Electrical and Optical properties of TiO2-doped ZnO Films prepared on PEN by RF-magnetron Sputtering Method (고주파 마그네트론 스퍼터링에 의해 성막된 TiO2가 도핑된 ZnO 박막의 전기적 및 광학적 특성)

  • Kim, Hwa-Min;Sohn, Sun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.22 no.10
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    • pp.837-843
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    • 2009
  • $TiO_2$(2 wt.%)-doped ZnO(TZO) films with thickness from 100 nm to 500 nm were prepared on polyethylene naphthalate(PEN) substrate under various rf-power range from 40 W to 80 W. Their electrical and optical properties were investigated as a function of rf-power. We think that these properties were closely related with the crystallization and the film density of TZO films. It was also presumed that the vaporization of the water vapor and other adsorbed particles such as an organic solvents can affect the electrical properties of the conventional transparent conductive oxide(TCO) films. On the other hand, since the TZO film deposited on glass substrate at room temperature with rf-power of 80 W shows a very low resistivity of $7.5\times10^{-4}\;\Omega{\cdot}cm$ and a very excellent transmittance over an average 85% in the visible range, that is comparable to that of ITO films. Therefore, we expect that the TZO films can be used as transparent electrode for optoelectronic devices such as touch-panels, flat-panel displays, and thin-film solar cells.

Quality Management of ITO Thin Film for OLED Based on Relationship of Fabrication and Characteristics (OLED용 ITO박막의 공정조건과 품질특성 추론에 근거한 품질관리)

  • Seo, Jeong-Min;Park, Keun-Young;Lee, Sang-Ryong;Lee, Choon-Young
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.336-341
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    • 2008
  • Recently, research on a flat panel display(FPD) has focused on organic light-emitting display(OLED) which has wide angle of view, high contrast ratio and low power consumption. ITO(Indium-Tin-Oxide) films are the most widely used material as a transparent electrode of OLED and also in many other display devices like LCD or PDP. The performance and efficiency of OLED is related to the surface condition of ITO coated glass substrate. The typical surface defect of glass substrate is measured for electric characteristics and physical condition for transmittance and roughness. Since ITO coated glass substrate can be destroyed for inspection about surface roughness, sheet resistance, film thickness and transmittance, precise fabrication condition should be made based on the estimated relationship. In this paper, ITO films were prepared on the commercial glass substrate by the Ion-Plating method changing the partial pressure of gas(Ar, 02) and the chamber temperature between $200^{\circ}C$ and $300^{\circ}C$. The characteristics of films were examined by the 4-point probe, supersonic thickness measurement, transmittance measurement and AFM. We estimated the relationship between processing parameters(Ar gas, O2 gas, Temperature) and properties of ITO films (Sheet Resistance, Film Thickness, Transmittance, Surface Roughness).

Effective of bias voltage as electrical property of ZnO:Al transparent conducting films on polyethylen terephthalate substrate (PET 기판 위에 증착된 ZnO:Al 투명 전도막의 전기적 특성에 미치는 바이어스전압의 효과)

  • Park, Byung-Wook;Jessie, Darma;Sung, Youl-Moon;Kwak, Dong-Joo
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1260-1261
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    • 2008
  • Aluminium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin film has emerged as one of the most promising transparent conducting electrode in flat panel displays(FPD) and in photovoltaic devices since it is inexpensive, mechanically stable, and highly resistant to deoxidation. In this paper ZnO:Al thin film was deposited on the polyethylene terephthalate(PET) substrate by the capacitively coupled r.f. magnetron sputtering method. Wide ranges of bias voltage, -30V${\sim}$45V, was applied to the growing films as an additional energy instead of substrate heating, and the effect of positive and negative bias on the film structure and electrical properties of ZnO:Al films was studied and discussed. The results showed that a bias applied to the substrate during sputtering contributed to the improvement of electrical properties of the film by attracting ions and electrons in the plasma to bombard the growing films. These bombardments provided additional energy to the growing ZnO film on the substrate, resulting in significant variations in film structure and electrical properties. The film deposited on the PET substrate at r. f. discharge power of 200 W showed the minimum resistivity of about $2.4{\times}10^{-3}{\Omega}-cm$ and a transmittance of about 87%.

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Fabrication of a Micro-riblet Shark Skin-like Surface using a WEDM Process (와이어 방전가공을 이용한 상어 표피 모사 리블렛 표면 제작)

  • Park, Young Whan;Kim, Tae Wan
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.201-206
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we attempt to produce a semi-elliptical riblet with a shark skin-like surface using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) and micro molding techniques. Our design for the production of the semi-elliptical mold includes an electrode, a winding roller, and a guide on the WEDM system. A replication mold with negative riblets is machined using WEDM, and a shark skin inspired surface with positive riblets is fabricated using a micro molding technique. For a comparison with the original shark skin, a shark skin replica is also produced using the micro molding technique directly from a shark skin template. Droplet contact angles on a flat surface, the shark skin replica, and the epoxy resin-based micro riblet shark skin-like surface are evaluated. The effect of a Teflon coating on the contact angles for the three different surfaces is also investigated. The results show the micro riblet with a shark skin-like surface has a similar contact angle as the shark skin replica, which means that the simplified riblet shark skin surface strongly influences the performance of wettability. This study confirms the effectiveness of using the WEDM method to prepare hydrophobic surfaces with diverse surface patterns.

Study of Radio Frequency Thawing for Cylindrical Pork Sirloin

  • Kim, Jinse;Park, Jong Woo;Park, Seokho;Choi, Dong Soo;Choi, Seung Ryul;Kim, Yong Hoon;Lee, Soo Jang;Park, Chun Wan;Han, Gui Jeung;Cho, Byoung-Kwan
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.108-115
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Radio frequency (RF) heating is a promising thawing method, but it frequently causes undesirable problems such as non-uniform heating. This can occur because of the food shape, component distribution, and initial temperature differences between food parts. In this study, RF heating was applied to the thawing of cylindrically shaped pork sirloin by changing the shape of electrodes and the surrounding temperature. Methods: Curved electrodes were utilized to increase the thawing uniformity of cylindrically shaped frozen meat. Pork sirloin in the shape of a half-circle column was frozen in a deep freezer at $-70^{\circ}C$ and then thawed by RF heating with flat and curved electrodes. In order to prevent fast defrosting of the food surface by heat transfer from air to the food, the temperature of the thawing chamber was varied by -5, -10, and $-20^{\circ}C$. The temperature values of the frozen pork sirloin during RF thawing were measured using fiber-optic thermo sensors. Results: After multiple applications of curved electrodes resembling the food shape, and a cooled chamber at $-20^{\circ}C$ the half-cylindrically shaped meat was thawed without surface burning, and the temperature values of each point were similarly increased. However, with the parallel electrode, the frozen meat was partially burned by RF heating and the temperature values of center were overheated. The uniform heating rate and heat transfer prevention from air to the food were crucial factors for RF thawing. In this study, these crucial factors were accomplished by using a curved electrode and lowering the chamber temperature. Conclusions: The curved shape of the electrode and the equipotential surface calculated from the modeling of the parallel capacitor showed the effect of uniform heating of cylindrically shaped frozen food. Moreover, the low chamber temperature was effective on the prevention of the surface burning during RF thawing.