• Title, Summary, Keyword: Firmicutes

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Metagenomic analysis of bacterial community structure and diversity of lignocellulolytic bacteria in Vietnamese native goat rumen

  • Do, Thi Huyen;Dao, Trong Khoa;Nguyen, Khanh Hoang Viet;Le, Ngoc Giang;Nguyen, Thi Mai Phuong;Le, Tung Lam;Phung, Thu Nguyet;Straalen, Nico M. van;Roelofs, Dick;Truong, Nam Hai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.738-747
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    • 2018
  • Objective: In a previous study, analysis of Illumina sequenced metagenomic DNA data of bacteria in Vietnamese goats' rumen showed a high diversity of putative lignocellulolytic genes. In this study, taxonomy speculation of microbial community and lignocellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen was conducted to elucidate a role of bacterial structure for effective degradation of plant materials. Methods: The metagenomic data had been subjected into Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTX) algorithm and the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant sequence database. Here the BLASTX hits were further processed by the Metagenome Analyzer program to statistically analyze the abundance of taxa. Results: Microbial community in the rumen is defined by dominance of Bacteroidetes compared to Firmicutes. The ratio of Firmicutes versus Bacteroidetes was 0.36:1. An abundance of Synergistetes was uniquely identified in the goat microbiome may be formed by host genotype. With regard to bacterial lignocellulose degraders, the ratio of lignocellulolytic genes affiliated with Firmicutes compared to the genes linked to Bacteroidetes was 0.11:1, in which the genes encoding putative hemicellulases, carbohydrate esterases, polysaccharide lyases originated from Bacteroidetes were 14 to 20 times higher than from Firmicutes. Firmicutes seem to possess more cellulose hydrolysis capacity showing a Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of 0.35:1. Analysis of lignocellulolytic potential degraders shows that four species belonged to Bacteroidetes phylum, while two species belonged to Firmicutes phylum harbouring at least 12 different catalytic domains for all lignocellulose pretreatment, cellulose, as well as hemicellulose saccharification. Conclusion: Based on these findings, we speculate that increasing the members of Bacteroidetes to keep a low ratio of Firmicutes versus Bacteroidetes in goat rumen has resulted most likely in an increased lignocellulose digestion.

Seasonal Variations in the Bacterial Community of Gwangyang Bay Seawater (광양만 해수의 세균 군집의 계절적 변화)

  • Park, Seong Chan;Lee, Ji Hee;Kang, Joo Won;Baik, Keun Sik;Seong, Chi Nam
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.522-531
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    • 2014
  • Seasonal variations in the bacterial community of Gwangyang Bay seawater were analyzed using both isolation and cultivation-independent methods. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis was applied to 200 bacterial isolates. Bacterial isolates were composed of four phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Pyrosequencing was conducted, in addition to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of genomic DNA extracted directly from the water samples. The bacterial sequences obtained by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes consisted of 24 phyla in the spring and summer, 39 in the fall, and 32 in the winter. The diversity index was high in the fall, whereas the dominancy index was high in the spring. In the spring, phylum Firmicutes was dominant, whereas phylum Proteobacteria dominated in the other three seasons. The second most dominant phyla were Proteobacteria in the spring, Firmicutes in the summer, and Bacteroidetes both in the fall and winter. Bacilliaceae was the most predominant family in the spring. Rhodobacteraceae and Bacilliaceae dominated in the summer, and Rhodobacteraceae dominated in the winter. Neither was dominant in the fall Twenty-seven bands purified from DGGE profiles were cloned and analyzed phylogenetically. In the spring, phylum Firmicutes dominated, followed by Proteobacteria. Proteobacteria dominated in all other seasons. Thus, two cultivation-independent methods for determination of seasonal variation patterns at the phylum level were in accordance with each other.

Report on 30 unrecorded bacterial species of the phylum Firmicutes isolated from Korea in 2016

  • Nahar, Shamsun;Lee, Do-Hoon;Bae, Jin-Woo;Im, Wan-Taek;Jahng, Kwang Yeop;Joh, Kiseong;Kim, Wonyong;Lee, Soon Dong;Yi, Hana;Cha, Chang-Jun
    • Journal of Species Research
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.50-59
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    • 2018
  • During the course of investigation of indigenous prokaryotic species in Korea, a total of 30 bacterial strains belonging to the phylum Firmicutes were isolated from diverse environmental sites such as soil, avian feces, wastewater treatment plants, fermented vegetables, seawater, algae, sea cucumber, octopus and tidal flat sediment. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that each strain showed high sequence similarity (${\geq}98.7%$) to the closest type strain and formed a robust phylogenetic clade with the most closely related species in the phylum Firmicutes. To date, there is no official record of these 30 species in Korea. Therefore, we report 26 species of 12 genera in the order Bacillales and 4 species of 4 genera in the order Lactobacillales which have not been reported in Korea. Morphological and biochemical characteristics, isolation sources and NIBR deposit numbers are described in the species descriptions.

A report of 26 unrecorded bacterial species in Korea, belonging to the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes

  • Kim, Haneul;Yoon, Jung-Hoon;Cha, Chang-Jun;Seong, Chi Nam;Im, Wan-Taek;Jahng, Kwang Yeop;Jeon, Che Ok;Kim, Seung Bum;Joh, Kiseong
    • Journal of Species Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.166-178
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    • 2016
  • An outcome of the study to discover indigenous prokaryotic species in Korea, a total of 26 bacterial species assigned to the classes Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were isolated from diverse environmental samples collected from soil, tidal flat, freshwater, seawater, wetland, plant roots, and fermented foods. From the high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>99.0%) and formation of a robust phylogenetic clade with the closest species, it was determined that each strain belonged to each independent and predefined bacterial species. There is no official report that these 26 species have been described in Korea; therefore 14 strains for the order Flavobacteriales and two strains for the order Cytophagales were assigned to the class Bacteroidetes, and 8 strains for the order Bacillales and 4 strains for the order Lactobacillales were assigned to the class Firmicutes are reported for new bacterial species found in Korea. Gram reaction, colony and cell morphology, basic biochemical characteristics, isolation source, and strain IDs are also described in the species description section.

Bacterial Community Profiling during the Manufacturing Process of Traditional Soybean Paste by Pyrosequencing Method (Pyrosequencing을 이용한 전통된장 제조과정 중 세균군집구조의 분석)

  • Kim, Yong-Sang;Jeong, Do-Yeon;Hwang, Young-Tae;Uhm, Tai-Boong
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 2011
  • In order to evaluate the diversity and change of bacterial population during the manufacturing process of traditional soybean paste (doenjang), bacterial communities were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. In rice straw, the most important inoculum source for fermentation, the bacterial sequences with a relative abundance greater than 1% were assigned to four phyla, Proteobacteria (71%), Actinobacteria (20.6%), Bacteroidetes (4.2%), and Firmicutes (1.3%). Unlike bacterial community composition of rice straw, a different pattern of bacterial population in meju was observed with predominantly high abundance (99.1%) of Firmicutes. Phylum composition in young doenjang was almost same as that of meju. Major genera in young doenjang were Bacillus (81.3%), Clostridium (6.9%) and Enterococcus (6.3%) and the predominant species among bacterial population was B. amyloliquefaciens (63.6%). Abundance of the phylum Firmicutes in mature doenjang was 99.98%, which was even higher value than those in meju and young doenjang. Predominant species in mature doenjang were B. amyloliquefaciens (67.3%), B. atrophaeus (12.7%), B. methylotrophicus (6.5%), B. mojavensis (3.2%), and B. subtilis. (2.5%), which were also identified as major species of the microbial flora in meju. These results suggested that rice straw was a primary source for supplement of Bacillus species in manufacturing the traditional doenjang and that some species of Bacillus strains were mainly involved in the fermentation process of traditional doenjang.

Preliminary identification of gut microbes between normal and diseased Dorcus titanus castanicolor (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

  • Kwak, Kyu-Won;Lee, Heuisam;Park, Kwanho;Kim, Eunsun;Han, Myung-Sae;Kim, Nanghee;Kim, Yong-Soon
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 2019
  • The popularity of keeping stag beetles (Dorcus titanus castanicolor Motschulsky 1861, Coleoptera: Lucanidae) as pets has increased. Consistent with the rise in the number of insect farms using these beetles, the number of contaminated or diseased D. titanus castanicolor has also increased. This investigation was conducted to analyze the cause of D. titanus castanicolor disease. The contaminated larvae of D. titanus castanicolor showed Allomyrina nudivirus infection symptoms similar to those of Allomyrina nudivirus infection. However, the disease carried by of D. titanus castanicolor is not derived from the virus infecting Allomyrina, as determined by PCR. Our study revealed that the major gut microbes of infectious D. titanus castanicolor belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria, and specifically, Pseudomonas knackmussi (Symptom 1 - 39.62% to Symptom 2 - 41.50% to Symptom 3 - 76.76% as the disease progressed severely) and Citrobacter koseri (Symptom 1 - 1.48% to Symptom 2 - 6.04% to Symptom 3 - 6.16% as the disease progressed severely) were detected. Additionally, a high proportion of larvae from the uninfected group were found to harbor bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes (72%). However, as the disease progressed severely in these beetles, the proportion of Firmicutes decreased (Symptom 1 - 72.03% to Symptom 2 - 44.7% to Symptom 3 - 26.3%). These findings imply that colonization by Firmicutes was inversely proportional to Proteobacteria colonization in the gut. This was found to be true for both the normal and disease conditions of D. titanus castanicolor. In this study, we examined the distribution of intestinal microbial communities in normal and contaminated larvae. We observed a correlation between these contaminated microbes and the overall health of the beetle, and our findings suggest that there may be a link between disease progression and the gut microbiome.

A report of 35 unreported bacterial species in Korea, belonging to the phylum Firmicutes

  • Baek, Min-gyung;Kim, Wonyong;Cha, Chang-Jun;Joh, Kiseong;Kim, Seung-Bum;Kim, Myung Kyum;Seong, Chi-Nam;Yi, Hana
    • Journal of Species Research
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.337-350
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    • 2019
  • In an investigation of indigenous prokaryotic species in Korea, a total of 35 bacterial strains assigned to the phylum Firmicutes were isolated from diverse habitats including natural and artificial environments. Based on their high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>98.7%) and formation of robust phylogenetic clades with species of validly published names, the isolates were identified as 35 species belonging to the orders Bacillales (the family Bacillaceae, Paenibacillaceae, Planococcaceae, and Staphylococcaceae) and Lactobacillales (Aerococcaceae, Enterococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae, and Streptococcaceae). Since these 35 species in Korean environments has not been reported in any official report, we identified them as unrecorded bacterial species and investigated them taxonomically. The newly found unrecorded species belong to 20 species in the order Bacillales and 15 species in the order Lactobacillales. The morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the isolates were examined and the descriptive information of the 35 previously unrecorded species is provided here.

A report of 10 unrecorded bacterial species of Korea, belonging to the phylum Firmicutes

  • Kim, Eunji;Choi, Sungmi;Bae, Jin-Woo;Cha, Chang-Jun;Im, Wan-Taek;Jahng, Kwang-Yeop;Joh, Ki-seong;Yi, Hana
    • Journal of Species Research
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 2016
  • To investigate the indigenous prokaryotic species diversity in Korea, various environmental samples from diverse ecosystems were examined taxonomically. The isolated bacterial strains were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, and those exhibiting at least 98.7% sequence similarity with known bacterial species but never reported in Korea were selected as unrecorded species. As an outcome of this study, 10 unrecorded bacterial species belonging to the phylum Firmicutes were discovered from various sources such as soil, tidal flat, fresh water, sea water, kimchi and gut of Fulvia mutica. The unrecorded species were assigned to 7 different genera of 5 families, namely Bacillus and Ornithinibacillus of Bacillaceae, Exiguobacterium of Exiguobacteriaceae, Brevibacillus and Paenibacillus of Paenibacillaceae, Staphylococcus of Staphylococcaceae, and Lactococcus of Streptococcaceae. The selected isolates were subjected to further taxonomic characterization including the analysis of Gram reaction, cellular and colonial morphology, biochemical activities, and phylogenetic trees. The descriptive information on the 10 unrecorded species are provided.

Biodiversity and Isolation of Gut Microbes from Digestive Organs of Harmonia axyridis (무당벌레 소화기관으로부터 장내세균의 분리 및 계통학적 다양성)

  • Kim, Ki-Kwang;Han, Song-Ih;Moon, Chung-Won;Yu, Yong-Man;Whang, Kyung-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2011
  • Bacterial density distributions of gut microbes in the digestive organs of Harmonia axyridis collected from three different sources (JK, CK, and CJ) were $6.0{\times}10^4$ CFU/gut under aerobic culture condition and $8.0{\times}10^6$ CFU/gut under anaerobic culture condition. Seven colony types were observed under aerobic condition and three types of similarity were detected under anaerobic condition. In total, 116 strains, including 34 strains under aerobic condition, were isolated from the digestive organs of H. axyridis. Based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, aerobic gut microbes were assigned to the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Deinococcus-Thermus. A large number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus and Staphylococcus of the Firmicutes commonly found in H. axyridis from different sites. Anaerobic gut microbes were found to be similar according to colony morphological, phylogenetic analysis using ARDRA. Eighty-two anaerobic gut microbes were clustered into 17 different ARDRA types according to HaeIII. Representative anaerobic gut microbes in each ARDRA group were divided into five species of ${\gamma}$-Proteobacteria based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis; Hafnia alvei, Enterobacter ludwigii, Enterobacter kobei, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Pseudomonas koreensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that about 70% of the isolates belonged to ${\gamma}$-Proteobacteria, suggesting predominance of gut microbes.

Comparative Analysis of the Community of Culturable Bacteria Associated with Sponges, Spirastrella abata and Spirastrella panis by 16S rDNA-RFLP (16S rDNA-RFLP에 의한 Spirastrella abata와 Spirastrella panis 해면에 서식하는 배양가능한 공생세균 군집의 비교)

  • Cho, Hyun-Hee;Park, Jin-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.155-162
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    • 2009
  • A cultivation-based approach was employed to compare the culturable bacterial diversity associated with two phylogenetically closely related marine sponges, Spirastrella abata and Spirastrella panis, which have geologically overlapping distribution patterns. The bacteria associated with sponge were cultivated using MA medium supplemented with 3% sponge extracts. Community structures of the culturable bacteria of the two sponge species were analyzed with PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) based on 16S rDNA sequences. The RFLP fingerprinting of 16S rDNA digested with HaeIII and MspI, revealed 24 independent RFLP types, in which 1-5 representative strains from each type were partially sequenced. The sequence analysis showed >98.4% similarity to known bacterial species in public databases. Overall, the microbial populations of two sponges investigated were found to be the members of the classes; Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The Alphaproteobacteria were predominant in the bacterial communities of the two sponges. Gammaproteobacteria represented 38.5% of bacterial community in S. abata. Whereas only 1.6% of this class was present in S. panis. Bacillus species were dominat in S. panis. Bacillus species were found to be 44.3% of bacterial species in S. panis, while they were only 9.7% in S. abata. It is interesting to note that Planococcus maritimus (8.1%, phylum Firmicutes) and Psychrobacter nivimaris (28.9%, phylum Gammaproteobacteria) were found only in S. abata. This result revealed that profiles of bacterial communities from the sponges with a close phylogenetic relationship were highly species-specific.