• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fixation

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Effects of Temperatures and Conditioning Methods on Fixation of CCA-Type Band CCFZ Preservatives in Treated Wood (양생온도(養生溫度)와 방법(方法)이 CCA-Tyoe B와 CCFZ 방부처리재(防腐處理材)의 양생(養生)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Gyu-Hyeok;Ra, Jong-Bum
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 1995
  • The rates of fixation of CCA-Type B and CCFZ in blocks of radiata pine sapwood were compared at various temperatures and conditioning methods (drying and nondrying conditioning). Also the time required to proper fixation of preservative components in the treated wood was estimated. Fixation was monitored by the rates of depletion of free hexavalent chromium in the cell lumens in the teated blocks. The rate of preservative fixation in wood was highly temperature dependent. The fixation rate was considerably accelerated by means of heating and complete fixation of hexavalent chromium was achieved within about 12 hours by heating at $60^{\circ}C$. The moisture content of treated wood during fixation apparently played an important role in the fixation process. The fixation rate of treated wood conditioned in nondrying conditions was much more faster than that of treated wood conditioned in drying conditions. particularly when the moisture content of treated wood was below fiber saturation point. Time required to full fixation could be predicted successfully using the fixation temperatures applied since the correlation between the fixation temperature and the fixation time was excellent. regardless of conditioning methods.

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The Relationship between Fixation and Brain Preference (고착(Fixation)과 뇌활용성향과의 관계)

  • Lee, Hong;Jun, Yun-sook;Park, Eun-a
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.85-103
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between fixation and brain preference. Based on the hemisphere asymmetric theory and fixation, two hypotheses were articulated. They were: 1) Right-brain preference is negatively related to divergent fixation. 2) Left-brain preference is negatively related to convergent fixation. A self-reporting scale for measuring the brain preference with 42 items were developed for the study based on functional characteritics of left and right hemisphere. Samples were collected from 579 college students in K University. Regression analysis showed that right-brain preference was negatively associated with divergent fixation. In the relationship between left-brain preference and convergent fixation, mixed results were produced. Research implication were discussed at the end of the study.

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The Study of Vertical Fixation Disparity by Fixation Disparity Card (주시시차 카드를 이용한 수직주시시차 연구)

  • Park, Hyun-Ju;Yoon, Young
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study was performed to determine vertical fixation disparity by Fixation Disparity Card. The purpose of this study was to investigate distribution of the curve types obtained with Wesson card. Methods: Fixation disparity curves were measured on 52 subjects with the Wesson fixation disparity card. A fixation disparity curve was an x, y coordinate plot of the angular amount of fixation disparity as a function of the power of prisms through which the patient views. The fixation disparity curve variables that were used to aid in the diagnosis and management of binocular vision disorders included the x-intercept, y-intercept, curve slope and curve type. Results: Vertical fixation disparity curves by Wesson Fixation Disparity Card were very various. Conclusions: Vertiical fixation disparity curves could be used to aid in the diagnosis and prescription.

Analysis of Binocular Vision by Wesson Fixation Disparity Card (Wesson Fixation Disparity Card를 이용한 양안시 분석)

  • Park, Hyun-Ju
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 2007
  • A commonly used device to determine fixation disparity curves is the Wesson Fixation Disparity Card. A fixation disparity curve is an x, y coordinate plot of the angular amount of fixation disparity as a function of the power of prisms through which the patient views. The fixation disparity curve variables that are used to aid in the diagnosis and management of binocular vision disorders include the x-intercept, y-intercept, curve slope and curve type. Fixation disparity curves were measured on 102 subjects with the Wesson fixation disparity card. The purpose of this study is to investigate distribution of the curve types obtained with Wesson card. Fixation Disparity by Wesson Fixation Disparity Card were that in case of type I 63.0%, in case of type II 0.0%, in case of type III 25.0% and in case of type IV 12.0%.

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Fixation characteristics of CCA and CCFZ in Japanese Red Pine, Japanese Larch, and Ezo Spruce Sapwood (소나무, 낙엽송, 북양가문비나무 변재부에서 CCA와 CCFZ의 정착특성)

  • Kim, Gyu-Hyeok;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Kim, Jae-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 2001
  • The fixation characteristics of CCA and CCFZ in Japanese red pine, Japanese larch, and ezo spruce sapwood were compared at various temperatures and fixation conditions (drying and nondrying fixation). Fixation was monitored by the rates of reduction of hexavalent chromium to trivalent one, and optimal fixation time was estimated based on the results. The rate of fixation was highly temperature dependent, and the fixation rate of treated wood conditioned under nondrying conditions was much more faster than that under drying conditions, especially when the moisture content of treated wood was below fiber saturation point. Preservative types affected fixation; CCA-Type B had the highest fixation rate, followed by CCA-Type C and then CCFZ. The differences in fixation rates of preservative components were also observed among wood species; Japanese red pine fixed the fastest, followed by Japanese larch and then ezo spruce. Time required to complete fixation according to the fixation temperature could be predicted successfully using the regression equations between the temperatures and fixation time, regardless of conditioning methods, preservative types, and wood species.

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Coloration behaviors of phthalocyanine reactive dye on nylon substrates: experiments, empirical modeling and statistical analysis

  • Kim, Byung-Soon;Ravikumar, K.;Yoon, Seok-Han;Son, Young-A
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.14-23
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    • 2007
  • This research article explores the use of phthalocyanine reactive dye on nylon substrate. The effect of factors such as pH, temperature, liquor ratio and alkali addition on level of dye exhaustion, fixation and total fixation efficiency. Low pH, high temperature and low liquor ratio were found to be suitable conditions for maximum % exhaustion values. The effect of sulphatoethylsulphone(SES) and vinylsulphone(VS) form of the dyes on level of dye fixation was also discussed. The optimized exhaustion (%E), fixation(%F) and total fixation efficiency were determined. Modification of the dyeing process with alkali addition displayed that dye fixation(%) increased by alkali addition. Vinylsulphone(VS) moiety of the dye was found to be superior to. maximum fixation (%F). Appropriate predictable empirical models, relatively a new approach in dyeing processes, were developed incorporating interactions effects of temperature, pH and liquor ratio for predicting % exhaustion, fixation and total fixation efficiency. The significance of the mathematical model developed was ascertained using microsoft excel regression(solver) analysis module. High correlation coefficient was obtained (R2=0.9895 for % exhaustion, R2=0.9932 for fixation, R2=0.9965 for total fixation efficiency) for the model which shows prominent prediction capacity of the model for my conditions. The predictable polynomial equations developed from tile experimental results were thoroughly analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical concepts.

A STUDY ON POSITIONAL CHANGES OF THE TEETH AND MANDIBLE ACCORDING TO FIXATION TYPE DURING INTERMAXILLARY FIXATION PERIOD AFTER MANDIBULAR SETBACK (하악골 후방이동시 악골고정방법에 따른 악간고정기간 중 치아 및 악골의 위치변화에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Sun-Bae;Kim, Kyung-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.265-271
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    • 2003
  • Skeletal relapse is known as a complication following orthognathic surgery of mandibular prognathism and occurring during intermaxillary fixation period. Therefore relapse of teeth and skeleton during intermaxillary fixation period is considered as a important problem of orthognathic surgery. In this study, cephalolateral radiographs taken at pre-operation, immediate post-operation and after release of intermaxillary fixation were measured for evaluation of dental and skeletal relapse in 30 cases. The cases were classified as screw fixation group and plate fixation group, then we compared magnitude of dental and skeletal changes of each group. The results were as follows 1. The $\underline{1}$ SN angle increased at immediate post-operation with a mean value of $0.12^{\circ}$ and at intermaxillary fixation period with a mean value of $0.43^{\circ}$ (p>0.05). 2. The $\overline{1}$ MP angle decreased with a mean value of $0.14^{\circ} at immediate post-operation and with a mean value of $1.28^{\circ} during intermaxillary fixation period but there were not significant difference(p>0.05). 3. There were not significant difference in magnitude of dental position changes between screw fixation group and plate fixation group(p>0.05). 4. Gonial angle increased with a mean value of $0.62^{\circ} during intermaxillary fixation period. Each group showed changes of gonial angle during intermaxillary fixation period but there were not significant difference(p>0.05).

Conversion to Internal Fixation after Temporary External Fixation for Femoral Shaft Fractures in Polytrauma Patients (다발성 외상 환자의 대퇴골 간부 골절에서 임시 외고정술 후 내고정술로의 전환)

  • Choo, Suk-Kyu;Kang, Kyung-Woon;Kim, Young-Woo;Oh, Hyoung-Keun
    • Journal of Trauma and Injury
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: We report the surgical outcomes for femoral shaft fractures in polytrauma patients who were temporarily treated with external fixation and subsequently converted to internal fixation. Methods: From August 2008 to April 2012, we enrolled 13 patients with multiple traumas due to high-energy injuries and concurrent femoral shaft fractures in which temporary external fixation was carried out. The mean age was 39 years, with a range from 18 to 55 years. Ten were men and 3 were women. According to the AO/OTA classification of fractures, type A was found in 5 patients, type B in 6, and type C in 2, with open fractures being found in 6 patients and femoral artery rupture occurring in 2. For internal fixation, intramedullary nailing was performed in 7 patients, and minimally-invasive fixation of locking compression plates was used in 6. Results: Of the 7 patients converted to intramedullary nailing, 1 experienced delayed union. Of the 6 patients treated with minimally-invasive plate fixation, delayed union occurred in 5, and an auto-bone graft was performed within, on average, 8 months (range: 5~10 months), leading to bone union in all cases in the final follow-up. None of the patients experienced infections or complications involving other organs after having been converted to internal fixation. During the mean follow-up of 19 months, patients achieved satisfactory functional outcomes. Conclusion: In polytrauma patients with a femoral shaft fracture who have been treated with temporary external fixation and who may need internal fixation due to the occurrence of delayed union, an appropriate internal fixation method needs to be selected based on the patient's physical status, and the fracture type.

Information Architecture Design Using Eye-tracking Method (Eye-Tracking Method를 이용한 메뉴구조 설계 및 평가)

  • Park, Jong-Soon;Myung, Ro-Hae
    • Journal of the HCI Society of Korea
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 2007
  • Because of the cognitive overload which is caused by the complicated information structure, Digital Convergence product interferes with the effective retrieval of the information from the menu. Two methods have been used to alleviate that cognitive overload by making an effective menu structure; physical menu structure method which is related with the width and depth of the menu, semantic menu structure method which is related with the menu title. In this research, we tried to demonstrate the effectiveness of the menu structure designing method by suggesting a new semantic methodology which uses the Fixation and Fixation duration which are accompanied by the visual search. Because the Fixation is automatically processed by the human cognitive model, we could easily recognize whether the information structure is correspond to the cognitive model or not. From this fact we established the hypothesis that the number of cognitively well established menu structures are fewer than that of the wrongly designed menu structures in terms of the Fixation number and Duration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared the Fixation number and Duration of the modified menu structures with those of the original menu structures by using the Eye-Tracking experiment. As a result, we could find the significant decrease of the Fixation number and Duration after modification. Therefore we could recognize that the modified menu structure was more effective than the original menu structure. In sum, the newly suggested menu structure designing methodology which uses the Fixation and Fixation Duration accompanied by the visual search was proved to be a very effective method.

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STUDY ON THE VISUAL COGNITIVE CHARACTERISTICS BY THE FIXATION POINT ANALYSIS USING THE EYE MARK RECORDER

  • Yamanoto, Satoshi;Yamaoka, Toshiki;Matsunobe, Takuo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Emotion and Sensibility Conference
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    • pp.20-25
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    • 2001
  • In recent years, the concern about a user center design in increasing, and it's needed to task a user's visual cognitive characteristics for information presentation. Then this study aims to grasp user's cognitive characteristics about the information presentation by analyzing the fixation points. In the experiment, actually subject operated a copy machine. Recorded the fixation point movement of the operation panel by the eye mark recorder. Analysis examined the screen interface of the operation panel from the field of a fixation point trace. The top down type fixation oder by experience or the context became clear as a result. Furthermore, the difference of the fixation order by skill level was also examined. In this study, it was assumed that to grasp the visual cognitive characteristics becomes the key of efficient information.

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