• Title/Summary/Keyword: Fixed effect model

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The Determinants of FDI Inflow after Reform-Opening of China (중국에서 개혁·개방이후 FDI유입에 영향을 미치는 요인들)

  • Choi, Won-Ick;Han, Jong-Soo
    • Korea Trade Review
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.177-198
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    • 2016
  • China has retained economic growth rate of average 9% for more than ten years recently after China introduced capitalistic market economy system in 1979 by Deng Xiaoping. China has attracted foreign direct investment for a long time because it has retained very high economic growth rate, low labor cost, and various policies for foreign investors. This paper tries to analyse the determinants of foreign direct investment inflow after reform-opening of China with empirical analysis methods utilizing each province·city's specific characteristics by using the panel data from 1985 to 2013. For the empirical analysis we use random effect model, fixed effect model, pooled OLS, and random coefficient model. The results by pooled OLS and random coefficient model are presented for the comparison with the main results in the process of research. The research shows the results by fixed effect model are better than those by random effect model after doing Hausman's test. The results shows that GRDP, capital stock, and telecommunication exert a positive relationship with foreign direct investment, while express way variable exerts a negative one. China's education level surprisingly does not attract foreign direct investment even though it is not at a critical level. Therefore, the Chinese government should try to increase national income level as it symbolizes market size; encourage domestic investment; and construct high quality telecommunication infrastructure.

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Wage Differentials between Standard and Non-standard Workers: Evidence from an Establishment-worker Matched Data (정규직과 비정규직의 임금격차: 사업체-근로자 연결패널을 이용한 추정)

  • Lee, Injae
    • Journal of Labour Economics
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.119-139
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    • 2011
  • Using a establishment-worker matched data, this paper estimates wage differentials between standard and non-standard workers. Unlike previous studies, we estimate a fixed-effect model for the tree-way error-components that control for both unobserved individual heterogeneities and unobserved firm heterogeneities. The estimation results show that standard workers earn 6.5~8.4% mire than non-standard workers. This wage premium is 30~40% of the wage differential estimated from the OLS model. The results implies that a large proportion of the wage differentials between standard and non standard workers can be explained by unobserved firm and individual characteristics.

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An analysis of the effect of the inequality of income to the inequality of health: Using Panel Analysis of the OECD Health data from 1980 to 2013

  • Lee, Hun-Hee;Lee, Jung-Seo
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.22 no.10
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    • pp.145-150
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    • 2017
  • This study aims to analyze panel data using OECD Health data of 34 years to examine how significant the inequality of income is to the inequality of health. The data was from OECD's pooled Health data of 32 countries from 1980 to 2013. The process of determining analysis model was as follows; First, through the descriptive statistics, we examined averages and standard deviation of variables. Second, Lagrange multiplier test has done. Third, through the F-test, we compared Least squares method and Fixed effect model. Lastly, by Hausman test, we determined proper model and examined effective factor using the model. As a result, rather than Pooled OLS Model, Fixed Effect Model was shown as effective in order to consider the characteristics of individual in the panel. The results are as follows: First, as relative poverty rate(${\beta}=-19.264$, p<.01) grows, people's life expectancy decreases. Second, as the rate of smoking(${\beta}=-.125$, p<.05) and the rate of unemployment (${\beta}=-.081$, p<.01) grows, people's life expectancy decreases. Third, as health expenditure(${\beta}=.414$, p<.01) shares more amount of GDP and as the number of hospital beds(${\beta}=-.190$, p<.05) grows, people's life expectancy increases.

A Study on Developing Crash Prediction Model for Urban Intersections Considering Random Effects (임의효과를 고려한 도심지 교차로 교통사고모형 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang Hyuk;Park, Min Ho;Woo, Yong Han
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.85-93
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    • 2015
  • Previous studies have estimated crash prediction models with the fixed effect model which assumes the fixed value of coefficients without considering characteristics of each intersections. However the fixed effect model would estimate under estimation of the standard error resulted in over estimation of t-value. In order to overcome these shortcomings, the random effect model can be used with considering heterogeneity of AADT, geometric information and unobserved factors. In this study, data collections from 89 intersections in Daejeon and estimates of crash prediction models were conducted using the random and fixed effect negative binomial regression model for comparison and analysis of two models. As a result of model estimates, AADT, speed limits, number of lanes, exclusive right turn pockets and front traffic signal were found to be significant. For comparing statistical significance of two models, the random effect model could be better statistical significance with -1537.802 of log-likelihood at convergence comparing with -1691.327 for the fixed effect model. Also likelihood ration value was computed as 0.279 for the random effect model and 0.207 for the fixed effect model. This mean that the random effect model can be improved for statistical significance of models comparing with the fixed effect model.

Empirical Analysis on Agent Costs against Ownership Structure in Accordance with Verification of Suitability of the Model (모형의 적합성 검증에 따른 소유구조대비 대리인 비용의 실증분석)

  • Kim, Dae-Lyong;Lim, Kee-Soo;Sung, Sang-Hyeon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3417-3426
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    • 2012
  • This study aims to determine how ownership structure (share-holding ratio of insiders, foreigners) affects agent costs (the portion of asset efficiency or non-operating expenses) through empirical analysis. However, as existing studies on correlations between ownership structure and agent costs adopted Pooled OLS Model, this study focused on additionally formulating Fixed Effect Model and Random Effect Model aimed to reflect the time of data formation and corporate effects as study models based on verification results on the suitability of Pooled-OLS Model before comparative analysis for the purpose of improvement of credibility and statistical validity of the results of empirical analysis based on the premise that the Pooled OLS Model is not reliable enough to verify massive panel data. The data has been accumulated over 10 years from 1998 to 2007 after the IMF crisis hit the nation, from a subject 331 companies except for financial institutions. As a result of the empirical analysis, verification of the suitability of model has determined that the Random Effect Model is appropriate in terms of asset efficiency among agent costs items. On the other hand, the Fixed Effect Model is appropriate in terms of non-operating costs. As a result of the empirical analysis according to the appropriate model, no hypothesis adopted in the Pooled OLS Model has been accepted. This suggests that developing an appropriate model is more important than other factors for the purpose of generating statistically significant empirical results by showing that different empirical results are produced according to the type of empirical analysis.

An Analysis on Economies of Scale for Tuna Distant Longline Fishery Using a Translog Cost Function (트랜스로그 비용함수를 이용한 참치연승어업 규모의 경제성 분석)

  • Cho, Hoon-Seok;Nam, Jong-Oh
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.17-31
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to identify economic situation on scale of tuna distant longline fishery by analyzing its economies of scale using the cost function. To analyze its economics of scale, the deep-sea fishing statistics were used from 2012 to 2016. In detail, the number of panels for estimating the cost function was 68 tuna distant longline vessels from 2012 to 2016, and the total number of observations over the five years were 340. As a final model, the two-way fixed effect model based on the translog cost function was adopted through the F test, the Breusch-Pagan test and the Hausman test. As a result of the analysis, it was found that tuna distant longline fishery between 2012 and 2014 was diseconomies of scale, the fishery between 2015 and 2016 was economies of scale. However, the economic indicators of the scale from 2012 to 2016 were almost close to zero, indicating that the constant returns to scale, the optimal scale, were reached. Therefore, in the situation where the amount of fishery resources in the world continues to decrease, it is necessary to prepare a method to obtain economic benefits through scale maintenance and reduction rather than indiscriminate scale expansion.

Forecasting performance and determinants of household expenditure on fruits and vegetables using an artificial neural network model

  • Kim, Kyoung Jin;Mun, Hong Sung;Chang, Jae Bong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.769-782
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    • 2020
  • Interest in fruit and vegetables has increased due to changes in consumer consumption patterns, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study determined the factors influencing the demand for fruit and vegetables (strawberries, paprika, tomatoes and cherry tomatoes) using a panel of Rural Development Administration household-level purchases from 2010 to 2018 and compared the ability to the prediction performance. An artificial neural network model was constructed, linking household characteristics with final food expenditure. Comparing the analysis results of the artificial neural network with the results of the panel model showed that the artificial neural network accurately predicted the pattern of the consumer panel data rather than the fixed effect model. In addition, the prediction for strawberries was found to be heavily affected by the number of families, retail places and income, while the prediction for paprika was largely affected by income, age and retail conditions. In the case of the prediction for tomatoes, they were greatly affected by age, income and place of purchase, and the prediction for cherry tomatoes was found to be affected by age, number of families and retail conditions. Therefore, a more accurate analysis of the consumer consumption pattern was possible through the artificial neural network model, which could be used as basic data for decision making.

A Research on Pecking Order Theory of Financing: The Case of Korean Manufacturing Firms

  • Lee, Jang-Woo;Hurr, Hee-Young
    • International Journal of Contents
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2009
  • This paper empirically tests pecking order theory. Korean listed firms are used as the samples. On the whole we find supportive results for pecking order theory. The fixed effect model on the whole period shows that as pecking order theory suggests that debt ratio decreases as cash flow. ROA, physical assets, and firm size increase. Again, it is shown that corporate debt ratio significantly decreases as cash flow or ROA increases in every sub-sample, which coincides with the prediction of pecking order theory. Corporate debt ratio significantly decreases as physical assets or jinn size increases in case of the whole sample, pre-financial crisis period, and the sub-samples by q-ratio, which also supports the prediction of pecking order theory. Statistical significance of the coefficients of physical assets or firm size completely disappears after Korean financial crisis. Perhaps it is because the role of physical assets or firm size as a mitigator of information asymmetry significantly weakens after the financial crisis as Korean financial market becomes more transparent. For small firms only size variable is negatively and significantly related with debt to assets. It seems that size is an important factor for smaller firms in making financing decision.

China's Outward Foreign Direct Investment Patterns: Evidence from Asian Financial Markets

  • HE, Yugang;CHOI, Baek-Ryul
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.157-168
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    • 2020
  • Since the economic crisis sweeps across the world in 2008, the foreign direct investment of various countries has been greatly impacted. Therefore, this paper regards China as an example to analyze China's outward foreign direct investment patterns in terms of Asian financial markets with a panel data over the period 2003-2017. We mainly focus on the money market oriented outward foreign direct investment and foreign exchange market oriented outward foreign direct investment. Using the individual fixed effect model to conduct empirical analyses, the empirical findings indicate that China will reduce its foreign direct investment amount to a country with large money supply and China will increase its foreign direct investment amount to a country with large foreign exchange reserves. Furthermore, when a country has signed Free Trade Agreement with China, China will increase more foreign direct investment amount to these countries than that of a country who has not signed Free Trade Agreement with China. Moreover, the empirical findings indicate that no matter what the money market oriented outward foreign direct investment or foreign market oriented outward foreign direct investment, China will reduce its foreign direct investment amount to these Asian countries due to the global economic crisis.

Analysis of Factors for Private Universities Educational Restitution Rate using Data Mining : Focusing on the Panel Fixed Effect Model and Non-parametric Regression Estimation (데이터 마이닝을 활용한 사립대학 교육비 환원요인 분석 : 패널 고정효과모형과 비모수회귀추정을 중심으로)

  • Chae, Dong Woo;Lee, Mun-Bum;Jung, Kun-Oh
    • Journal of Information Technology Applications and Management
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.153-170
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    • 2020
  • The Educational Restitution Rate is an important parameter that determines the quality of university education. This paper analyzed data from 148 private universities over the 10 years from 2009 to 2018 using data mining techniques in Korea. A significant causal relationship is detected in the fixed effect model as a result of the panel estimation. And the scale of faculty expansion and fund management, which are the university evaluation indicators, and the size of basic funds, respectively, have a positive effect on the ERR, which is within the confidence interval. In the analysis, the more private universities improve the tuition dependence rate, the more decisively positive affecting ERR. As a result of nonparametric regression estimation, when the faculty expansion ratio is reinforced, the effect of economies of scale is detected in some sections, the improvement of the tuition dependence rate, and the result value is generated through the improvement that results are derived at a certain point in time. We hope that the university based on this study can be a basic Indicators for the diagnosis of basic competencies and policy of student-centered education.