Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
The purpose of this study was to evaluate school dieticians' performance of nutritional quality control, and further to establish effective and objective standards of nutritional quality control. Data for this study came from 200 school dieticians' responses in the Chungbuk area. The total quality management (TQM)-based questionnaire was structured. The questionnaire consisted of the following four fields (1) performance of nutritional quality control, (2) performance of stepwise food production to maximize nutrient preservation rate, (3) management of documents and records related to nutritional quality control, and (4) other relating matters. The items of the questionnaire were measured on a five-point Likert scale which ranged from 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree'. First, the analysis indicated that school dieticians performed 'least' on human resource management', 'mediocre' on nutritional quality control, and best on 'leadership'. Second, the analysis on performance of stepwise food production to maximize nutrient preservation rate showed that dieticians considerably endeavored to maximize nutrients of cooked food, but it was found out that the most of nutrient destruction can be caused by heating during cooking. Third, the result showed that the systematic use of documents and records for nutritional quality control was not sufficiently accomplished, especially in the production phase of food. In addition, the measure by the Pearson correlation coefficient indicated that there was a significant relationship between performance of nutritional quality control and performance of stepwise food production to maximize nutrient preservation rate, and between performance of nutritional quality control and management of documents and records related to nutritional quality control. Finally, the findings of this study suggest that more effort should be exerted to carefully establish TQM-based standards for the improvement of nutritionary quality.
Recently, the CO2 emission and energy consumption have become critical global issues to decide the future of nations. Especially, the spread of IT products and the increased use of internet and web applications result in the energy consumption and CO2 emission of IT industry though information technologies drive global economic growth. EU, the United States, Japan and other developed countries are using IT related environmental regulations such as WEEE(Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment), RoHS(Restriction of the use of Certain Hazardous Substance), REACH(Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of CHemicals) and EuP(Energy using Product), and have established systematic green business/IT strategies to enhance the competitiveness of IT industry. For example, the Japan government proposed the "Green IT initiative" for being compatible with economic growth and environmental protection. Not only energy saving technologies but energy saving systems have been developed for accomplishing sustainable development. Korea's CO2 emission and energy consumption continuously have grown at comparatively high rates. They are related to its industrial structure depending on high energy-consuming industries such as iron and steel Industry, automotive industry, shipbuilding industry, semiconductor industry, and so on. In particular, export proportion of IT manufacturing is quite high in Korea. For example, the global market share of the semiconductor such as DRAM was about 80% in 2008. Accordingly, Korea needs to establish a systematic strategy to respond to the global environmental regulations and to maintain competitiveness in the IT industry. However, green competitiveness of Korea ranked 11th among 15 major countries and R&D budget for green technology is not large enough to develop energy-saving technologies for infrastructure and value chain of low-carbon society though that grows at high rates. Moreover, there are no concrete action plans in Korea. This research aims to deduce the priorities of the Korean green business/IT strategies to use multi attribute weighted average method. We selected a panel of 19 experts who work at the green business related firms such as HP, IBM, Fujitsu and so on, and selected six assessment indices such as the urgency of the technology development, the technology gap between Korea and the developed countries, the effect of import substitution, the spillover effect of technology, the market growth, and the export potential of the package or stand-alone products by existing literature review. We submitted questionnaires at approximately weekly intervals to them for priorities of the green business/IT strategies. The strategies broadly classify as follows. The first strategy which consists of the green business/IT policy and standardization, process and performance management and IT industry and legislative alignment relates to government's role in the green economy. The second strategy relates to IT to support environment sustainability such as the travel and ways of working management, printer output and recycling, intelligent building, printer rationalization and collaboration and connectivity. The last strategy relates to green IT systems, services and usage such as the data center consolidation and energy management, hardware recycle decommission, server and storage virtualization, device power management, and service supplier management. All the questionnaires were assessed via a five-point Likert scale ranging from "very little" to "very large." Our findings show that the IT to support environment sustainability is prior to the other strategies. In detail, the green business /IT policy and standardization is the most important in the government's role. The strategies of intelligent building and the travel and ways of working management are prior to the others for supporting environment sustainability. Finally, the strategies for the data center consolidation and energy management and server and storage virtualization have the huge influence for green IT systems, services and usage This research results the following implications. The amount of energy consumption and CO2 emissions of IT equipment including electrical business equipment will need to be clearly indicated in order to manage the effect of green business/IT strategy. And it is necessary to develop tools that measure the performance of green business/IT by each step. Additionally, intelligent building could grow up in energy-saving, growth of low carbon and related industries together. It is necessary to expand the affect of virtualization though adjusting and controlling the relationship between the management teams.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
Korea is one of low-ranked countries in women's economic participation rate among OECD nations because well-educated females are not participating in economic activities. Regardless of current state of our society, opening a business is being considered as a effective method for job creation. Also, increasing the number of female business founders can lead to female job creation which promotes even growth of foundation and job creation and augments women's economic activity rate. Therefore, this study suggests the direction of foundation and inspires foundation factors and aims at increasing social re-participation through vitalization of business foundation by women in career discontinuity. For this study, I carried out a survey targeting career interrupted women who have attained entrepreneurial education using five- point scale by Likert and analyzed with SPSS Windows 18.0. The analysis set up 3 hypotheses with independent variables of psychological traits, entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial environment and the dependent variable of entrepreneurial intention of the career interrupted women. Also, I looked if there is the modify effect when psychological traits and entrepreneurial education affect the entrepreneurial intention with entrepreneurial environment as a moderating variable. To summarize the positive analysis result, Firstly, all psychological traits, entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial environment had similar positive affects on career interrupted women's entrepreneurial intention. Secondly, when psychological traits and entrepreneurial education affect the entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial environment had similar effects as a moderating effect. This study implies that psychological traits, entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial environment are all important for the career interrupted women's entrepreneurial intention. There are so many women who are going through both professional experience and personal network's severance. Therefore, optimized entrepre neurship education must be provided to help those women return to economic activity considering their psychological traits. Additionally, we should put emphasis on producing the entrepreneurial environment that can positively convert others' perceptions and construct those women's personal network. There seems to be more productive information for the strategies which can induce those women's actual business foundation if the social problems of the women who have highly willing to open a business are treated in the future. Also, considering that psychological traits, entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial environment all have effect on entrepreneurial intentions, there should be more related follow-up study on this.
Purpose Self-congruity deals with the effect of symbolic value-expressive attributes on consumer decision and behavior, which is the theoretical foundation of the "non-utilitarian destination positioning". Functional congruity refers to utilitarian evaluation of a product or service by consumers. In addition, recent years, social network services, especially mobile social network services have created many opportunities for e-WOM communication that enables consumers to share personal consumption related information anywhere at any time. Moreover, self-construal is a hot and popular topic that has been discussed in the field of modem psychology as well as in marketing area. This study aims to examine the moderating effect of self-construal on the relationship between self-congruity, functional congruity and tourists' positive electronic word of mouth (e-WOM). Design/methodology/approach In order to verify the hypotheses, we developed a questionnaire with 32 survey items. We measured all the items on a five-point Likert-type scale. We used Sojump.com to collect questionnaire and gathered 218 responses from whom have visited Korea before. After a pilot test, we analyzed the main survey data by using SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 18.0, and employed structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses. We first estimated the measurement model for its overall fit, reliability and validity through a confirmatory factor analysis and used common method bias test to make sure that whether measures are affected by common-method variance. Then we tested the hypotheses through the structural model and used regression analysis to measure moderating effect of self-construal. Findings The results reveal that the effect of self-congruity on tourists' positive e-WOM is stronger for tourists with an independent self-construal compared with those with interdependent self-construal. Moreover, it shows that the effect of functional congruity on tourists' positive e-WOM becomes salient when tourists' self-construal is primed to be interdependent rather than independent. We expect that the results of this study can provide important implications for academic and practical perspective.
This study investigated how video playback styles affect viewers' emotional responses to a video and then suggested emotion assessment tool for playback-edited videos. The study involved two in-lab experiments. In the first experiment, observers were asked to express their feelings while watching videos in both original playback and articulated playback simultaneously. By controlling the speed, direction, and continuity, total of twelve playback styles were created. Each of the twelve playback styles were applied to five kinds of original videos that contains happy, anger, sad, relaxed, and neutral emotion. Thirty college students participated and more than 3,800 words were collected. The collected words were comprised of 899 kinds of emotion terms, and these emotion terms were classified into 52 emotion categories. The second experiment was conducted to develop proper emotion assessment tool for playback-edited video. Total of 38 emotion terms, which were extracted from 899 emotion terms, were employed from the first experiment and used as a scales (given in Korean and scored on a 5-point Likert scale) to assess the affective quality of pre-made video materials. The total of eleven pre-made commercial videos which applied different playback styles were collected. The videos were transformed to initial (un-edited) condition, and participants were evaluated pre-made videos by comparing initial condition videos simultaneously. Thirty college students evaluated playback-edited video in the second study. Based on the judgements, four factors were extracted through the factor analysis, and they were labelled "Happy", "Sad", "Reflective" and "Weird (funny and at the same time weird)." Differently from conventional emotion framework, the positivity and negativity of the valence dimension were independently treated, while the arousal aspect was marginally recognized. With four factors from the second experiment, finally emotion assessment tool for playback-edited video was proposed. The practical value and application of emotion assessment tool were also discussed.
This study confirms the responses of consumers when the composition of emoticon bundles can be selected by individuals in MIM service. This aims to verify that customized bundling is a valid marketing strategy in the MIM emoticon market. Currently, the emoticon bundling used in Korean MIM services is in the form of pure bundling. As a result, Consumers must purchase an entire bundle even though he/she doesn't need to use all the emoticons contained in it. Some researches(e.g. Hitt & Chen, 2005; Wu & Anandalingam, 2002) show that when consumers value only part of the products or services included in pure bundling, customized bundling is much more profitable. In their works, customized bundling is appropriate when marginal costs are near zero. Information goods, such as emoticons, meet the condition. On the other hand, customized bundling increase the choosable options, so it can pose a problem of complexity (Blecker et al., 2004). And consumers may experience information overload(Huffman & Kahn, 1998). Thus, judgement on the necessity to introduce customized bundling needs to be made through empirical analyses in the light of characteristics of the product and the reaction of consumers. Results show that when customized bundling was introduced, consumers' purchase intention and willingness to pay significantly increased. Purchase intention for customized bundles has increased by 0.44 based on the five point Likert scale than the purchase intention for existing pure bundles. The increase in purchase intention for customized bundles was statistically independent of the existing purchasing experience. In addition, the willingness to pay was increased by about 2.8% compared to the price of the existing emoticon bundles in the whole group. The group with experience in purchasing pure bundles were willing to pay 5.9% more than pure bundles. The other group without experience in purchasing pure bundles were willing to buy if they were about 5% cheaper than the existing price. Overall, introducing customized bundling into emoticon bundles can lead to positive consumers responses and be a viable marketing strategy.
Introduction The purpose of this research is to develop overall model which involves the effect of ongoing support services by franchisor on franchisee's relationship quality(trust, satisfaction, and commitment) and business performance(financial and non-financial performance), and to investigate the relationships among trust, satisfaction, commitment, financial and non-financial performance. This study also suggests franchise business or franchise system should be based on long-term orientation between franchisor and franchisee rather than short-term orientation, or transactional relationship, and proposes the most effective way of providing on-going support services by franchisor with franchisee thru symbiotic relationship among franchisor and franchisee Research Model and Hypothesis The research model as Figure 1 shows the variables on-going support services which affect the relationship quality between franchisor and franchisee such as trust, satisfaction, and commitment, and also analyze the effects of relationship quality on business performance including financial and non-financial performance We established 12 hypotheses to test as follows; Relationship between on-going support services and trust H1: On-going support services factors (product category & price, logistics service, promotion, information providing & problem solving capability, supervisor's support, and education & training support) have positive effect on franchisee's trust. Relationship between on-going support services and satisfaction H2: On-going support services factors (product category & price, logistics service, promotion, information providing & problem solving capability, supervisor's support, and education & training support) have positive effect on franchisee's satisfaction. Relationship between on-going support services and commitment H3: On-going support services factors (product category & price, logistics service, promotion, information providing & problem solving capability, supervisor's support, and education & training support) have positive effect on franchisee's commitment. Relationship among relationship quality: trust, satisfaction, and commitment H4: Franchisee's trust has positive effect on franchisee's satisfaction. H5: Franchisee's trust has positive effect on franchisee's commitment. H6: Franchisee's satisfaction has positive effect on franchisee's commitment. Relationship between relationship quality and business performance H7: Franchisee's trust has positive effect on franchisee's financial performance. H8: Franchisee's trust has positive effect on franchisee's non-financial performance. H9: Franchisee's satisfaction has positive effect on franchisee's financial performance. H10: Franchisee's satisfaction has positive effect on franchisee's non-financial performance. H11: Franchisee's commitment has positive effect on franchisee's financial performance. H12: Franchisee's commitment has positive effect on franchisee's non-financial performance. Method The on-going support services were defined as an organized system of continuous supporting services by franchisor for the purpose of satisfying the expectation of franchisee based on long-term orientation and classified into six constructs such as product category & price, logistics service, promotion, providing information & problem solving capability, supervisor's support, and education & training support. The six constructs were measured agreement using a 7-point Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree)as follows. The product category & price was measured by four items: menu variety, price of food material provided by franchisor, and support for developing new menu. The logistics service was measured by six items: distribution system of franchisor, return policy for provided food materials, timeliness, inventory control level of franchisor, accuracy of order, and flexibility of emergency order. The promotion was measured by five items: differentiated promotion activities, brand image of franchisor, promotion effect such as customer increase, long-term plan of promotion, and micro-marketing concept in promotion. The providing information & problem solving capability was measured by information providing of new products, information of competitors, information of cost reduction, and efforts for solving problems in franchisee's operations. The supervisor's support was measured by supervisor operations, frequency of visiting franchisee, support by data analysis, processing the suggestions by franchisee, diagnosis and solutions for the franchisee's operations, and support for increasing sales in franchisee. Finally, the of education & training support was measured by recipe training by specialist, service training for store people, systemized training program, and tax & human resources support services. Analysis and results The data were analyzed using Amos. Figure 2 and Table 1 present the result of the structural equation model. Implications The results of this research are as follows: Firstly, the factors of product category, information providing and problem solving capacity influence only franchisee's satisfaction and commitment. Secondly, logistic services and supervising factors influence only trust and satisfaction. Thirdly, continuing education and training factors influence only franchisee's trust and commitment. Fourthly, sales promotion factor influences all the relationship quality representing trust, satisfaction, and commitment. Fifthly, regarding relationship among relationship quality, trust positively influences satisfaction, however, does not directly influence commitment, but satisfaction positively affects commitment. Therefore, satisfaction plays a mediating role between trust and commitment. Sixthly, trust positively influence only financial performance, and satisfaction and commitment influence positively both financial and non-financial performance.
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