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Effects of Fermented Red Ginseng Supplementation on Growth Performance, Apparent Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Hematology and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs

  • Ao, X.;Meng, Q.W.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.525-531
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG) on growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, blood hematology and meat quality in finishing pigs. A total of 96 ((Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire)${\times}$Duroc) pigs ($71.64{\pm}1.20\;kg$) were randomly allocated into one of the following dietary treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) FRG1, basal diet+1 g/kg fermented red ginseng; iii) FRG2, basal diet+2 g/kg fermented red ginseng and iv) FRG3 basal diet+4 g/kg fermented red ginseng. There were 6 replications per treatment with 4 pigs (2 gilts and 2 barrows) per pen. Throughout the whole period of the trial, there were no effects of FRG addition on ADG or G/F. Pigs fed FRG2 diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05) than those fed CON diet during 0-4 weeks while FRG2 and FRG3 treatments decreased ADFI (p<0.05) compared with CON treatment both during 5-8 weeks and the entire experiment. No differences were observed in apparent nutrient digestibility and blood hematology. However, FRG2 and FRG3 administration decreased the drip loss compared with CON (p<0.05). Pigs in FRG2 treatment had higher LMA (p<0.05) and lower WHC (p<0.05) than those in CON treatment. In conclusion, the supplementation of FRG had a minor effect on performance while partially improved meat quality in finishing pigs.

Influence of various levels of milk by-products in weaner diets on growth performance, blood urea nitrogen, diarrhea incidence, and pork quality of weaning to finishing pigs

  • Yoo, S.H.;Hong, J.S.;Yoo, H.B.;Han, T.H.;Jeong, J.H.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.696-704
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate various levels of milk by-product in weaning pig diet on growth performance, blood profiles, carcass characteristics and economic performance for weaning to finishing pigs. Methods: A total of 160 weaning pigs ([Yorkshire${\times}$Landrace]${\times}$Duroc), average $7.01{\pm}1.32kg$ body weight (BW), were allotted to four treatments by BW and sex in 10 replications with 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were fed each treatment diet with various levels of milk by-product (Phase 1: 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, Phase 2: 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively). During weaning period (0 to 5 week), weaning pigs were fed experimental diets and all pigs were fed the same commercial feed during growing-finishing period (6 to 14 week). Results: In the growth trial, BW, average daily gain (ADG), and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in the nursery period (5 weeks) increased as the milk by-product level in the diet increased (linear, p<0.05). Linear increases of pig BW with increasing the milk product levels were observed until late growing period (linear, p = 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in BW at the finishing periods, ADG, ADFI, and gain:feed ratio during the entire growing-finishing periods. The blood urea nitrogen concentration had no significant difference among dietary treatments. High inclusion level of milk by-product in weaner diet decreased crude protein (quadratic, p = 0.05) and crude ash (Linear, p = 0.05) of Longissimus muscle. In addition, cooking loss and water holding capacity increased with increasing milk product levels in the weaner diets (linear, p<0.01; p = 0.05). High milk by-product treatment had higher feed cost per weight gain compared to non-milk by-products treatment (linear, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Supplementation of 10% to 5% milk by-products in weaning pig diet had results equivalent to the 30% to 15% milk treatment and 0% milk by-product supplementation in the diet had no negative influence on growth performance of finishing pigs.

Effect of Dietary Lysine Restriction and Energy Density on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs

  • Jin, Y.H.;Oh, H.K.;Piao, L.G.;Jang, S.K.;Choi, Y.H.;Heo, P.S.;Jang, Y.D.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1213-1220
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    • 2010
  • This experiment evaluated the effects of dietary lysine restriction and energy density on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and meat quality of finishing pigs. A $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement of treatments was utilized in a randomized complete block (RCB) design, and factor 1 was lysine restriction and factor 2 was energy density. The control diet was formulated to contain 3.265 Mcal of ME/kg, 0.75% lysine in the early-finishing phase and 3.265 Mcal of ME/kg, 0.60% lysine in the late-finishing phase and other nutrients met or exceeded NRC (1998) standards. Compared to the control diet (CON), lysine levels of experimental diets were restricted to 15% (treatment EL, EEL) or 30% (treatment ELL, EELL), whereas energy level of experimental diets was increased by 0.100 or 0.200 Mcal of ME/kg. A total of 100 crossbred pigs ([Yorkshire${\times}$Landrace]${\times}$Duroc), with average initial body weight of $58.47{\pm}1.42\;kg$, were allotted to 5 dietary treatments based on sex and body weight. Each treatment had 5 replicates with 4 pigs (two barrows and two gilts) per pen. ADG, ADFI and feed efficiency were calculated in an 8-week growth trial. In the late finishing period (5-8 weeks), pigs fed ELL or EELL diets had decreased ADG and feed efficiency (p<0.01), however, when the EEL diet was provided, a similar growth performance was observed compared to those fed the CON diet during the whole experimental period (p>0.05). In a metabolic trial, 15 pigs were used to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine restriction and energy density on nutrient digestibility. The digestibility of dry matter, crude fat and crude ash was not improved by restricting dietary lysine or energy density. However, crude protein digestibility was decreased (p<0.05) as dietary lysine was restricted. When dietary lysine was restricted, fecal nitrogen was increased whereas nitrogen retention was decreased. BUN concentration was affected by dietary lysine restriction; treatments ELL and EELL had higher BUN values than other treatments (p<0.01). Carcass characteristics and meat quality were measured when average body weight of pigs reached $107.83{\pm}1.50\;kg$. Treatment ELL had higher last rib backfat depth (p<0.05) than treatment CON, but ELL and EEL did not differ significantly. The ELL and EEL treatments had higher (p<0.05) subjective marbling score than treatment CON. Treatment EEL showed higher longissimus fat content than treatment EL and CON (p<0.01). The results indicated that finishing pigs fed a diet with 15% lysine restriction and 3.465 Mcal of ME/kg energy density had no detrimental effects on growth performance and N utilization, and could achieve substantial increases in marbling and longissimus fat content of pork.

Effects of Phase Feeding and Sugar Beet Pulp on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Urea Nitrogen, Nutrient Excretion and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs

  • Ko, T.G.;Lee, J.H.;Kim, B.G.;Min, T.S.;Cho, S.B.;Han, In K.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.1150-1157
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    • 2004
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of phase feeding and sugar beet pulp (SBP) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs. A total of 128 pigs were allotted at 53.9 kg BW to 8 replicates in a 2$\times$2 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. The first factor was phase feeding (2 or 3 phase feeding) and SBP (SBP: 0% or 10%) was the second factor. Ten percent SBP supplement groups showed lower average daily feed intake (ADFI) than 0% SBP supplement groups (p<0.05). However, there were no significant difference in average daily gain (ADG) and feed:gain ratio among treatments during overall experimental period. Nutrient digestibility was not affected by phase feeding or SBP supplementation. Urinary nitrogen excretion in 10% SBP supplement group was lower than that in 0% SBP supplement group (p<0.05) and total nitrogen excretion was lower in SBP supplement group than in the group without SBP. Urinary and total nitrogen were numerically decreased in three phase feeding compared to two phase feeding. The BUN concentration in three phase feeding groups was lower than two phase feeding groups at 47 and 63 day (p<0.05). Consequently, results of this experiment demonstrated that three phase feeding was more acceptable than two phase feeding for finishing pigs. And sugar beet pulp could be supplemented in finishing pig diet for decreasing urinary nitrogen excretion without retardation in growth performance of pigs.

Nutritional Evaluation of Chinese Nonconventional Protein Feedstuffs for Growing-Finishing Pigs - 1. Linseed Meal

  • Li, Defa;Vi, G.F.;Qiao, S.Y.;Zheng, C.T.;Wang, R.J.;Thacker, P.;Piao, X.S.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2000
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the ileal digestibility of the amino acids contained in linseed meal using the regression technique and then applying the values obtained, in a growth trial, using growing-finishing pigs. For the digestibility trial, four $20{\pm}0.5kg$ crossbred $(Yorkshire{\times}Landrace{\times}Beijing\;Black)$ barrows were fitted with simple T-cannula in the terminal ileum. After recovery, the barrows were fed one of four experimental diets according to a $4{\times}4$ Latin Square design. The pigs were fed corn-soybean meal based diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50 or 75% linseed meal. For the growth trial, 80 crossbred $(Yorkshire{\times}Landrace{\times}Beijing\;Black)$ growing pigs $(20.2{\pm}1.5kg)$ were fed corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0, 5, 10 or 15% linseed meal. Five pens (2 gilts and 2 castrates) were assigned to each treatment. With the exception of leucine, the digestibility coefficients for the indispensible amino acids declined as the level of linseed meal in the diet increased. There was a good agreement between the amino acid digestibilities for lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan determined using the regression technique and amino acid digestibilities previously published for linseed meal. During both the growing (20-49 kg) and finishing (49-95 kg) periods, the addition of linseed meal decreased average daily gain and feed conversion in a linear manner (p<0.05). Feed intake was not significantly different among treatments. The overall results suggest that linseed meal can be used at levels of between 5 and 10% in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs provided that the diet has been balanced for digestible amino acids.

Evaluation of Un-fasted Pig Stomach Spent Feed as a Substitute in Finishing Pigs Diet

  • Kaingmean, Kai;Lee, Jun-Yeob;Lee, Myeong-Ho;Ji, Sang-Yun;Moon, Hong-Gil;Ohh, Sang-Jip
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.525-532
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    • 2011
  • Insufficient pre-slaughter fasting leaves serious amount of feed-like contents (designated here as un-fasted stomach spent feed, USSF) in the eviscerated pig stomach. This study was intended to evoke economical and environmental seriousness of USSF discharge by estimating its value as pig feed. For finishing pigs feeding trial, three levels (0, 5, and 10%) of USSF were blended with pig feed to prepare control and two treatment diets, respectively. A total of 42 (21 males, 21 females) crossbred (Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire ${\times}$ Duroc) finishing pigs weighing $81.5{\pm}8.0$ kg were employed to 28d feeding trial and in vivo digestibility trial by $Cr_2O_3$ indicator method with 7 males and 7 female pigs per treatment. In vitro total tract digestion of USSF showed 70.5% and 57.6% of DM and OM digestibilities, respectively which were poorer (p<0.05) than those of pig diet. There were no differences in body weight gain, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio among treatments although 10% USSF substitution exerted relatively poor performance. In vivo apparent digestibilities of diets containing USSF 5% and 10% were lower (p<0.05) than that of 100% pig feed. There were no differences (p>0.05) in dressing percentage and carcass grade among treatments. Results of this study showed that 5% USSF substitution in finishing pigs diet did not exert any disadvantage in terms of production performance and carcass grade. This study implied that un-fasted slaughter causing excessive excretion of USSF should be avoided. If not avoidable, the USSF should not be wasted in abattoir but could be recycled as pig feed.

Effects of Processing and Genetics on the Nutritional Value of Sorghum in Chicks and Pigs - Review -

  • Kim, I.H.;Cao, H.;Hancock, J.D.;Park, J.S.;Li, D.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1337-1344
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    • 2000
  • Differences in the physical structure and chemical composition of sorghums result in different nutritional values. Sorghums with high in vitro nutrient digestibility tend to have greater ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilies. Soft endosperm can improve growth and nutrient digestibility in nursery pigs and broiler chicks. However, finishing pigs respond less to endosperm hardness. Chicks benefit from waxy sorghums, but responses of swine to waxy sorghum remain controversial. Reduction of particle size benefits nursery pigs more than finishing pigs, while age of chicks affects the coarseness preference. Nutritional benefits of thermal processing in sorghum remain unclear in chicks and pigs. Although experiments have demonstrated increased efficiency with processed sorghum, processing provided only an immediate solution to the problem of reduced utilization. Long-term, solutions will be genetic improvement of physical and on chemical characteristic.

Effects of Feeding and Processing Methods of Diets on Performance, Morphological Changes in the Small Intestine and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing-Finishing Pigs

  • Yang, J.S.;Jung, H.J.;Xuan, Z.N.;Kim, J.H.;Kim, D.S.;Chae, B.J.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.1450-1459
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    • 2001
  • These experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different feeding and processing methods of diets on performance, morphological changes in the small intestine and nutrient digestibility of growing-finishing pigs. One-hundred fifty growing pigs ($Yorkshire{\times}Landrace{\times}Duroc$; initial body weight of $23.33{\pm}0.75kg$) and one-hundred twenty finishing pigs ($Yorkshire{\times}Landrace{\times}Duroc$; initial body weight of $59.22{\pm}0.56kg$) were used in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. Pigs were grouped on the basis of body weight and gender, and randomly allotted into 6 different treatments with 5 replications in each treatment in a $2{\times}3$ factorial arrangement. Treatments were 1) dry feeding with a mash diet (DM), 2) dry feeding with a pelleted diet (DP), 3) dry feeding with an expanded crumble diet (DEC), 4) dry/wet feeding with a mash diet (WM), 5) dry/wet feeding with a pelleted diet (WP), and 6) dry/wet feeding with an expanded crumble diet (WEC). In Exp. 1 (growing phase), there was no significant difference in average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) among treatments during the entire experimental period, but feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly (p<0.05) improved in pigs fed pelleted diets regardless of feeding method. FCR was best in pigs fed a DP diet and worst in pigs fed a WM diet. Pigs fed a pelleted diet showed a 6.2% or 4.0% improvement in FCR compared with those fed a mash diet or an expanded crumble diet. Water disappearance was not significantly affected by dry/wet feeding or feed processing. Significant differences in villus height were not found among treatments, but villus height tended to be improved by dry/wet feeding. Dry/wet feeding or feed processing did not affect crypt depth. Digestibilities of calcium and phosphorus were significantly (p<0.05) improved in pigs fed an expanded crumble diet compared with pigs fed mash diets. Especially, pigs fed a WEC diet digested 8.1% more P than those fed a DM diet. Feed cost per kg weight gain (FCG) tended to be increased by dry/wet feeding rather than dry feeding. In Exp. 2 (finishing phase), ADG and ADFI were not significantly different among treatments, but a significant difference in FCR was found among feed processing forms. The best FCR was obtained in pigs fed a pelleted diet. Pigs fed a DP diet showed a 11.3% improvement compared with those fed a DEC diet. Water disappearance was significantly (p=0.0408) decreased by feeding the mash diet. However, water disappearance was not affected by dry/wet feeding during the finishing period. The villus height and crypt depth were not significantly different among treatments. However, crypt depth tended to be decreased by dry/wet feeding at the mid part of the small intestine. Fat digestibility was improved by dry feeding rather than dry/wet feeding, and was improved by 4.8% by feeding pellet diets compared with expanded crumble diets. Except for carcass grade, carcass characteristics were not significantly (p<0.05) different among treatments. Carcass grade was the best in pigs fed a WP diet. Feed cost per kg weight gain (FCG) was significantly decreased in pigs fed a pelleted diet compared with those fed an expanded crumble diet, and tended to be decreased by dry/wet feeding. In conclusion, these studies suggest that feeding the pelleted diet to growing-finishing pigs can be beneficial in terms of FCR and production cost. Dry/wet feeding can be helpful for the maintenance of villus height, but may not be reflected in improved growth performance or reduction of production costs.

Effects of Dietary Selenium Supplementation on Growth Performance, Selenium Retention in Tissues and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Tian, J.Z.;Yun, M.S.;Ju, W.S.;Long, H.F.;Kim, J.H.;Kil, D.Y.;Chang, J.S.;Cho, S.B.;Kim, Y.Y.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) sources and levels on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and Se retention in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 56 crossbred pigs ([$Landrace{\times}Yorkshire$]${\times}$Large White) with average $28.5{\pm}0.2kg$ BW were allotted to 7 treatments on the basis of sex and weight in two replicates and four pigs per pen. A $2{\times}3$ factorial arrangement of treatments was used in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Two sources of Se (selenite Se or Se-enriched yeast) were added at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg to each treatment diet. A basal diet without Se supplementation was the seventh treatment group. Three pigs per treatment were randomly selected and samples of loin, liver, pancreas and a kidney were collected, frozen and later analyzed for Se. The digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the apparent absorption and retention of Se and availability of other nutrients. Growth performance was not affected by dietary sources and levels of Se. No growth retardation was observed in the 0.5 mg/kg dietary Se treatment group regardless of Se sources. The Se concentration of serum in Se supplemented groups was increased compared with the control group (p<0.01). During the growing and finishing phase, Se in serum was clearly increased when organic Se was provided (p<0.01). Interaction of Se source ${\times}$ Se level was observed in Se concentration of loin, liver and pancreas of the pigs at the end of experiment. Selenium retention in the liver, kidney, pancreas and loin of pigs was increased as dietary Se level increased and was higher when pigs were fed organic Se resulting in an interaction response (p<0.01). Nutrient digestibilities were not affected by dietary Se sources or levels. No dietary Se source ${\times}$ Se level interaction was observed in nutrient digestibility. The results from this experiment indicated that dietary Se sources and levels affected the distribution of Se in the body of growing-finishing pigs. Organic source of Se, such as Se-enriched yeast resulted in higher serum and tissue Se concentration compared to inorganic form, while no beneficial effects on nutrient digestibility were observed from dietary Se supplementation in growing-finishing pigs.

Effects of Lacquer (Rhus verniciflua) Meal on Carcass Traits, Fatty Acid Composition and Meat Quality of Finishing Pigs

  • Song, C.H.;Choi, J.Y.;Yoon, S.Y.;Yang, Y.X.;Shinde, P.L.;Kwon, I.K.;Kang, S.M.;Lee, S.K.;Chae, B.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1207-1213
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    • 2008
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of lacquer (Rhus verniciflua Stokes) meal on the growth performance, carcass traits, fatty acid profile and meat quality of longissmuss dorsi (LD) muscle in finishing pigs. Pigs (n = 117; Landrace$\times$Yorkshire$\times$Duroc; initial body weight $80{\pm}0.4kg$) were allotted to three dietary treatments and fed lacquer at 0, 2 and 4% of the diet for five weeks. Inclusion of lacquer meal in the diets of pigs had no influence on their growth performance, carcass yield, loin eye area and fat free lean; however, pigs fed lacquer diets had lower backfat (linear, p = 0.006; quadratic, p = 0.004). Pigs fed increasing levels of lacquer meal had lower moisture (linear, p<0.001; quadratic, p = 0.008), crude fat (linear, p<0.001) and crude protein (linear, p<0.001; quadratic, p = 0.002) in LD muscle. The LD muscle of pigs fed lacquer meal had lower pH (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) at 6, 8 and 10 days, and linearly lower thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, p<0.01) at 8 and 10 days and water holding capacity (WHC, p<0.05) at 3, 6, 8 and 10 days. The fatty acid composition of LD muscle revealed linearly lower stearic (p = 0.034) and total saturated fatty acid (p = 0.049) with increasing dietary lacquer meal levels. In general, higher lightness, redness and yellowness values were observed in LD muscle of pigs fed 2% lacquer meal on day 0 and subsequently on 3, 6, 8 and 10 days of refrigerated storage. The results of the current study suggest that lacquer meal can be incorporated up to 4% in the diet of finishing pigs without any adverse effects on performance; moreover, improvements in the meat quality during refrigerated storage can be obtained by inclusion of lacquer meal in the diet of finishing pigs.