• Title, Summary, Keyword: Finishing Pigs

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Increasing the Pig Market Weight: World Trends, Expected Consequences and Practical Considerations

  • Kim, Y.S.;Kim, S.W.;Weaver, M.A.;Lee, C.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.590-600
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    • 2005
  • The present report has been aimed at reviewing important factors which need to be closely analyzed or considered when increasing the market weight of finishing pigs. The pig market weight has increased worldwide during the past few decades, which is attributable primarily to an increased lean gain potential of finishing pigs. To increase the market weight, however, the acceptability of larger pigs by the packer as well as pork consumers should be met first. By increasing the market weight, total number of breeding stock, as well as the facility for them, necessary for producing a given weight of pork can be reduced, whereas more building space for finishing pigs and an additional nutrition program for the later finishing period are needed. Additionally, a more thorough disease prevention program especially against ileitis and mycoplasma pneumonia may also be needed, because outbreaks of these are known to increase with increasing body weight over 110 kg. Some larger finishing pigs may deposit excessive fat that may be reduced or prevented by using hormonal and/or nutritional agents. Backfat thickness increases linearly with increasing body weight between 110 and 130 kg, whereas intramuscular fat content does not change significantly. With increasing live weight within this range, the ratios of belly and loin to carcass weight also are known to increase. Some physicochemical characteristics related to fresh and cooked meat quality including color, firmness, juiciness, etc. are known to be unaffected or slightly changed following an increase of slaughter weight. In conclusion, ratios of primal cuts and pork quality characteristics are not significantly affected by increasing the market weight. Moreover, increasing the market weight of lean-type pigs approximately up to 130 kg is normally profitable to producers, as long as packers and consumers accept larger pigs.

Effects of Supplementary Threonine, Canola Oil or Enzyme on Nutrient Digestibility, Performance and Carcass Traits of Growing-finishing Pigs Fed Diets Containing Wheat Distillers Grains with Solubles

  • Thacker, P.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.1676-1685
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    • 2009
  • This trial was conducted to determine the effects of various feed additives on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass traits of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing wheat distiller' grains with solubles (WDGS). Seventy-two, individually fed pigs (19.7${\pm}$2.6 kg), were assigned to one of six dietary treatments in a 6${\times}$2 (treatment${\times}$sex) factorial design (N = 12). The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal while the five experimental diets contained 20% WDGS during the growing period and 12% WDGS during the finishing period. One 20% WDGS diet was unsupplemented while the remaining diets were supplemented with either 0.1% threonine, 5% canola oil, 0.2% enzyme (0.1% Endofeed W containing 1,250 units/g of xylanase and 385 units/g of $\beta$-glucanase and 0.1% Vegpro containing 7,700 HUT/g protease and 75 CMC/g cellulase), or a combination of the three additives at the same levels as those fed separately. The digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and energy were all significantly higher in the control diet than the unsupplemented diet containing 20% WDGS. None of the feed additives improved nutrient digestibility. In addition, none of the additives had any significant effect on gain or feed intake during the growing (19.7 to 43.6) or finishing (43.6 to 114.3 kg) periods or overall (19.7 to 114.3 kg). During the growing period, feed conversion was significantly improved for pigs fed the combination of additives compared with the unsupplemented WDGS diet. During the finishing period and overall, feed conversion was significantly improved for pigs fed 5% canola oil alone or in combination with the other additives. None of the supplements had any effect on carcass traits. These results indicate that WDGS can be successfully used as a partial replacement for soybean meal in diets fed to growingfinishing pigs. However, due to its low energy content, there may be some merit in including high energy ingredients such as canola oil when diets containing WDGS are fed.

Extended nursing and/or increased starter diet allowances for low weaning weight pigs

  • Craig, Aimee-Louise;Muns, Ramon;Gordon, Alan;Magowan, Elizabeth
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.1301-1309
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    • 2020
  • Objective: To evaluate the use of nurse sows and post-weaning nutrition strategies for low wean weight (WW) pigs on lifetime growth and efficiency. Methods: Animals (n = 270) were assigned to one of five treatments at 28 d. Low WW pigs (<6 kg) were either weaned and offered a special dietary regime recommended for low WW pigs (WEAN) or placed on a nurse sow (NURSE) and weaned at 49 d. Normal WW pigs (9 kg) (NORM) were also weaned at 28 d. After weaning, NORM and NURSE pigs were offered either a 'high' (4 kg/pig of starter 1 diet followed by 8 kg/pig of starter 2 diet) or 'low' (8 kg/pig of starter 2 diet) starter diet allowance in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. A typical grower diet was then offered, followed by a typical finisher diet until 147 d of age. Results: NORM pigs where heavier throughout their life compared to NURSE pigs (91.4 kg vs 76.2 kg at 147 d; p<0.001). WEAN pigs were heavier at 70 d compared to NURSE pigs (23.9 kg vs 21.0 kg; p<0.001), but there was no significant difference at 147 d between NURSE and WEAN treatments. NURSE pigs had reduced feed intake throughout the finishing period (1.6 kg/d; p<0.001) compared to WEAN (2.0 kg/d) and NORM (1.9 kg/d) pigs. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of NURSE (2.20) was lower than NORM and WEAN during the finishing period (2.40 and 2.79, respectively). Conclusion: Extended (up to 49 d) nursing for low WW pigs resulted in improved FCR during the finishing period, but no overall improvement in growth rate compared to low WW pigs weaned at 28 d and offered a specialised starter regime. Normal WW pigs where significantly heavier than low WW pigs throughout the study.

Effects of Processing Method on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing-finishing Pigs Fed Lupine Seeds

  • Yang, Y.X.;Kim, Y.G.;Heo, S.;Ohh, S.J.;Chae, B.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.8
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    • pp.1229-1235
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    • 2007
  • Three trials were conducted to study the effect of processing method on performance, apparent nutrient and amino acid digestibilities in growing-finishing pigs fed lupine seeds. Ground, expanded or flaked lupine seed was prepared for the trials. In trial 1, a total of 72 growing barrows ($Landrace{\times}Large$ $White{\times}Large$, initial BW of $54.22{\pm}5.87$ kg) were allocated to three treatment diets containing 15% percent of differently processed lupine seed for 28 days. Each treatment had four replicates comprising 6 pigs each. In trial 2, a total of 48 finishing barrows ($Landrace{\times}Large$ $White{\times}Large$, initial BW of $84.40{\pm}6.84$ kg) were subjected to three treatments for 21 days. The experimental design was the same as trial 1 except for supplementation with 20% of lupine seed. Each treatment had four replicates comprising 4 pigs each. To evaluate the ileal digestibility of amino acids, a total of 9 barrows ($Landrace{\times}Large$ $White{\times}Large$), with an average initial BW of $41.07{\pm}1.98$ kg, were fed with ground, expanded or flaked lupine for 7 days. Each pig was surgically equipped with a simple T-cannula fitted in the distal ileum. Amino acid composition and presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) in processed lupine sources were also evaluated. The results showed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in lupine amino acid composition due to the different processing methods. Expanded and flaked lupine significantly decreased (p<0.05) the concentration of ANFs compared with ground lupine. There was no effect (p>0.05) on the growth performance in growing pigs. However, processing method had a significant effect (p<0.05) on average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in finishing pigs. There was no effect (p>0.05) of the different processing methods on the digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), ether extract (EE), Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), but expanded lupine could significantly increase (p<0.05) the apparent digestibility of CP in finishing pigs. Furthermore, expanded lupine had a higher (p<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility for most indispensable and dispensable amino acids compared with ground and flaked lupine. It was concluded that expanded lupine could be beneficial in improving lupine's quality and improve performance and nutrient utilization in growing-finishing pigs.

Effects of Inclusion Levels of Dietary Vitamins and Trace Minerals on Growth Performance and Pork Stability in Finishing Pigs

  • Chae, B.J.;Choi, S.C.;Cho, W.T.;Han, In K.;Sohn, K.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.1445-1449
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    • 2000
  • A total of one hundred twenty pigs ($L{\times}Y{\times}D$, $50{\pm}0.78kg$) were employed for a 7-week feeding trial to determine the effect of inclusion levels of vitamin and mineral (VTM) premixes on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and pork stability in finishing pigs. Treatments were 100% (Control), 150%, 200%, and 250% of NRC (1998) requirements. Increasing dietary VTM premixes in finishing pigs had a linear (p<0.05) effect on ADG. It also had a linear effect (p<0.05) on the digestibility of calcium and a linear and quadratic effect (p<0.05) on the digestibility of phosphorus. As dietary VTM levels were increased from 100 to 250% NRC (1998), TBARS values of pork samples were linearly (p<0.05) lowered when stored at $1^{\circ}C$ for 2 or 3 weeks. There was also a trend reducing POV of pig meat as dietary VTM level was increased. In conclusion, it would appear that inclusion of VTM premixes at the level of 200-250% of NRC (1998) requirements gave positive effects on growth performance and pork stability in finishing pigs.

Effects of Dietary Carbohydrases on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Characteristics in Finishing Pigs

  • Kim, Keun Hyoung;Cho, Jin Ho;Kim, In Ho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.289-293
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary carbohydrases on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood characteristics in finishing pigs. A total of 90 pigs [(Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire) ${\times}$ Duroc] (initial BW = $56.15{\pm}1.26kg$) were used for a 35 d feeding trial. The dietary treatments included: 1) CON (control diet), 2) MIX (CON + mixture with ${\alpha}$-galactosidase and ${\beta}$-mannanase 0.05%) and 3) MAN (CON + ${\beta}$-mannanase 0.05%). There were six replications per treatment with five pigs per pen. The average daily gain (ADG) in MIX was higher than in CON (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted in the average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency (G:F) among dietary treatments (p>0.05). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM) and energy (E) in MIX increased (p<0.05) relative to CON and MAN. The ATTD of nitrogen (N) in MIX was higher (p<0.05) than in CON. No differences in red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes and IgG concentrations were observed among dietary treatments (p>0.05). In conclusion, the addition of the mixture of carbohydrases (${\alpha}$-galactosidase and ${\beta}$-mannanase 0.05%) increased ADG and nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs.

Evaluation of Twice Decorticated Sunflower Meal as a Protein Source Compared with Soybean Meal in Pig Diets

  • Cortamira, O.;Gallego, A.;Kim, S.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1296-1303
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    • 2000
  • A series of four experiments was conducted to compare nutritional values of decorticated sunflower meals against soybean meal, in diets for pigs from weaning (Exp. 1 and 2) to finishing (Exp. 3 and 4). All experimental diets were prepared compensating for the energy content by using vegetable oil and the lysine content was matched using synthetic L-Lysine HCl. Twenty-one day old pigs were fed either corn-soybean meal based diet (CSBM) or corn- twice-decorticated sunflower meal based diet (CDSM) for four weeks (Exp. 1). There was no difference in performances between treatment groups. In Exp. 2, corn-non-decorticated sunflower meal based diet (CNSM) was added to the existing two treatments. Twenty-one day old pigs were fed three experimental diets for four weeks. Pigs fed CNSM had a lower weight gain and feed intake than other treatments (p<0.05). There was no difference between pigs fed CSBM and CDSM (Exp. 2). Growth performance of growing pigs was also greater (p<0.05) in pigs fed corn starch-twice- decorticated sunflower meal based diet (CSDSM) than pigs fed corn starch-non-decorticated sunflower meal based diet (CSNSM) during the eight week feeding trial (Exp. 3). There was no difference between pig fed corn starch-soybean meal based diet (CSSBM) and CSDSM (Exp. 3). In Exp. 4, growing pigs were fed three experimental diets (CSBM, CDSM, and barley-twice- decorticated sunflower meal based diet; BDSM) until the slaughter. There was no difference in growth performance of pigs during growing and finishing periods among treatments. However, pigs fed CSBM had a higher carcass dressing percentage (p<0.05) than pigs fed CDSM and BDSM. Pigs fed BDSM diet had a lower fat tissue percentage than other groups (p<0.05). The twice-decorticated sunflower meal can be used as a substitute for soybean meal in pig diets. The performances of piglets and growing-finishing pigs were not affected when soybean meal was replaced by twice-decorticated sunflower meal. This substitution needs the contribution of synthetic lysine and vegetable oil as sources of complementary nutrients to match the nutrient profile.

Effects of Dietary Thiazolidinedione Supplementation on Growth Performance, Intramuscular Fat and Related Genes mRNA Abundance in the Longissimus Dorsi Muscle of Finishing Pigs

  • Chen, X.;Feng, Y.;Yang, W.J.;Shu, G.;Jiang, Q.Y.;Wang, X.Q.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.1012-1020
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with thiazolidinedione (TZD) on growth performance and meat quality of finishing pigs. In Experiment 1, 80 castrated finishing pigs (Large White${\times}$Landrace, BW = 54.34 kg) were randomly assigned to 2 treatments with 5 replicates of 8 pigs each. The experimental pigs in the 2 groups were respectively fed with a diet with or without a TZD supplementation (15 mg/kg). In Experiment 2, 80 castrated finishing pigs (Large White${\times}$Landrace, BW = 71.46 kg) were divided into 2 treatments as designed in Experiment 1, moreover, carcass evaluations were performed. The results from Experiment 1 showed that TZD supplementation could significantly decreased the average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) during 0 to 28 d, without impairing the average daily gain (ADG) (p>0.05). In Experiment 2, the ADG was significantly increased by TZD supplementation during 14 to 28 d and 0 to 28 d (p<0.05) and the feed:gain ratio (F:G) was significantly decreased by TZD supplementation during 0 to 28 d (p<0.05). Compared with the control group, TZD group had significantly higher serum triglyceride (TG) concentration at 28h and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 14 d (p<0.05). Moreover, there was an apparent improvement in the marbling score (p<0.10) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content (p<0.10) of the longissimus dorsi muscle in pigs treated by TZD supplementation. Real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that pigs of TZD group had higher mRNA abundance of $PPAR{\gamma}$ coactivator 1 (PGC-1) (p<0.05) and fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) (p<0.05) than pigs of control group. Taken together, these results suggested that dietary TZD supplementation could improve growth performance and increase the IMF content of finishing pigs through regulating the serum parameters and genes mRNA abundance involved in fat metabolism.

Effect of Phase Feeding on the Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs

  • Lee, J.H.;Kim, J.D.;Kim, J.H.;Jin, J.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.1137-1146
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to establish an optimum number of phase feeding regimen which enable to reduce nutrients excretion without affecting growth performance and to investigate the effects of different feeding regimens on growth performance, nutrients excretion and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs. A total of 120 finishing pigs (an average initial body weight of 54.3 kg) were assigned to the feeding trial and 12 pigs were assigned to the metabolic trial. Treatments included one phase (54 to 104 kg), two phase (54 to 80 and 80 to 104 kg), three phase (54 to 70, 70 to 90 and 90 to 104 kg) and four phase (54 to 65, 65 to 80, 80 to 95, 95 to 104 kg) feeding regimens. Experimental diets were formulated to contain 16% crude protein for one phase feeding regimen, 16% and 12% crude protein for two phase feeding regimen, 16%, 14% and 12% crude protein for three phase feeding regimen, and 16%, 14.7%, 13.4% and 12% crude protein for four phase feeding regimen, respectively. Although there were no significant differences in any criteria measured during the entire experimental period, pigs reared in three phase feeding regimen grew slightly faster than those reared in other feeding regimens and showed a tendency to increase ADFI during the whole experimental period. The metabolic trial indicated that there were no significant differences in DM (dry matter), CP (crude protein) and P (phosphorus) digestibilities. However, fecal nutrient excretion except P was significantly influenced by feeding regimens. DM excretion of one phase feeding group was significantly higher than that of three phase feeding group and daily fecal N (nitrogen) excretion of one phase feeding group was higher than that of other phase feeding groups (p<0.05). Three and four phase feeding regimens resulted in 12% lower fecal N and DM excretion than one phase feeding regimen. Blood urea concentrations were lower for pigs reared in two, three and four phase feeding regimens than for those reared in one phase feeding regimen (p<0.05). Three phase feeding regimen for the finishing period showed better carcass grade than one phase feeding regimen, though the difference was not significant. The tenth rib fat thickness of pigs fed on four phase feeding regimen was reduced most and there was a trend that backfat thickness decreased as the number of phases increased. Feed cost per kg weight gain was significantly low in four phase feeding group than one phase feeding group (p<0.05). In summary, it seemed that producers generally oversupply the expensive nutrients for the finishing pigs. High nutrient diets do not always guarantee high growth rate of pigs and cause more unwanted nutrient excretion. It rather seems that meeting nutrient requirements for the each growth phase is more important for the reduction of pollutants and economical pork production.

Evaluation of Toyocerin, a Probiotic Containing Bacillus toyoi Spores, on Health Status and Productivity of Weaned, Growing and Finishing Pigs

  • Kyriakis, S.C.;Georgoulakis, I.;Spais, A.;Alexopoulos, C.;Miliotis, C.C.;Kritas, S.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1326-1331
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    • 2003
  • The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of Toyocerin, a probiotic containing Bacillus toyoi spores, on the health status and productivity of pigs, during nursery, growing and finishing phases. On a commercial farrow-to-finish farm in Greece, 3 experimental groups were formed, each of 72 weaned piglets. The pigs of the first group (T1 group; negative controls) received normal feed with no antimicrobials or probiotics, the pigs of the second group (T2 group) received the same type of feed but supplemented with 1.0${\times}$10$^9$, 0.5${\times}$10$^9$ and 0.2${\times}$10$^9$ spores per kg of feed at weaning, growing and finishing stage, respectively, and the pigs of the third group (T3 group) were fed with Toyocerin at the dose of 1.0${\times}$10$^9$ spores per kg of feed during the entire fattening period (weaning, growing and finishing stages). The results have shown that, compared to the controls, Toyocerin treated pigs had reduced incidence of postweaning diarrhoea (p<0.05). Enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli were detected in faecal samples of 0% to 25% of pigs of the treated groups, but in 33.5% to 50% of pigs of the non-treated group (p<0.05). Over the negative controls, a significant improvement of weight gain (4.5% and 8.3% for T2 and T3 groups, respectively), and of feed conversion ratio (6.6% and 13.0% for T2 and T3 groups, respectively) was observed. The 76.5% of the carcasses of the T3 group was classified in the top three categories of the EUROP scale (S, E and U), whilst the respective figures were 47.8% for T2 group and only 10.5% for T1 group (p<0.05).