• Title, Summary, Keyword: Flat electrode method

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Analysis of Electrical Resistivity Characteristics of Concrete by Using Flat Electrode Method (평판접지 전극방법을 이용한 콘크리트의 전기비저항 특성 분석)

  • Park, Chang Seon;Park, Hae Won;Lee, Kang Hun;Jeong, Jin Hoon
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2017
  • PURPOSES : The pole electrode method damaged the concrete pavement on inserting the electrode into the pavement surface. This study examined the feasibility of the flat electrode method to observe the concrete pavement instead of the pole electrode method and analyzed the resistivity characteristics of the concrete by performing laboratory tests. METHODS : The resistivity of the concrete specimens manufactured with three different mixing ratios (38.50%, 39.50%, and 40.50%) were measured using the pole and flat electrode methods according to the concrete age (7 and 28 days) and electrode spacing (20 mm, 30 mm, and 40 mm). RESULTS :In both pole and flat electrode methods, the resistivity increased with increasing fine aggregate proportion regardless of the concrete age. The resistivity measured at a concrete age of 28 days was slightly larger than that measured at 7 days. In the case of a concrete age of 7 days, the resistivity measured by the flat electrode method was larger than that measured by the pole electrode method. The difference disappeared at 28 days. CONCLUSIONS :The results suggest that the flat electrode method can replace the pole electrode method because the resistivity measured by both methods was similar. Hence, the development of a technology to apply the flat electrode method to actual concrete pavement is necessary.

Design of Low Frequency Flat Speaker by Piezofilm (Piezofilm 을 이용한 저주파 평면 스피커의 설계)

  • Hwang, Joon-Seok;Lee, Sung;Kim, Seung-Jo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society For Composite Materials Conference
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    • pp.191-194
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    • 2000
  • In this study, experimental verification of performance of flat speaker has been conducted. The piezofilm (PVDF) actuator has been designed to prevent the distortion of sound and make the frequency response of radiated sound flat. The electrode pattern of piezofilm actuator is optimized to satisfy the design objective. The formulation of design method is based on the coupled finite element and boundary element method and electrode pattern is optimized by genetic algorithm. The flat speaker with optimized piezofilm actuator has been manufactured. The sound pressure level at the distance of 50cm is measured using microphone and compared with the result of numerical simulation.

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Electricity Generations in Submerged-flat and Stand-flat MFC Stacks according to Electrode Connection (침지 및 직립 평판형 MFC 스택에서 전극연결 방식에 따른 전기발생량 비교)

  • Yu, Jaecheul;Park, Younghyun;Lee, Taeho
    • KEPCO Journal on Electric Power and Energy
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.589-593
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    • 2016
  • Microbial fuel cell (MFC) can produce electricity from oxidation-reduction of organic and inorganic matters by electrochemically active bacteria as catalyst. Stacked MFCs have been investigated for overcoming low electricity generation of single MFC. In this study, two-typed stacked-MFCs (submerged-flat and stand-falt) were operated according to electrode connection for optimal stacked technology of MFC. In case of submerged-flat MFC with all separator electrode assembly (SEA) sharing anode chamber, MFC with mixed-connection showed more voltage loss than MFC with single-connection method. And MFC stacked in parallel showed better voltage production than MFC stacked in series. In case of stand-flat MFC, voltage loss was bigger when SEAs sharing anodic chamber only were connected in series. Voltage loss was decreased when SEAs parallel connected SEAs sharing anodic chamber were connected in series.

Electrochemical Performance of Ti-Si Alloy Anode using Nodule Type Current Collector

  • Shin, Min-Seon;Park, Jung-Bae;Lee, Sung-Man
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 2017
  • The cycle performance of Ti-Si alloy anode material for Li-ion batteries has been investigated as a function of loading level of electrode using a nodule type of substrate, in which the current collector of flat foil is also used for comparison. The Ti-Si alloy powders are prepared by mechanical alloying method. The electrodes with the nodule type of current collector exhibit enhanced cycling performance compared to those using the flat foil because the alloy particles are more strongly adhered to substrate and the stress caused by lithiation and delithiation reaction can be effectively relaxed by nodule-type morphology. It appears, however, that the cycle performance is critically dependent on the loading level of electrode, even when the nodule type of current collector is applied. With high loading level, cracks are initiated at surface of electrode due to a steep stress gradient through the electrode thickness during cycling, leading to capacity fading.

Design of Loudspeaker using Composite Plate and Piezofilm Actuator (복합재료 평판과 압전필름 작동기를 이용한 저음용 평판 스피커 설계)

  • 황준석;김승조
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society For Composite Materials Conference
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    • pp.124-129
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    • 1999
  • In this study, a design method for the flat sound radiator is developed to make new sound radiator system, whose shape is much thinner than that of conventional loudspeaker. Piezofilm (PVDF) is used as actuators of flat sound radiator. To avoid the distortion of sound radiated from flat sound radiator, the frequency response of radiated sound to be flat is taken as the design objective. The electrode pattern and orientation angle of piezofilm actuator is optimized to satisfy the design objective. The formulation is based on the coupled finite element and boundary element method. Genetic algorithm is used in the optimization process, which is useful in the optimization of discrete design variables. Frequency response with optimized piezofilm actuator is made flat enough to satify the design objective. For the enhancement of sound power, double-layered piezofilm actuators are also considered. The sound power with double-layered actuator becomes larger than that with single-layered actuator as expected.

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Flat Speaker Design by Optimization of Plane Actuator (평판 작동기의 최적화를 통한 평면 스피커 설계)

  • Kim Seung Jo;Hwang Joon-Seok
    • Proceedings of the Acoustical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.237-242
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    • 1999
  • In this study, a design method using plane actuator is developed to make new speaker system, whose shape is much thinner than that of conventional loudspeaker. Piezofilm(PVDF) is used as plane actuator of flat speaker. To avoid the distortion of sound radiated from flat speaker, the frequency response of radiated sound to be flat is taken as the design objective. The electrode pattern and orientation angle of piezofilm actuator is optimized to satisfy the design objective. The formulation is based on the coupled finite element and boundary element method. Genetic algorithm is used in the optimization process, which is useful in the optimization of discrete design variables. Frequency response with optimized piezofilm actuator is made flat enough to satisfy the design objective. For the enhancement of sound power, double-layered piezofilm actuators are also considered. The sound power with double-layered actuator becomes larger than that with single-layered actuator as expected.

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The application of a nondestructive method to measure the acidity of Korean papers (한지의 산성도 측정을 위한 비파괴적 방법의 적용)

  • Lee, Hye-Yun;Chung, Yong-Jae;Lee, Kyu-Sik;Han, Sung-Hee
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.21-47
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    • 1999
  • According to damage of papers by the chemical cause, papers become to acidify. Among the 3 kinds of method measuring the acidity of paper, one was nondestructive method measuring the surface of the paper by flat type electrode and the others were destructive methods measuring directly by cold water extract method and hot water extract method. In case of the cellulolytic cultural properties, the latter methods were not applied because those methods must bedissociated papers. To measure the paper acidity nondestructively, we investigated the correlation of the nondestructive method and the destructive methods. The conclusions are as follows. 1) In the relationship of the cold water extract method and the hot water extract method, It was indicated that the pH measured by the hot water extract method was high quality printing paper 0.08, rough printing paper 0.13, and Korean paper 0.29 higher than that by the cold water extract method.2) In the relationship of the cold water extract method and the surface measurement method, It showed that the pH value measured by the cold water extract method was high quality printing paper 1.86, rough printing paper 0.80,and Korean paper 0.58 higher than value that by the surface measurement.3) In the relationship of the hot water extract method and the surface measurement method, It showed that the pH value measured by the hot ABSTRACT water extract method was high quality printing paper 1.78, rough printing paper 0.66, and Korean paper 0.29 higher than that by the surface measurement. From the above-mentioned results, the pH value measured by the surface measurement was need to high about 1.78∼1.86 in high quality printing paper, 0.66-0.80 in rough printing paper, and 0.29∼0.58 in Korean paper and the surface measurement with flat type electrode was very available to measure the acidity of Korean papers actually.

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On-site conservation of a gilt bronze crown (발굴현장 수습 유물 보존처리)

  • Yu, Jae-Eun
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.49-64
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    • 1999
  • According to damage of papers by the chemical cause, papers become to acidify. Among the 3 kinds of method measuring the acidity of paper, one was nondestructive method measuring the surface of the paper by flat type electrode and the others were destructive methods measuring directly by cold water extract method and hot water extract method. In case of the cellulolytic cultural properties, the latter methods were not applied because those methods must bedissociated papers. To measure the paper acidity nondestructively, we investigated the correlation of the nondestructive method and the destructive methods. The conclusions are as follows. 1) In the relationship of the cold water extract method and the hot water extract method, It was indicated that the pH measured by the hot water extract method was high quality printing paper 0.08, rough printing paper 0.13, and Korean paper 0.29 higher than that by the cold water extract method.2) In the relationship of the cold water extract method and the surface measurement method, It showed that the pH value measured by the cold water extract method was high quality printing paper 1.86, rough printing paper 0.80,and Korean paper 0.58 higher than value that by the surface measurement.3) In the relationship of the hot water extract method and the surface measurement method, It showed that the pH value measured by the hot ABSTRACT water extract method was high quality printing paper 1.78, rough printing paper 0.66, and Korean paper 0.29 higher than that by the surface measurement. From the above-mentioned results, the pH value measured by the surface measurement was need to high about 1.78∼1.86 in high quality printing paper, 0.66-0.80 in rough printing paper, and 0.29∼0.58 in Korean paper and the surface measurement with flat type electrode was very available to measure the acidity of Korean papers actually.

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The role of functional materials and inkjet printing technology for printable electronics (프린팅 전자소자용 잉크젯 기술과 소재)

  • Ryu, Beyong-Hwan;Choi, Young-Min
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.446-450
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    • 2007
  • It is strongly expected that inkjet printing method will be play and important role on printable electronics such as 3D integration of embedded ceramic devices(capacitor, resistor, inductor and electrode or circuit), Si-TFT and organic TFT including display C/F, RFID, FPCB, and etc. A inkjet printing method had been center of attention to strengthen the competitiveness of flat panel display on market and to open the new world of manufacturing process of printable electronics. We will survey the industrial tendency of printable electronics and flat panel display including some examples of inkjet printing and present the considerable points of inkjet printing method and some role of materials for successful inkjet printing.

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Operating Characteristics of Advanced 500W class Anode-supported Flat Tubular SOFC stack in KIER (500W 급 연료극 지지체 평관형 고체산화물연료전지 스택의 운전 특성)

  • Lim, Tak-Hyoung;Kim, Gwan-Yeong;Park, Jae-Layng;Song, Rak-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Bok;Shin, Dong-Ryul
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society for Energy Engineering kosee Conference
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    • pp.193-198
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    • 2007
  • KIER has been developing the anode supported flat tubular SOFC stack for the intermediate temperature $(700{\sim}800^{\circ}C)$ operation. for this purpose, we have first fabricated anode supported flat tubular cells by the optimization between the current collecting method and the induction brazing process. After that we designed the compact fuel & air manifold by adopting the simulation technique to uniformly supply fuel & air gas and the unique seal & insulation method to make the more compact stack. For making stack, the prepared anode-supported flat tubular cells with effective electrode area of $90cm^2$ of connected in series with 12 modules, in which one module consists of two cells connected in parallel. The performance of stack in 3 % humidified $H_2$ and air at $800^{\circ}C$ shows maximum power of 507 W. Through these experiments, we obtained basic & advanced technology of the anode-supported flat tubular cell and established the proprietary concept of the anode-supported flat tubular SOFC stack in KIER.

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