• Title, Summary, Keyword: Five point likert scale

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Sanitary Performance and Knowledge of Elementary School Foodservice Employees in Seoul (서울지역 초등학교 급식 조리종사자의 위생관리 수행 및 위생교육 평가)

  • Hong, Wan-Soo;Yim, Jeong-Mi;Choi, Young-Sim
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.382-395
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the sanitary performance and knowledge of elementary school foodservice employees. The specific aim of this study was to decipher why employees cannot apply learned knowledge to real work situations. In total, 437 foodservice operation employees attended a regular sanitary education program under the auspices of Seoul Gangdong and Gangseo district offices. The five sanitary practice performance evaluators included personal hygiene, ingredient control, process control, safety management, and sanitary education. These dimensions were self-evaluated using the Likert 5-point scale. Collected data were subjected to descriptive and comparative analysis using SPSS (Version 12.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) statistical package. The main results are summarized as follows: 93.6% of the respondents were women and 57% were aged between 40$\sim$49. Total mean score of the five sanitary performance evaluators was 4.73 for elementary school. Ingredient control score was 4.86, process control 4.80, and personal hygiene 4.79. But the sanitary education field score was 4.48, which was significantly lower than the total mean score. Safety management score was 4.73. The main source of sanitary education for school foodservice employees was verbal education.

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An Empirical Study on a Mediating Role of Brand Image between SNS Marketing and Purchase Intention (SNS 마케팅과 구매의도 간 브랜드 이미지의 매개역할에 대한 실증분석)

  • Joo, Jaehun;Kim, Chung-Lo
    • The Journal of Information Systems
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.111-130
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    • 2020
  • Purpose SNS (Social Network Service) is one of new promising marketing tools which allow marketer to do two-way communication and social interaction. Three characteristics of SNS marketing including informativeness, interactivity, and playfulness are distinguished from traditional marketing. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between three characteristics of SNS marketing, brand image, and purchase intention. Design/methodology/approach The present study proposed a research model integrating SNS marketing characteristics, brand image, and purchase intention represented by structural equation modelling and four hypotheses. A total of 20 questionnaire items for five variables were developed and measured by using five point Likert scale. 199 valid data were collected and used to test four hypotheses using SmartPLS. Findings Three hypotheses that the characteristics of SNS marketing such as informativeness, interactivity, and playfulness have a positive influence on brand image were supported at the significance level of 0.05 and 0.001 respectively. The hypothesis regarding the relationship between brand image and purchase intention was also supported at the significance level of 0.001. Brand image plays a significant mediating role in the relationship between SNS marketing and purchase intention. In particular, the result of research that playfulness of SNS marketing affects brand image significantly suggests a new future research theme regarding spiritual marketing. Implications for academics and practitioners were suggested.

Impact of Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Switching Costs on Customer Loyalty

  • NGUYEN, Do Thanh;PHAM, Van Thanh;TRAN, Dung Manh;PHAM, Duyen Bich T.
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.8
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    • pp.395-405
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    • 2020
  • This study examines the relationships and the impacts of service quality, customer satisfaction and switching costs on customer loyalty of e-banking in commercial banks. This study uses questionnaires with 7-point Likert scale to collect data from 227 e-banking users, who are mainly students and paid employees in Hanoi City, Vietnam. The collected data are analyzed by using multivariate linear regression method. The results show that all five factors of service quality in e-banking - reliability, responsiveness, service capacity, empathy and tangibility - have positive correlations with customer satisfaction. Among these determinants, service capacity and tangibility have the strongest impact. It means that, by increasing the quality of their services through five above factors, especially through improving capacity and tangibility, commercial banks can satisfy their customer better. In addition, customer satisfaction is strongly and positively correlated to customer loyalty. It means that, if customers are satisfied with e-banking services of one bank, they not only continue to do more businesses with this bank, but also recommend this bank to other people. Lastly, customer loyalty also has a strong and positive correlation with switching costs, which means customers tend to be loyal to one bank if the barriers to switching banks increase.

The Relationships among Service Quality and e-Marketing with Trust and Loyalty to Brands of Mobile Telephone Operators in Kosovo

  • UKAJ, Fatos;MULLATAHIRI, Vjosa
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.27-39
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    • 2019
  • Purpose - This study explores the relationships between e-Marketing and perceived service quality with brand trust and loyalty towards the brand of mobile telephone operators in Kosovo. Research design, data, and methodology - The conceptual model of four constructs was developed, while each construct consisted of the set of variables measured by using five-point Likert scale. The primary data was collected via an online survey through SurveyMonkey, distributed via Facebook and email. The collected data were cleaned, validated and tested for its consistency through Cronbach's Alpha; ensured that five assumptions of multiple linear regression are met. To assess the relationships between outcome variable and dependent variables of the model, performed the bivariate correlation, simple, multiple linear and hierarchical regression. Results - Perceived service quality has a positive significant effect on brand trust and loyalty. e-Marketing presents moderating direct effect on brand loyalty, and slightly higher effect through brand trust of the mobile telephone operators in Kosovo. Conclusions - The perceived service quality and brand trust are key determinants in achieving brand loyalty in telecommunication industry, followed by e-Marketing as means to creating expectations, delivering on promise to meet customers' perceptions for service quality with a purpose of building trust, that leads to loyalty towards the brands of mobile operators in Kosovo.

Do Retail Regulations Protect Traditional Markets as Well as Independent Stores in Korea?

  • Cho, Young-Sang;Chung, Lak-Chae;Park, Jong-Ho
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.12 no.9
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 2014
  • Purpose -This study is to measure the effects of retail legislations on small retailers and traditional markets. Research Design, Data, and Methodology - The authors have developed a questionnaire with five hypotheses on the basis of previous research results and six constructs: the improvement of sales volume, the number of customers, the improvement of store traffic, the increase of store staff, business expansion and retail regulation. Furthermore, the research has adopted a five-point Likert-scale technique. In order to increase research reliability as well as validity, the authors have adopted a few different research techniques such as exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results - Although existing retail regulations might be better than nothing for now, the degree of retail constraints on large retailers should be strengthened. Furthermore, different legal methods to protect mom and pops are needed. Conclusions - In order to improve the effects of retail restrictions on large retailers, the research indicates that the central government should change a retail policy, that is, introduce new technical ways to keep mom and pops and conventional markets.

Effects of Korean Medicine on Post-rotator Cuff Surgery Patients : A Retrospective Observational Study (회전근개 파열 수술 후 환자에 대한 한의학적 치료 효과 : 후향적 관찰연구)

  • Park, Jeong Wook;Oh, Min Seok
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Korean medicine treatments on pain reduction and functional improvement of patients after rotator cuff surgery. We studied 10 patients who had admitted to Dunsan Korean Medical hospital after have being diagnosed as rotator cuff tear and got a surgery at other hospital from April 30, 2014 to April 30, 2019. This study was conducted as retrospective study which analyzes patient's medical records. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS statistics 24 program. We used Numeric Rating Scale to evaluate pain reduction, Range of Motion to evaluate shoulder functional improvement and Five-point likert scale to evaluate the patient's satisfaction. The result showed that Korean medicine treatments statistically significantly reduced pain on the patients after rotator cuff surgery. Although there were improvement of Range of Motion, it wasn't statistically significant. In conclusion, we found that the Korean medicine treatments showed a positive effect on pain reduction of patients after rotator cuff surgery and got a high satisfaction.

Effects of Korean Medicine Treatments on Pain Reduction of Postoperative Meniscal Injury Patients : A Retrospective Observational Study (슬관절 반월상 연골 파열 후 수술 환자의 통증 감소에 대한 한의학적 치료 효과: 후향적 관찰연구)

  • Kim, Sang Woo;Oh, Min Seok
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.219-225
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    • 2019
  • The objective of this study is to observe the effectiveness of complex Korean Medicine treatments on pain reduction of patients after meniscal surgery. We analyzed 16 patients who have been diagnosed as Meniscal injury on Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) scan and had admitted to Dunsan Korean Medical hospital from January 30, 2014 to April 30, 2019. The analysis was conducted as retrospective study which analyzes patient's medical records. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS statistics 25 program. We used Numeric Rating Scale to evaluate pain reduction, Five-point likert scale to asses treatment satisfaction. The result showed that there were statistically significant pain reduction on the postoperative meniscal injury patients treated with complex Korean Medicine treatments. In conclusion, we found that the complex Korean Medicine treatments showed a positive effect on pain reduction of postoperative meniscal injury patients. Further research is required to confirm the effectiveness of Korean Medicine treatment.

A Study on the Fit Preferences of Knitted Jackets According to Body types Using a 3D Virtual Try-On System -Focus on Adult Women in Their 30's and 40's- (3차원 가상 착장 시스템을 이용한 체형별 니트 재킷의 맞음새 연구 -30~40대 성인 여성을 중심으로-)

  • Do, Wol-Hee;Park, Hyun-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.34 no.10
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    • pp.1632-1646
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    • 2010
  • This article is an analysis of the fit preference of the knitted jacket according to body types for 30's and 40's adult women through a comparison of real and virtual fit. A five point likert scale was used to evaluate the degree of the preference of real and virtual fit. The data were analyzed with t-test and ANOVA using statistical program SPSS 17.0. The results are as follow. 1. The real and virtual fit preference of the knitted jacket according to body types indicates that respondents preferred pattern 2 for body type N than the rest of the patterns; however, respondents preferred pattern 3 for body type A and H. 2. There were no significant differences between real and virtual fit preference. 3. It is necessary that the knitted jacket follow a similar size tolerance like a woven jacket. The results show that the next generation of virtual try-on systems need the development of a minus clothing ease scale.

The Relationship between Patient Characteristics and Satisfaction with Hospital Care (환자특성에 따른 의료이용에 대한 환자만족도 비교)

  • Son, In-Soon;Hwang, Jee-In
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.345-351
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between patient characteristics and patient satisfaction. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in an acute care hospital. The subjects were 317 patients discharged from general medical and surgical nursing care units during September, 2005. Patient satisfaction was measured using the short-form satisfaction scale of Hwang and Park(2001). Additional information about patient characteristics, including general demographics and health care utilization variables, was collected from the hospital information systems. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine patient characteristics influencing patient satisfaction. Results: Patients were satisfied with hospital care with an average of 4.10 on a five-point Likert scale. Patient characteristics explained 13.5% of the variance of patient satisfaction. The significant factors influencing patient satisfaction were patients' age and perceived health status. There was no significant relationship between structural variables and patient satisfaction. Conclusion: This study showed that patients' characteristics were significant factors explaining patient satisfaction. Therefore, these characteristics should be adjusted in reporting patient satisfaction as an indicator for hospital-level or department-level rating.

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Evaluating Chronic Care of Public Health Centers in a Metropolitan City (만성질환 관리 평가도구를 이용한 보건소 만성질환 관리수준 평가)

  • Choi, Yong-Jun;Shin, Dong-Soo;Kang, Minah;Bae, Sang-Soo;Kim, Jaiyong
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.312-321
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    • 2014
  • Background: To evaluate the quality of chronic care provided by public health centers located in a South Korean metropolitan city using a modified Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC). Methods: We conducted self-evaluation surveys and collected data using a modified ACIC from twenty five public health centers. Cultural validity of the original ACIC was examined by the public health and nursing science experts. Based on expert reviews, cognitive interviews, pre-test results, five items of the original ACIC that were not relevant were deleted. The response scale was changed from twelve-point Likert scale to Guttman scale but its scoring system was maintained. Results: Eighty eight percent of public health centers in this study reported that their overall quality of chronic care was at a limited or basic level. About 68% of the centers reported that the organization was as reasonably good or fully developed to provide chronic care. On the other hand, 96% of the public health centers reported that the clinical information system was at a very limited or basic support level. The decision support, the integration of Chronic Care Model components, the delivery system design, the community linkages, and the self-management support were evaluated as limited or basic level of support by more than half of the public health centers, respectively. Conclusion: In a metropolitan area of South Korea, quality of chronic care in public health centers was not found to reach acceptable levels of services. It is critical to enhance the quality of chronic care in public health centers.