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The Effect of Bacillus-based Feed Additive on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Fecal Gas Emission, and Pen Cleanup Characteristics of Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Upadhaya, S.D.;Kim, S.C.;Valientes, R.A.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.999-1005
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    • 2015
  • Bacillus-based feed additive was evaluated for its efficacy on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal gas emission, and the consumption of time and amount of water for cleaning the pen of growing finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs ($23.59{\pm}1.41kg$) were used in a 16-wk feeding trial. Pigs were randomly distributed into 1 of 2 treatments on the basis of body weight and sex. There were 12 replicate pens per treatment, with 5 pigs (3 barrows and 2 gilts) per pen. Dietary treatments were CON which was basal diet, and T1 which was CON+62.5 ppm microbial feed additive that provided $1.47{\times}10^8cfu$ of Bacillus organisms per gram of supplement. During the weeks 0 to 6, average daily gain (ADG) in T1 treatment was higher (p<0.05) than CON, but no improvement in average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency (G:F) was noted. During 6 to 16 weeks, no difference (p>0.05) was noted in growth performance. However, ADG was improved (p<0.05) and overall ADFI tended (p = 0.06) to improve in T1 compared with CON. At week 6, the co-efficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of dry matter (DM) nitrogen (N) was increased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON. Fecal $NH_3$ emission was decreased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON, at the end of 6th and 15th weeks. The time and water consumed for washing the pens were decreased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON. In conclusion, supplementation with Bacillus-based feed additive could improve the overall growth performances, increase the CATTD of DM and decrease the fecal $NH_3$ content and the time and water consumed in washing the pens for growing-finishing pigs.

Dietary Phytoncide Supplementation Improved Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Finishing Pigs

  • Li, Han Lin;Zhao, Pin Yao;Lei, Yan;Hossain, Md Manik;Kang, Jungsun;Kim, In Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1314-1321
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    • 2016
  • We conducted this 10-wk experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary phytoncide, Korean pine extract as phytogenic feed additive (PFA), on growth performance, blood characteristics, and meat quality in finishing pigs. A total of 160 pigs ([Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire]${\times}$Duroc, body weight (BW) = $58.2{\pm}1.0kg$) were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatments according to their BW and sex, 10 replicate pens per treatment with 4 pigs per pen were used (2 barrows and 2 gilts). Dietary treatments were: CON, control diet; PT2, CON+0.02% PFA; PT4, CON+0.04% PFA; PT6, CON+0.06% PFA. Overall, average daily gain (ADG) was higher in PT4 (p<0.05) than in PT6, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was lower in PT6 than in CON (p<0.05). Besides ADFI decreased linearly (p<0.05) with the increased level of phytoncide and gain:feed ratio in PT4 treatment was higher (p<0.05) than CON treatment. During 5 to 10 weeks and overall, quadratic (p<0.05) effect was observed in ADG among the treatments. At the end of this experiment, pigs fed with PT4 diet had a greater (p<0.05) red blood cell concentration compared to the pigs fed CON diet. Water holding capacity increased linearly (p<0.05) with the increased level of phytoncide supplementation. Moreover, firmness, redness, yellowness, and drip loss at day 3 decreased linearly (p<0.05) with the increase in the level of phytoncide supplementation. In conclusion, inclusion of phytoncide could enhance growth performance without any adverse effects on meat quality in finishing pigs.

Relationship between inclusion level of Vachellia tortilis leaf meal and behavioral activities of finishing pigs

  • Thabethe, Fortune;Khanyile, Mbongeni;Ncobela, Cyprial Ndumiso;Chimonyo, Michael
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.177-185
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The study was conducted to establish a relationship between inclusion level of Vachellia tortilis (V. tortilis) leaf meal and time spent on different behavioral activities by finishing pigs. Methods: A total of forty-eight male Large White×Landrace finishing pigs with a mean (±standard deviation) body weight of 63.8±3.28 kg aged 14 wks were assigned to individual pens in a completely randomized design. Pigs were fed on diets containing 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 g/kg dry matter of V. tortilis leaf meal ad libitum with fresh water provided throughout the trial. There were eight pigs in each experimental diet. The behavior of pigs was observed for three wks twice a wk from 0600 to 1800 h using six closed circuit television cameras. Results: Increasing levels of V. tortilis leaf meal caused a linear decrease (p<0.05) in time spent eating, lying down and the number of visit to the feeder. Time spent standing and biting objects increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing inclusion level of V. tortilis leaf meal. The was a negative linear relationship (p<0.05) between condensed tannins versus time spent eating, lying down and number of feeder visits. Condensed tannins showed a positive linear relationship (p<0.05) with time spent standing and biting objects. Neutral detergent fiber caused a linear decrease (p<0.05) in number of feeder visits, time spent eating, time spent standing. Conclusion: Inclusion level of V. tortilis leaf meal reduces time spent eating, lying down and the number of feeder visit while prolonging time spent standing and biting of objects. Condensed tannins and dietary fiber are among nutritional factors affecting behavioral activities displayed by finishing pigs.

Effect of Partial Replacement of Soybean Meal with Palm Kernel Meal and Copra Meal on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Pigs

  • Kim, B.G.;Lee, J.H.;Jung, H.J.;Han, Y.K.;Park, K.M.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.821-830
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    • 2001
  • To study the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with palm kernel meal (PKM) and copra meal (CM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs, a total of 150 crossbred pigs (Landrace$\times$Duroc$\times$Yorkshire; average $52.11{\pm}1.08kg$ body weight) were alloted to five treatments, in a randomized block design. The treatments included 1) Control: without PKM or CM, 2) PKM2: 2% of palm kernel meal, 3) PKM4: 4% palm kernel meal, 4) CM2: 2% of copra meal, 5) CM4: 4% of copra meal. During the early finishing period (52~74 kg), growth performance was better in CM diets than in PKM diets or control diet, and in overall period (74~100 was lower (p<0.05) in PKM4 diet than the other diets. Nutrient digestibilies of PKM or CM substituted diets showed the tendency to be lower than those of control diet. In the early finishing period, total amino acid digestibilities of PKM and CM diets had the tendency to be lower than control diet, and in the late finishing period, they were lower (p<0.05) than control diet. Carcass length was longer (p<0.05) in the pigs fed 2% CM than in the pigs fed 4% PKM diet, but other carcass characteristics were not different among treatments. Although the dietary C14:0 content affected (p<0.05) on the C14:0 content in the carcass, the inclusion of PKM or CM in the diet did not affect the total saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids in the backfat of finishing pigs. Although it was not significant, supplementation of CM at the 2% and 4% of control group tended to decrease feed cost per kg weight gain by 2.89 to 1.42%, respectively. In conclusion, copra meal can be a valuable source of protein in the diet for finishing pigs and may replace other protein sources in pig diets to a considerable extent.

Effects of different space allowances on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality in a grow-to-finish production system

  • Jang, J.C.;Jin, X.H.;Hong, J.S.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1796-1802
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimal space allowance on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. Methods: A total of ninety crossbred pigs [$(Yorkshire{\times}Landrace){\times}Duroc$, $30.25{\pm}1.13kg$] were allocated into three treatments (0.96: four pigs/pen, $0.96m^2/pig$; 0.80: five pigs/pen, $0.80m^2/pig$; 0.69: six pigs/pen, $0.69m^2/pig$) in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed in balanced sex and had free access to feed in all phases for 14 weeks (growing phase I, growing phase II, finishing phase I, and finishing phase II). Results: There was no statistical difference in growing phase, but a linear decrease was observed on average daily gain (ADG, p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI, p<0.01), and body weight (BW, p<0.01) with decreasing space allowance in late finishing phase. On the other hand, a quadratic effect was observed on gain to feed ratio in early finishing phase (p<0.03). Consequently, overall ADG, ADFI, and final BW linearly declined in response to decreased space allowance (p<0.01). The pH of pork had no significant difference in 1 hour after slaughter, whereas there was a linear decrease in 24 h after slaughter with decreasing space allowance. Floor area allowance did not affect pork colors, but shear force linearly increased as floor space decreased (p<0.01). There was a linear increase in serum cortisol concentration on 14 week (p<0.05) with decreased space allocation. Serum IgG was linearly ameliorated as space allowance increased on 10 week (p<0.05) and 14 week (p<0.01). Conclusion: Data from current study indicated that stress derived from reduced space allowance deteriorates the immune system as well as growth performance of pigs, resulting in poor pork quality. Recommended adequate space allowance in a grow-to-finish production system is more than $0.80m^2/pig$ for maximizing growth performance and production efficiency.

Effects of Low Crude Protein Diets Supplemented with Synthetic Amino Acids on Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs Reared Using a Phase Feeding Regimen

  • Lee, J.H.;Kim, J.H.;Kim, J.D.;Kim, S.W.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.655-667
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding a low CP diet supplemented with synthetic amino acids on performance, nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs fed under a three-phase feeding regimen. Ninety-six finishing pigs (Landrace$\times$Large White$\times$Duroc), $55.75kg{\pm}0.65$ of initial body weight, were blocked by weight and sex and allotted to four dietary treatments in a randomized block design. There were six pens per treatment and four pigs per pen. Pigs were fed a 16%-14%-12% CP (for phase I-II-III, respectively), sequence of diets. Dietary treatments were 1) Control, 2) Con+L (a sequence of diets reduced in CP by l percentage unit with lysine (L) supplementation, 3) Con+LMT (a sequence of diets reduced in CP by 2 percentage unit with LYS, methionine (MET) and threonine (THE) supplementation) and 4) Con+LMTT (a sequence of diets reduced in CP by 3 percentage unit with LYS, MET, THR and tryptophan (TRP) supplementation). The finishing period (55 to 105 kg) was divided into three phases (55 to 72 kg, 72 to 90 kg and 90 to 105 kg). Pigs fed either the control or Con+L diet grew faster (p<0.05) than pigs fed the Con-LMT or Con+LMTT diet. There was no difference in ADFI among dietary treatments. Phosphorus (P) digestibility was lowest in the control group and highest in the Con+LMTT group (p<0.05). Within each phase, no significant differences in dry matter (DM) and CP digestibilities were found. Although some amino acid digestibilities were affected by dietary treatments, digestibilities of essential amino acids (EAA), non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and total amino acid were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments. For the entire experiment periods, Con+L, Con+LMT and Con+LMTT treatments resulted in 13.4, 18.8 and 21.6% lower total N excretion compared with the control. Con+LMT and Con+LMTT treatments showed significantly lower BUN concentration compared with the control and Con+L treatment (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in BUN concentration between pigs fed the control and Con+L treatment or between pigs fed Con+LMT and Con+LMTT treatments (p>0.05). Carcass length, backfat thickness and carcass grade were not significantly affected by dietary treatments (p>0.05). In conclusion, reducing dietary CP level by 1 percentage unit and supplementing only LYS at each phase could be a very beneficial feeding strategy for finishing pigs fed under a three phase feeding regimen in terms of both environmental and economical aspects.

Effects of Dietary Bacillus-based Probiotic on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, Blood Characteristics and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Finishing Pigs

  • Chen, Y.J.;Min, B.J.;Cho, J.H.;Kwon, O.S.;Son, K.S.;Kim, H.J.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.587-592
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementation with bacillus-based probiotic (Bacillus subtilis, $1.0{\times}10^7CFU/g$; Bacillus coagulans, $2.0{\times}10^6CFU/g$ and Lactobacillus acidophilus, $5.0{\times}10^6CFU/g$) on finishing pigs growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood characteristics and fecal noxious gas content and to determine the optimal addition level of this probiotic preparation. A total of forty eight pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of $90.60{\pm}2.94kg$ were allotted to three dietary treatments (four pigs per pen with four pens per treatment) according to a randomized complete block design. Dietary treatment included: 1) CON (basal diet); 2) BP1 (basal diet+bacillus-based probiotic 0.1%) and 3) BP2 (basal diet+bacillus-based probiotic 0.2%). The experiment lasted 6 weeks. Through the entire experimental period, ADG was improved by 11% (p<0.05) in pigs fed diets supplemented with 0.2% bacillus-based probiotic compared to pigs fed the basal diet. ADFI and gain/feed were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05). Supplementation of bacillus-based probiotic did not affect either DM and N digestibilities or blood characteristics (p>0.05) of pigs. Fecal ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N) measured at the end of experiment was reduced (p<0.05) when pigs were fed the diet with 0.2% bacillus-based probiotic. Fecal butyric acid concentration also decreased significantly (p<0.05) whereas acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) when pigs were fed diets with added bacillus-based probiotic. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of bacillus-based probiotic can increase growth performance and decrease fecal noxious gas content concentration.

Various levels of copra meal supplementation with β-Mannanase on growth performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility, pork quality and economical analysis in growing-finishing pigs

  • Kim, H.J.;Nam, S.O.;Jeong, J.H.;Fang, L.H.;Yoo, H.B.;Yoo, S.H.;Hong, J.S.;Son, S.W.;Ha, S.H.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.59 no.7
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    • pp.19.1-19.10
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    • 2017
  • Background: To reduce use of main feed ingredient like corn, soy bean meal (SBM) and wheat, alternative ingredients has been studied like copra meal (CM). Production amount of CM which has been high makes CM to be an alternative feed stuff. However, low digestibility on AA and low energy content by high fiber content can be an obstacle for using CM. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of CM supplementation with ${\beta}$-mannanase on growth performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility, pork quality and economic analysis in growing-finishing pigs. Methods: A total of 100 growing pigs ([Yorkshire ${\times}$ Landrace] ${\times}$ Duroc) averaging $31.22{\pm}2.04kg$ body weight were allotted to 5 different treatments by weight and sex in a randomized complete block (RCB) design in 5 replicate with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were 1) Control (corn-SBM based diet + 0.1% of ${\beta}$-mannanase (800 IU)), 2) CM10 (10% copra meal + 0.1% ${\beta}$-mannanase (800 IU)), 3) CM15 (15% copra meal + 0.1% ${\beta}$-mannanase (800 IU)), 4) CM20 (20% copra meal + 0.1% ${\beta}$-mannanase (800 IU)) and 5) CM25 (25% copra meal + 0.1% ${\beta}$-mannanase (800 IU)). Four phase feeding program was used: growing I (week 1-3), growing II (week 4-6), finishing I (week 7-9) and finishing II (week 10-12). Results: In growth performance, there was no significant difference among treatments during whole experimental period. In growingI phase, G:F ratio tended to increase when CM was increased (P = 0.05), but ADG and ADFI tended to decrease in finishingII phase (linear, P = 0.08). Also, increasing CM reduced ADG (linear, P = 0.02) and feed efficiency (linear, P = 0.08) during the whole finishing period. In blood profiles, BUN was linearly increased as CM increased (linear, P = 0.02) at growingII period. In digestibility trial, there was no significant difference in dry matter, crude fat, crude ash and nitrogen digestibility. However, crude protein digestibility was decreased linearly (linear, P = 0.02). In economic analysis, feed cost per weight gain and total feed cost per pig were reduced in overall period when CM was provided by 25% (linear, P = 0.02). Conclusion: CM with 0.1% of ${\beta}$-mannanase (800 IU) could be supplemented instead of corn and SBM up to 25% without detrimental effects on growth performance and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs.

The Effects of Dietary Biotite V Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Finishing Pigs

  • Chen, Y.J.;Kwon, O.S.;Min, B.J.;Shon, K.S.;Cho, J.H.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1147-1152
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    • 2005
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary Biotite V (BV) supplementation on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and fecal noxious gas content in finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of eighty pigs (initial body weight 88.0${\pm}$1.35 kg) were used in a 35-d growth trial. Pigs were blocked by weight and allotted to five dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. There were four pigs per pen and four pens per treatment. Dietary treatments included: 1) Control (CON; basal diet), 2) 200 mesh BV1.0 (basal diet+200 mesh Biotite V 1.0%), 3) 325 mesh BV1.0 (basal diet+325 mesh Biotite V 1.0%), 4) 200 mesh BV2.0 (basal diet+200 mesh Biotite V 2.0%) and 5) 325 mesh BV2.0 (basal diet+325 mesh Biotite V 2.0%). Through the entire experimental period, there were no significant differences in ADG, ADFI and gain/feed among the treatments (p>0.05). With the addition of Biotite V in diet, DM and N digestibilities were increased significantly (p<0.01). Also, Ca and P digestibilities tended to increase in pigs fed Biotite V supplemented diet (p<0.01) compared to pigs fed control diet. Supplementation of Biotite V in diet reduced the fecal $NH_3-N$ and volatile fatty acid (VFA) compared to CON treatment (p<0.01). In Exp. 2, a total of sixty four pigs (initial body weight 84.0${\pm}$1.05 kg) were used in a 35-d growth trial. Pigs were blocked by weight and allotted to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. There were four pigs per pen and four pens per treatment. Dietary treatments included: 1) LP (low protein diet), 2) HP (high protein diet), 3) LP+BV (low protein diet+325 mesh Biotite V 1.0%) and 4) HP+BV (high protein diet+325 mesh Biotite V 1.0%). Through the entire experimental period, ADG and gain/feed tended to increase in HP and HP+BV treatments, however, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the treatments. With the addition of Biotite V in diets, digestibilities of nutrients (DM, N, Ca and P) were increased significantly (p<0.01). The addition of Biotite V in diets reduced the ammonia emissions in feces (p<0.01). Supplementation of Biotite V in diets also reduced the fecal propionic acid, butyric acid and acetic acid (p<0.01) compared to pigs fed diets without Biotite V. In conclusion, supplementation of Biotite V can increase nutrients digestibility and reduce fecal $NH_3-N$ and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in finishing pigs.

Effect of Enzyme Supplementation on the Performance of Growing-Finishing Pigs Fed Barley-Based Diets Supplemented with Soybean Mealor Canola Meal

  • Thacker, P.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.1008-1013
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of enzyme supplementation on the performance of 80 growing-finishing pigs (26.2 kg) fed diets containing either soybean or canola meal. Barley-based diets formulated using either soybean meal or canola meal were fed with or without enzyme (Allzyme Vegpro, Alltech Biotechnology Centre). Eight castrates and twelve gilts were fed each diet. Digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy was 8.0 (p=0.0001), 7.9 (p=0.0005) and 7.9 (p=0.0003) percent lower for pigs fed diets containing canola meal compared with soybean meal. Enzyme supplementation had no effect on nutrient digestibility (p>0.05). There was a significant interaction between protein source and enzyme for all three nutrients. Over the entire experimental period (26.2 to 77.9 kg), pigs fed canola meal consumed 9.4% less feed (p=0.001), gained weight 20.4% slower (p=0.001) and had a 12.9% poorer feed conversion (p=0.001) than pigs fed soybean meal. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were unaffected by enzyme addition (p>0.05). Castrates gained weight 11.4% faster (p=0.001), consumed 9.3% more feed (p=0.001) and had a 2.6% better feed conversion (p=0.026) than gilts. There was a significant interaction between protein source and sex of pig for feed conversion. Pigs fed diets based on canola meal had a significantly lower carcass value index (p=0.01), lower lean yield (p=0.007) and lower lean depth over the loin (p=0.001) than pigs fed diets based on soybean meal. Enzyme addition significantly increased lean depth over the loin (p=0.01). There was a significant interaction between protein source and enzyme for carcass value index (p=0.04), estimated lean yield (p=0.05) and fat depth over the loin (p=0.05). These results confirm previous studies which have demonstrated poorer pig performance when canola meal completely replaces soybean meal in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. In addition, the results provide little justification for the inclusion of the Vegpro enzyme in diets fed to pigs of this weight range.