• Title, Summary, Keyword: Five point likert scale

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A Study of the Impact of Customer Value on Relationship Quality and Customer Loyalty (고객가치가 관계품질 및 고객충성도에 미치는 영향: 치과병·의원을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Soo-Wook;Cha, Eun-Kwang
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.81-93
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    • 2014
  • Purpose - Recent rapid environmental changes in the hospital industry are accelerating the spread of customer satisfaction management. Customers' desires have become diversified and advanced; in the past, customers tended to preferred popularized and standardized care, whereas they now prefer individualized and differentiated care, based on an increase in income. Specifically, this study tries to analyze the mediating effects of factors that affect the configuration portion of customer value and relationship quality (customer trust and relationship commitment) by investigating the impacts and configuration factor of customer value on relationship quality and determining how these factors impact customer loyalty directly or indirectly. Research design, data, and methodology - This study aims to determine the customer value factors that impact the perceptions of dental hospital customers, how these factors impact relationship quality and customer loyalty, and the causal relationship of these factors, and to verify the research model based on previous research. To increase the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, the authors of this study constructed basic questions using measurement tools already verified for reliability and validity in existing studies. In this study, customer value is defined as customers' recognizing value by exchanging goods or services and is measured using a five-point Likert scale using 19 questions about the 4-Ds, such as convenience value, quick service, response value, and trustworthiness. For each question, "very low" was set at 1 point and "very high" at 5 points. Customer trust, relationship commitment, and customer loyalty are also measured using a five-point Likert 5-point scale (1 = very low, 5 = very high) based on previous studies. Results - For customer value, trustworthiness and quick service are shown to have direct significant positive impacts on customer loyalty. For customer value and quality of the relationship (customer confidence and commitment), trustworthiness, response value, confidence value, and quick service are shown to have a significant positive impact on customer truth, in order of impact. For the relationship between customer value and commitment, quick service and response value are shown to have significant positive impact. Customer confidence has a very high positive influence on commitment. For the relationship between the quality of the relationship (customer confidence and commitment) and customer loyalty, customer confidence is shown to have more of an impact than commitment, in terms of a direct influence of customer loyalty. Commitment showed a positive impact on customer loyalty. For the relationship between customer confidence and customer loyalty, commitment showed a mediating effect. Conclusions - Many additional variables could apply; this study focused on customer value, quality of the relationship, and customer loyalty. In particular, there will be significant value in identifying the relationships among customer value, relationship quality, and customer loyalty by using impact factors for customer value; ensuring external validity by expanding denotation and applying the findings to other service industries; and undertaking continuous research. This study has limited generalization potential because the target for this survey was located only in the Seoul area.

Elementary School Students Development of a Scale to Measure the Outdoor School Safety Behavior in Elementary Students (초등학생 실외 학교생활 위험행위 측정도구 개발)

  • Park Kyung Min
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.113-121
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : This study was performed to develop a scale of outdoor school safety behavior in Korean elementary students. Methods : A list of 40 items were selected by priori experiences of school health teachers and a literature review. For evaluation of the appropriateness of the 32 items, questionnaires were reviewed by an expert group which was consisted of 10 professionals. Validity of the 31 items was screened in this process with 4 point Likert scale. Using the preliminary tool. data were collected from 684 subjects for item analysis and factor analysis. A total of 26 items were remained, and items with the lower than 0.2 item-total correlation coefficient were removed. Factor analysis was done with these 26 items, and 26 items with factor loadings higher or equal to 0.4 were remained. Relsult : 1. Cronbach's alpha for the 26 items was 0.70 2. Five factors were identified with eigen value 1.0 These contributed $51.617\%$ of the variance in the total score. 3. Each factor was labled 'vonobserbance of safety rule', 'good habit for safety', 'careless action', 'lack of safety knowledge', 'injurious action to friend' It is suggested that this scale could be used to measure outdoor school safety behaviors among elementary students in Korea.

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Development of a Breastfeeding Effectiveness Scale (BES) (모유수유의 효과성 측정도구 개발)

  • Yang, Hyun-Joo;Jeong, Min-Young;Seo, Ji-Min
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.264-274
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate breastfeeding effectiveness scale to measure effectiveness of breastfeeding for mothers in the early postpartum period. Methods: A conceptual framework was constructed from properties of effective breastfeeding (Yang and Seo, 2011), and item construction was derived from literature review and analysis of the data along with interviews with breastfeeding mothers. Content validity was tested by experts. Each item was scored on a five-point Likert scale. The preliminary questionnaire was administered to 248 breastfeeding mothers. Data were analyzed using item analysis, factor analysis, Pearson correlation coefficients, and Cronbach's ${\alpha}$. Results: From the factor analysis, 20 items in seven factors were derived. The factors were identified as mother's satisfaction, suckling, assurance of milk quantity, infant's satisfaction, latching on, infant's feeding desire, and breastfeeding positioning. The seven factors explained 65.1% of total variance, Cronbach's ${\alpha}$ of the total items was .83 and the factors ranged from .44 to .75. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that breastfeeding effectiveness scale is a reliable and valid instrument to measure breastfeeding effectiveness of mothers in the early postpartum period.

Developing an Instrument of Assessing the Middle School Students' Perceptions of Mathematics Teachers' PCK

  • Xu, Yanhui
    • Research in Mathematical Education
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.23-45
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    • 2020
  • Many researches proposed different models and concepts for the PCK. It is important to understand its composition. Most studies investigated the development of PCK and its influence on students' learning from the teachers' perspectives. We developed an instrument for assessing middle school students' perceptions of mathematics teachers' PCK (SPOMTPCK) to investigate the nature of PCK. Theoretical claims and empirical research in PCK were used to design questions and sub-scales for the SPOMTPCK. The face validity of the instrument was established by the expert mathematics teachers and students. A questionnaire consisting of 38 items on a five-point Likert-type scale was used for data collection from 799 middle school students. The exploratory factor analyses resulted in the development of a three-factor scale of 17 items that was proved valid and reliable, that is, pedagogical representation, understanding students and curriculum, and encouraging students' engagement. The Cronbach α coefficients of the scale was 0.935, and the Cronbach α coefficient of three factors were ranged from 0.721 to 0.912. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the questionnaire has good construct validity and the fit indexes are good. MANOVA analysis of variance revealed that the differences in mathematics teachers' PCK identified by students of different school types and grades were statistically significant. It is a validate measurement to evaluate the perceived mathematics teachers' PCK for middle school students.

The Effect of Clothing Cues and Perceiver's Self-Monitoring on Perception of Occupational Suitability- (남성정장의 의복단서와 관찰자의 자기모니터링이 직업적합성 지각에 미치는 영향)

  • 고애란
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.211-222
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate(1) the effects of clothing cues of 20s young man in business suits on the perception of occupational suitability in an office setting and (2) the effect of Perceiver's self-monitoring and sex on the perception of occupational suitability formed by the function of clothing cues. The experimental design of this study was between-subjects 23 factorial design. The experimental materials developed for the study were a set of stimuli and a response scale. The stimuli consisted of 8 color photographs of a young man wearing business suits which were manipulated at two levels for each of three clothing cues (suit color, suit style, necktie color). Each one of eight sub-samples included 14 subjects from 2 perceiver groups by sex. The questionaires used to measure perceivers' responses to the stimuli were constructed in 12 five-point likert scale representing occupational suitability and self-Monitoring was measured by the self-Monitoring Scale by Gangestad adn Snyder. The subjects consisted of 224 male and female college students in Seoul. The data was processed by ANOVA and MCA(Multiple Classification Analysis). The result were as follows: (1) The Clothing cues of young man in business suits(suit color, suit style) partially influenced the occupational suitability. (2) The perception of occupational suitability formed by the clothing cues of a young man in business suits was partially influenced by the perceiver's self-monitoring and sex. Female high self-monitoring group were more affected by the clothing cues than any other groups.

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Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Quality of Life Scale for Korean Patients with Cancer(C-QOL) (한국 암 특이형 삶의 질 측정도구(C-QOL) 개발 및 평가)

  • Lee, Eun-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.324-333
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a quality of life scale for Korean patients with cancer (C-QOL). Methods: The C-QOL was developed and validated as follows, item generation, pilot study, and psychometric tests. A total of 337 patients diagnosed with stomach, liver, lung, colon, breast, or cervix cancer were recruited. The patients were asked to complete the preliminary questionnaire comprising the content-validated items, the SF-36, and the ECOG performance status. The obtained data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, multidimensional scaling (MDS), multitrait/multi-item matrix, ANOVA, t-test, and Cronbach's alpha. Results: Preliminarily twenty-six items were generated through content validity and a pilot study. Factor analysis and MDS extracted a total of 21 items with a 5-point Likert-type scale (C-QOL). The C-QOL included five subscales: physical status (6 items), emotional status (6 items), social function (3 items), concern status (2 items), and coping function (4 items). The C-QOL established content validity, construct validity, item convergent and discriminant validity, known-groups validity, reliability, and sensitivity. Conclusion: The Newly developed C-QOL is an easily applicable instrument which established psychometric properties and reflected Korean culture. It is recommended for further study to examine the responsiveness of the C-QOL using a longitudinal research design.

Development of a Task Performance Evaluation Instrument for Clinical Nurses (임상간호사의 업무수행 평정도구개발)

  • Paik, Hyun-Ok;Han, Sang-Sook;Lee, Sang-Chul
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument of task performance evaluation for clinical nurses, thus testing the validity and the reliability of the scale. Method: Data was collected from 84 Head Nurses and 255 General Nurses. A conceptual framework, composed of 4 factors of meaning in task performance evaluation, was identified through review of the relevant literature. A total of 78 items were developed and were used on a five-point likert scale. Through factor analysis, items whose factor loading was below 0.50 were deleted, thus 35 items remained. To test the validity and reliability of the instrument, the SPSS 11.0 windows program was used. Result: The results of the factor analysis indicated that 4 factors were classified and the cumulative percent of variance was 67.54%. The results of the reliability test indicated that Cronbach's coefficient of the total 35 items was over 0.9176. The results of the factor analysis indicated that factor loadings of all items was over 0.50. Conclusively, the validity and the reliability of the scale were proven. Conclusion: This study was identified as a tool with a high degree of reliability and validity.

Analysis of Management Status on Internet Home Pages of Korean Contracted Foodservice Companies (국내 주요 급식전문업체의 홈페이지 운영평가)

  • 김종군;유양자;차은석;홍완수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.147-156
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to compare and analyze the management status of internet homepage of catering companies in Korea for improving internet marketing. An evaluation tool with 6 categories consisting of contents, information update, user's convenience, design, provision of related information, and accessibility was developed and used for the analysis of 6 major catering companies. A five-point likert scale (1=very badly organized, 5=very well organized) was used for evaluating above six categories. The overall mean score for six categories was 2.91 out of 5, showing below the average. The categories received less than 3 points were information update (2.16), user's convenience (2.33), and provision of related information (2.83). The scores for design was the highest (3.66), followed by accessibility (3.33), and contents (3.16). These results suggest that the internet homepaee of the catering companies should be improved especially in the provision of enough information and its update in order to promote their internet marketing.

A Study to the evaluation Service Quality of Public Corporations (공기업의 서비스 품질 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Kyung-Hee;Cho, Jai-Rip
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.143-153
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    • 2009
  • One of the important components of this administrative reform is customer satisfaction. Every public enterprises introduced the Service Charter and Korean government took Customer satisfaction as the key index of public sector performance assessment. Most public enterprises introduced customer satisfaction management in an attempt to improve the quality of customer service. The government granted high incentives to excellent business innovative enterprises and developed additional indices, which are related to CS. From now on, every Korean enterprises must embody feasible customer satisfaction management and improve the quality of customer service In this research, we proposed a quality evaluation standard model which is suitable for the public enterprise based on the Service Quality Criteria, and examined the model. A 7-Point Likert Scale was used based on the five categories within the Service Quality: responsiveness, convenience, tangibility, sympathy and reliability, we analysed the validity and causal relationship among the factors within the model.

A Study on Efficacy and Coping Strategies for Home Economics Teachers

  • Yu, Nan-Sook
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 2011
  • This study investigates the efficacy and coping strategies of Home Economics teachers in secondary schools. Data were collected from 75 Home Economics teachers via a mailed survey and from 282 Home Economics teachers via an online survey. Descriptive statistics including frequency, percentage, average, and standard deviation; in addition, the ANOVA, t-test, multiple linear regression, and correlation results were reported using SPSS statistics 17.0. The results were as follows: First, the average Home Economics teachers efficacy level was 3.82 out of 5-point Likert scale. The efficacy level of learning assistance was the highest. The composite efficacy of Home Economics teachers showed a significant difference depending on the major. Second, the averages of the positive and negative coping strategy level of Home Economics teachers were 3.54 and 2.03, respectively. Third, the efficacy of instructional strategy out of the five components of efficacy was the most influential to the positive coping strategy. There was no significant relationship between teacher efficacy and the negative strategy.