• Title, Summary, Keyword: Finishing Pigs

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Influence of Processing Method on Ileal Digestibility of Nutrients from Soybeans in Growing and Finishing Pigs

  • Kim, I.H.;Hancock, J.D.;Hines, R.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.192-199
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    • 2000
  • Eight crossbred barrows (four growing and four finishing pigs with average initial BW of 40 and 82 kg, respectively) were fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum and used in a 36 d metabolism experiment ($4{\times}4$ Latin squares) to determine the effects of roasting and extruding full-fat soybeans on nutrient utilization. Treatments were: 1) soybean meal; 2) roasted soybeans; 3) extruded soybeans; and 4) soybeans extruded with an extrusion enhancer (sodium sulfite). The control diet was corn starch-based with 0.90% lysine, 0.65% Ca and 0.55% P for the growing pigs and 0.75% lysine, 0.55% Ca and 0.45% P for the finishing pigs. For the growing pigs, apparent total tract digestibilities of DM (p<0.04) and GE (p<0.008) were greater for soybean meal than full-fat soy products. However, ileal digestibilities of DM, GE, N and most amino acids were, in general, greatest for extruded soybeans and lowest for roasted soybeans, with soybean meal intermediate. For finishing pigs, trends in digestibilities of nutrients were very similar to those for the growing pigs. Total tract digestibilities of DM (p<0.03) and GE (p<0.001) for soybean meal were greater than for the full-fat soy products and ileal digestibilities of DM, GE, N and most amino acids were greater for the extruded soybeans than for the roasted soybeans. In conclusion, nutrient digestibilities and availabilities of indispensable amino acids tended to be greatest in extruded soybeans, intermediate in soybean meal and lowest in roasted soybeans for growing and finishing pigs.

Effect of dietary supplementation of tapioca on growth performance and meat quality in pigs

  • Park, Jae-Won;Cui, Jing-Ai;Lee, Sang-In;Kim, Young-Hwa;Park, Joon-Cheol;Chae, Byung-Jo;Kim, In-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.347-354
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    • 2015
  • This study evaluated whether dietary supplementation of tapioca could alleviate the negative effects of palm kernel meal (PKM) on growth performance and meat quality in growing and finishing pigs. In experiment 1, 120 73-dold crossbred growing pigs [$(Yorkshire{\times}Landrace){\times}Duroc$], with an average body weight of $31.7{\pm}4.5kg$, were used in a 3-week trial. In experiment 2, 120 108-d-old crossbred finishing pigs [$(Yorkshire{\times}Landrace){\times}Duroc$], with an average BW of $52.6{\pm}4.2kg$ were used in a 10-week trial. Treatments were: CON, a corn-soybean meal-based diet; PKM, 8% PKM, and TPKM, 8% PKM and 10% tapioca. No difference was observed in growth performance or meat quality among treatments in growing pigs. In finishing pigs, no difference was observed in growth performance or meat quality among CON and TPKM dietary treatments. Finishing pigs fed PKM decreases in final BW and ADG compared with those fed CON. Meat quality was not affected by dietary treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of tapioca alleviated anti-nutritional effect of PKM on growth performance in growing and finishing pigs. Thus, the PKM with tapioca could be an available alternative energy source to reduce the cost of pig diets.

Effects of wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs

  • Han, Tae Hee;Hong, Jin Su;Fang, Lin Hu;Do, Sung Ho;Kim, Byung Ock;Kim, Yoo Yong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.1150-1159
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate various wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs. Methods: A total of 120 growing pigs ($[Yorkshire{\times}Landrace]{\times}Duroc$), with an average $27.75{\pm}1.319kg$ body weight, were used in growth trial. Pigs were allotted into each treatment by body weight and sex in 4 replicates with 6 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Fourphase feeding programs were used in this experiment. The treatments included the following: i) corn-soybean meal (SBM) - based diet (CON), ii) corn-SBM - based diet+15% of wheat (W15), iii) corn-SBM - based diet+30% of wheat (W30), iv) corn-SBM - based diet+45% of wheat (W45), and 5) corn-SBM-based diet+60% of wheat (W60). Results: There was no significant difference in growth performance among the dietary treatments. However, the gain-to-feed (G:F) ratio tended to increase (quadratic, p<0.08) when the pigs were fed a higher wheat diet during the finishing period. The digestibility of crude ash and fat tended to decrease as the wheat supplementation level increased (p<0.08). The proximate analysis of the longissimus muscle was not affected by the dietary level of wheat. The crude ash content in pork was decreased linearly as the wheat supplementation level increased (p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in the pH level, shear force, water holding capacity, and cooking loss of the pork. In pork and fat, $L^{\star}$, $a^{\star}$, and $b^{\star}$ values were not significantly different among dietary treatments. Conclusion: Wheat can be supplemented up to 60% in a growing-finishing pig without detrimental effects on growth and pork quality. The G:F ratio tended to improve in the finishing period by wheat inclusion.

Effects of Feed Processing and Feeding Methods on Growth and Carcass Traits for Growing-Finishing Pigs

  • Chae, B.J.;Han, In K.;Kim, J.H.;Yang, C.J.;Ohh, S.J.;Rhee, Y.C.;Chung, Y.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.164-169
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    • 1997
  • The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed processing and feeding methods on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 72 pigs (LYD, 22.24 kg BW) were employed for a 90-d feeding trial. Treatments were 1) mash dry feeding (MD), 2) mash wet feeding (MW), 3) pellet dry feeding (PD), and 4) extruded pellet dry feeding (EPD). Corn, soybean meal and wheat bran in the basal diets were extruded before mixing and pelleting for EPD diet production. Ileal or fecal digestibility and carcass traits including lean meat percentage and weights of stomach ulcer were also examined. During the growing period, pigs fed PD showed improved (p < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion (F/G) over those fed MD, whereas no significant differences in average daily feed intake (ADFI) were found among dietary treatments. Finisher pigs fed MD showed lover, but not significant, ADG and F/G than those fed MW, PD or EPD. For the overall period, pigs fed PD grew faster (p < 0.05) than those fed MD or EPD. Feed intake was different between the two feeding methods (MD vs MW), and between the two processed feeds (PD vs EPD). The digestibility of crude fat was higher (p < 0.05) in pigs fed EPD than in pigs fed mash feeds. NFE digestibility of EPD treatment was also higher (p < 0.05) than that of PD. Back fat (10th rib area) was thicker (p < 0.05) tn pigs fed MD than in pigs fed EPD. other carcass traits including incidence of esophagogastric ulcers were not different among treatments. In conclusion, pelleting appeared to bo the desirable processing methods and wet feeding could also be recommended for growing-finishing pigs.

Effects of Phase Feeding on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Nutrient Excretion and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Barrow and Gilt

  • Kim, Y.G.;Jin, J.;Kim, J.D.;Shin, I.S.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.802-810
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    • 2000
  • A total of 120 finishing crossbred pigs ($Landrace{\times}Large$ $White{\times}Duroc$) with equal numbers of barrows and gilts weighing 58.5 kg body weight were used in a feeding trial, and 6 pigs (three of each sex) were used in a metabolic trial to investigate the effect of phase feeding. Finishing period was divided into two phases and 4 different diets were fed for those periods. Growth performance was not significantly different among treatments within the same sex. This result showed that 16% crude protein for early finishing period and 14% crude protein diet for late finishing period should be optimum. During the early finishing period, only feed intake was significantly different between sexes (p<0.01), but in late finishing period daily weight gain (p<0.001) and feed intake (p<0.01) of barrows were significantly higher than those of gilts. During the early finishing period, digestibilities of dry matter, protein and phosphorus were significantly higher in gilts than in barrows (p<0.05). However, there was no treatment effect within same sex during the early and late finishing period. During early finishing period, excretion of N of pigs fed 16% CP diet in early and 14% CP diet in late-finishing period was less than that of pigs fed 17% CP diet in early and 15% CP diet in late-finishing period (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant. During the late finishing period, N excretion with two phase feeding was reduced by 8.5% compared with single feeding. In gilts, total cost reduction by two phase feeding compared to single feeding was 9.1%, but in barrows it was just 3.19%. Relative margin increased with two phase feeding by 2.5% in gUts and 0.2% in barrows. There was a tendency that backfat thickness at 10th rib of gilts was thinner than that of barrows (p>0.05). Within the same sexes, there was no treatment effect on back fat thickness (p>0.05). Carcass grade was improved by two phase feeding compared to single feeding. Carcass grade of gilts was significantly better than that of barrows (p<0.001). From this results, it is concluded that finishing pigs could be fed two-phase diets to improve profit and reduce pollution.

Effects of Yucca Extracts and Protein Levels on Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs

  • Min, T.S.;Kim, J.D.;Lee, J.H.;Hyun, Y.;Sohn, K.S.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.525-534
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    • 2001
  • A total of 120 pigs were used to investigate the effects of yucca extracts on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nutrient excretion and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs fed different levels of dietary protein. Pigs were allotted into $2{\times}3$ factorial design by the supplementation of yucca extracts (YE, 0 and 120 mg/kg) and 3 levels of dietary protein (14, 16, 18% for early finisher and 12, 14, 16% for late finisher for low, medium and high protein diet, respectively). During the early finishing period (51~76 kg BW), no significant difference was found in growth performance regardless of the YE supplementation or dietary protein levels. Growth performance of late finishing pigs (76~101 kg BW) was also not significantly different among treatments. However, ADG of pigs fed YE diet was significantly improved (p<0.05) regardless of the dietary protein levels. For the overall period (51~101 kg BW), although adding YE to the diet and elevating the protein level showed better ADG, there were no significant differences on growth performance among treatments. Early finishers showed significantly higher crude protein, crude ash and crude fat digestibilities when they were fed diets supplemented with YE. Digestibilities of amino acids were not affected by YE. Late finishers did not show any significant differences in proximate nutrient digestibilities regardless of YE supplementation or dietary protein levels. YE tended to slightly improve the CP digestibility, however no significant difference was found with increased dietary protein levels. There was no significant difference in amino acid digestibilities with YE supplementation or dietary CP levels during the late finishing period. Dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) excretion in feces did not show any significant difference among treatments. Early finishing pigs also did not respond to the inclusion of YE or dietary protein levels (p<0.05). Fecal N excretion of early finishing pigs seemed to be lowered in pigs fed YE. Pigs fed medium dietary protein diet tended to excrete a higher amount of N during the early finishing period, but not statistically different. A slight increase in fecal N excretion was found with the increased level of dietary protein during the late finishing period. For ammonia nitrogen excretion, although there was no significance, the NH3-N content tended to be increased by the increased dietary protein levels and with YE supplementation. The NH3-N content in manure increased by 24.5% with YE supplementation. There were no significant differences in carcass weight, backfat thickness, carcass grade and loin eye area among treatments. However, pigs fed non-YE with low protein diet showed a significantly (p<0.05) low carcass ratio among treatments and there was significant (p<0.05) difference between the YE-added treatment and non YE treatment in carcass ratio. As for the feed cost, the cost of feeding high level protein was higher than that of medium level protein by 5% and low level protein by 9% (p<0.05). Therefore, based on this study, it could be concluded that environmentally friendly agents might play a role to some extent in finishing pigs from the aspect of pollution control, and that more than 14 and 12% of dietary protein for early finishing and late finishing pigs respectively do not necessarily guarantee high growth performance.

Effects of Dietary Coptis Chinensis Herb Extract on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics and Meat Quality in Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Zhou, T.X.;Zhang, Z.F.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.108-115
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    • 2013
  • The effects of dietary Coptis chinensis herb extract (CHE) on growth performance, blood characteristics, nutrient digestibility and meat quality of growing-finishing pigs were investigated in an 18-wk feeding trial. A total of 36 Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire-Duroc pigs with an initial body weight of $20{\pm}1.0$ kg were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. A maize-soybean meal-based diet was formulated as a control diet and other treatment diets were supplemented with 0.5, or 1 g CHE/kg, respectively. After the feeding period, meat samples were collected from those pigs that had reached the market BW. During the experimental periods, growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen were unaffected (p>0.05) by the dietary supplementation of CHE. Plasma erythrocytes counts were increased (Linearly, p<0.05) in response to application of CHE at the end of the experiment. Moreover, pigs fed the CHE diets had better (p<0.05) meat color, pH and water holding capacity (WHC) than pigs fed the control diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with CHE could increase blood erythrocytes counts and improve meat quality in growing-finishing pigs but not improve growth performance.

Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-based Direct-fed Microbial Supplementation for Growing-Finishing Pigs

  • Shon, K.S.;Hong, J.W.;Kwon, O.S.;Min, B.J.;Lee, W.B.;Kim, I.H.;Park, Y.H.;Lee, I.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.370-374
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    • 2005
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of direct-fed microbial supplementation on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs. In experiment 1, forty eight pigs were used in a 42-d growth assay. There were four pigs per pen and three pens per treatment. Dietary treatments included 1) NC (without antibiotic basal diet), 2) PC (NC diet+0.1% antibiotic, 100 g/kg chlortetracycline), 3) DFM-1 (NC diet+0.2% Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus salivarius complex) and 4) DFM-2 (NC diet+0.2% Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus plantarum and Yeast complex). For the overall period, no treatment had significant effects in growth performance. In the nutrition digestibility, the pigs fed DFM diets were improved in DM and N digestibility compared with the pigs fed NC and PC diets but it was not significantly different. In experiment 2, sixty four crossbred pigs were used in a 98-d growth assay. There were four pigs per pen and four pens per treatment. Dietary treatments included 1) HND (high nutrient diet), 2) LND (low nutrient diet), 3) HND+DFM (HND diet+0.2% Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus plantarum complex) and 4) LND+DFM (LND diet+0.2% Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus plantarum complex). For overall period of growing phase, the pigs fed LND diets had improved gain/feed (p=0.01) and for overall period in the finishing phase, the pigs fed LND with DFM diets had higher ADG, ADFI and gain/feed than the others but there were no significant differences (p>0.13). In total period of growing-finishing phase, the pigs fed LND diet had higher gain/feed than the pigs fed HND diets (p<0.05). In growing phase, there were not significant differences among the treatments means for DM and N digestibility. However, the pigs fed diets with DFM had improved N digestibility (p<0.02) compared to the pigs fed diets without DFM in finishing phase. In conclusion, DFM slightly improved the growth performance in growing-finishing pigs.

Comparison of Bioavailability of Organic Selenium Sources in Finishing Pigs

  • Jang, Y.D.;Choi, H.B.;Durosoy, S.;Schlegel, P.;Choi, B.R.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.931-936
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    • 2010
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of different organic selenium (Se) products in finishing pigs. A total of 48 growing pigs, average body weight $47.6kg{\pm}0.05$, were allotted to four different treatments in a randomized complete block (RCB) design in three replicates with four pigs per pen. Three different organic Se products, Se-enriched yeast (treatments A and B) and Se-proteinate (treatment C), were used in conjunction with a basal diet with no added Se as a control treatment. In growing period, pigs were fed the same diet but finishing pigs were fed each treatment diet containing organic Se products for 6 weeks. During the experimental period, feed intake and body weight were measured and blood samples were collected to determine the Se concentration. At the end of this experiment, 3 pigs per treatment were killed and various tissues (loin, liver, kidney, pancreas and spleen) were collected to analyze the Se concentration. The body weight, and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were similar among treatments, but the average daily gain (ADG) was increased on Se-proteinate treatment (p<0.01) and gain-to-feed ratio (G/F ratio) was improved on Se yeast B or Se-proteinate treatment (p<0.01). The tissue Se content was also increased when pigs were fed organic Se sources, and Se was retained efficiently in loin (p<0.01) and kidney (p<0.05) when Se yeast B was provided. The serum Se concentration was increased when organic Se was provided and was higher when pigs were fed Se-proteinate (p<0.01); subsequently liver Se was also higher on Se-proteinate treatment than other treatments. The Se yeast A treatment did not show any increment of Se concentration both in serum and tissues. This result demonstrated that Se retention and bioavailability in finishing pigs were varied by Se products although organic sources were provided. Consequently, each organic Se product should be evaluated before it is used as a supplement in animal feed.

Increasing the Pig Market Weight: World Trends, Expected Consequences and Practical Considerations

  • Kim, Y.S.;Kim, S.W.;Weaver, M.A.;Lee, C.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.590-600
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    • 2005
  • The present report has been aimed at reviewing important factors which need to be closely analyzed or considered when increasing the market weight of finishing pigs. The pig market weight has increased worldwide during the past few decades, which is attributable primarily to an increased lean gain potential of finishing pigs. To increase the market weight, however, the acceptability of larger pigs by the packer as well as pork consumers should be met first. By increasing the market weight, total number of breeding stock, as well as the facility for them, necessary for producing a given weight of pork can be reduced, whereas more building space for finishing pigs and an additional nutrition program for the later finishing period are needed. Additionally, a more thorough disease prevention program especially against ileitis and mycoplasma pneumonia may also be needed, because outbreaks of these are known to increase with increasing body weight over 110 kg. Some larger finishing pigs may deposit excessive fat that may be reduced or prevented by using hormonal and/or nutritional agents. Backfat thickness increases linearly with increasing body weight between 110 and 130 kg, whereas intramuscular fat content does not change significantly. With increasing live weight within this range, the ratios of belly and loin to carcass weight also are known to increase. Some physicochemical characteristics related to fresh and cooked meat quality including color, firmness, juiciness, etc. are known to be unaffected or slightly changed following an increase of slaughter weight. In conclusion, ratios of primal cuts and pork quality characteristics are not significantly affected by increasing the market weight. Moreover, increasing the market weight of lean-type pigs approximately up to 130 kg is normally profitable to producers, as long as packers and consumers accept larger pigs.