• Title, Summary, Keyword: Finishing Pigs

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Growth Associated Hormones Response and Fat Metabolism Change in Finishing Pigs Fed with n-Methyl-d, L-Aspartate

  • Xi, Gang;Xu, Zirong;Xiao, Ping
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.1026-1030
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    • 2002
  • A trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary NMA on several growth associated hormones and fat metabolism in finishing pigs. A total of 84 crossbred finishing pigs (average initial BW of $56{\pm}$0.37kg) were divided into 6 pens, 14 pigs per pen (7 gilts and 7 barrows per pen). 3 pens of pigs were fed with control diet (corn-soybean meal) and the others were fed control diet addition with 50 mg/kg NMA. During the trial, all pigs were given free access to feed and water. After 44 days trial, 8 pigs from each treatment (4 gilts and 4 barrows, weight similar to average group weight, $86.94{\pm}0.71kg$ for control group, and $90.55{\pm}1.51kg$ for NMA treated group) were sacrificed to collect the sample of the liver, longissimus muscle, subcutaneous fat (10th rib). The addition of NMA in diet increased the IGF-I, Insulin, T3, T4 levels in serum by 50.68% (p<0.05), 38.36% (p<0.05), 123.33% (p<0.01), 60.58% (p<0.03), respectively. Meanwhile, IGF-I level in the liver and the muscle were increased with 17.83% (p<0.03) and 26.00% (p<0.03) with addition of NMA. The data from subcutaneous fat (10th rib) analysis showed that supplement of 50 mg/kg NMA decreased the total activities of malic dehydrogenase (MDH) by 20.54% (p<0.05), glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-DPH) by 16.97% (p<0.05), and decreased the specific activities of MDH and G-6-DPH by 37.46% (p<0.01) and 35.06% (p<0.01), respectively. The hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) total activity was increased by 25.00% (p<0.05) in NMA treated pigs. These results indicated that addition of 50 mg/kg NMA to diet can induce the endocrine great change in finishing pigs, furthermore, inhibit the fat synthesis through suppressing lipogenic enzymes and promote the fat degradation by elevating HSL activity in finishing pigs.

Dietary protease improves growth rate and protein digestibility of growing-finishing pigs

  • Lee, Jeong Jae;Choe, Jeehwan;Kang, Joowon;Cho, Jin Ho;Park, Sangwoo;Perez-Maldonado, Rider;Cho, Jee-Yeon;Park, Il-Hun;Kim, Hyeun Bum;Song, Minho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.62 no.3
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    • pp.313-320
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    • 2020
  • This research was performed to investigate the hypothesis that dietary mono-component protease (PRO) might improve growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. A total of eighty-four pigs [Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire), 25.3 ± 2.16 kg initial body weight] were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (7 replicates/treatment; 2 barrows and 2 gilts/replicate) in a randomized complete block design (block = sex). The dietary treatments were prepared as follows; (1) a positive control (PC) as a typical growing-finishing diet based on corn and soybean meal, (2) PC added with 0.015% of PRO (PCPRO), and (3) a negative control (NC) added with 0.015% of PRO (NCPRO). The NC had a lower concentration of crude protein (CP) compared with PC. The PRO was a commercial product that contained 75,000 protease units/g and derived from Nocardiopsis prasina produced in Bacillus licheniformis. Dietary treatments were offered to pigs during growing and finishing periods. Measurements were growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, and carcass characteristics. The PCPRO and/or NCPRO increased average daily gain (ADG) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) during growing (p < 0.10), finishing (p < 0.05), and growing-finishing periods (p < 0.10) compared with PC. Furthermore, pigs fed PCPRO and NCPRO had higher (p < 0.05) ATTD of CP and energy during growing and/or finishing periods than those fed PC. In conclusion, the supplementation of PRO in diets improved growth performance and protein digestibility of growing-finishing pigs.

The Ratio of Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Influences the Fat Composition and Lipogenic Enzyme Activity in Adipose Tissue of Growing Pigs

  • Song, Chang Hyun;Oh, Seung Min;Lee, SuHyup;Choi, YoHan;Kim, Jeong Dae;Jang, Aera;Kim, JinSoo
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.242-253
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    • 2020
  • Currently, there is a growing interest among consumers in selecting healthier meat with a greater proportion of essential fatty acids (FA). This experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of different ratios of dietary n-6:n-3 on growth performance, FA profile of longissimus dorsi (LD), relative gene expression of cytokines, meat quality, and blood parameters in finishing pigs. A total of 108 finishing pigs was randomly allotted to three treatments including a control (basal diet) and low ratios (4:1 and 2:1) of n-6:n-3. The 4:1 and 2:1 diets decreased the overall stearic acid in LD. There were reductions in the content of stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, total saturated acid, and n-6:n-3 ratio of LD in pigs fed 4:1 and 2:1 diet compared with the control diet. The 4:1 and 2:1 diets increased the concentration of α-Linolenic acid and polyunsaturated FA in the LD of pigs. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme gene was down-regulated in pigs fed 2:1 diet compared with finishing pigs fed the control or 4:1 diets. The relative expression of hormone-sensitive lipase was increased in pigs fed 2:1 and 4:1 ratio diets. Lower total cholesterol of plasma was observed in finishing pigs fed 2:1 and 4:1 diets. The cooking loss ratio of meat was lower in pigs fed the 2:1 and 4:1 diets compared with the control diet. Pigs fed the 4:1 and 2:1 diets had greater final body weight. In conclusion, the 2:1 and 4:1 diets have the potential to increase the meat quality and growth performance of pigs.

Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, meat quality, and backfat in finishing pigs

  • Zhang, Jian Ying;Hu, Jing;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.105-113
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    • 2018
  • This experiment was conducted to estimate the influence of ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, meat quality, and backfat in finishing pigs. A total of 100 mixed finisher pigs [(Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire) ${\times}$ Duroc] were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments for 10 weeks, the average initial body weight was $52.03{\pm}1.08kg$. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementation of GABA to 0.05% of the basal diet (GAB) and a CON (basal diet) without supplementation. Each treatment had 10 replicates with 5 pigs per pen (three gilts and two barrows). Measurements were made at three time period: weeks 1 - 5, weeks 5 - 10 and overall experimental period. Compared to CON, the pigs fed GABA had average daily gain (ADG) increases among phases (p < 0.05). Average Daily Feed Intake ADFI increased during the overall experimental period (p < 0.05). The digestibility of Dry Matter (DM) increased. The concentration of epinephrine decreased at 5th and 10th weeks (p < 0.05), meanwhile, cortisol decreased at 10th week (p < 0.05) in GAB treatment. Otherwise, the pigs' GABA supplementation had no effect on meat quality and backfat thickness (p > 0.05). We conclude that a dietary supplementation of GABA at 0.05% improves growth performance and the digestibility of dry matter, while reducing the stress response of finishing pigs.

Effects of Cellulase Enzymes and Bacterial Feed Additives on the Nutritional Value of Sorghum Grain for Finishing Pigs

  • Kim, I.H.;Hancock, J.D.;Hines, R.H.;Kim, C.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.538-544
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    • 1998
  • One hundred and twenty-eight finishing pigs (51.3 kg average initial body weight) were used to determine the effects of adding cellulase enzymes and lactobacillus acidophilus to sorghum-based diets on growth performance, carcass merit, and nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs. Treatments were: 1) corn-soybean meal-based positive control; 2) sorghum-soybean meal-based negative control; 3) Diet 2 with celluloytic enzymes; and 4) Diet 2 with a bacterial feed additive (lactobacillus acidophilus). There was a trend for greater average daily gain (ADG) in pigs fed com versus the sorghum treatments for day 0 to 28 (p < .09), but there was no effect of treatment (p > .15) on overall ADG (i.e., day 0 to 63). Feed consumption was not affected by treatment during the experiment (p > .19). Pigs fed the corn-soybean meal-based diet had 3.5% greater overall gain/feed than pigs fed the other diets (p < .009). Dressing percentage was not affected by treatment (p > .22), but there was a trend for backfat thickness at the last rib to be greater for pigs fed com versus the sorghum treatments (p < .09). Pigs fed the sorghum treatments had 1 % greater fat free lean index (p < .10) compared to pigs fed the corn-soybean meal-based positive control. Pigs fed com had greater apparent digestibilities of DM, N, and GE than pigs fed the sorghum treatments (p < .03), and greater DE intake (p < .07) suggesting that the increased carcass fatness for pigs fed the corn-based control diet resulted from greater energy status of those pigs. In conclusion, pigs fed the corn-soybean meal-based control diet had no improved growth performance but tended to be fatter than pigs fed sorghum. Adding cellulolytic enzymes or a bacterial feed additive to diets for finishing pigs did not affect growth performance, carcass merit, or nutrient utilization.

Effects of Season and Split-sex Feeding on Performance, Stress and Carcass Quality of Finishing Pigs (계절과 성분리 사육이 비육돈의 생산성, 스트레스 및 도체품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Doo-Hwan;Song, Jun-Ik;Jeon, Jung-Hwan
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 2011
  • This study was designed to determine the effect of season and split-sex feeding on performance, stress and carcass quality of finishing pigs. Two hundred and seventy cross-bred finishing pigs $(82.1{\pm}0.82kg)$ were randomly divided into six groups in 2 seasons (summer and winter) ${\times}$ 3 split-sex feeding (female only, castrated male and mixed) factorial arrangement of treatments. In winter, feed intake and weight gain of finishing pigs were better than summer (p<0.05). Split-sex feeding was affected the feed conversion, feed conversion of finishing pigs were superior in winter and mixed groups. Plasma concentrations of cortisol as a stress indicators was greater in the mixed groups vs female only and castrated male groups. There were no interactions between the season and split-sex feeding in their effects on these blood variables. The season was affected the carcass characteristics and PSE incidence of the finishing pigs, PSE incidence was low in winter and mixed groups. Meat quality did not show any significant difference due to the difference of season and split-sex feeding of finishing pigs. There was no significant difference in the pH, drip loss and meat color of pork loin between the season and split-sex feeding of finishing pigs. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that we need more precise on-farm management practice in summer and application of split-sex feeding skills to reduce the stress and improve welfare status of finishing pigs.

Effects of Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance for Weanling, Growing and Finishing Pigs

  • Li, D.F.;Guan, W.T.;Yu, H.M.;Kim, J.H.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 1998
  • Four feeding trials with 260 pigs were conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing the diet with different amino acids on growth performance and blood metabolites for weanling, growing and finishing pigs. One hundred twenty weanling pigs (Exp. 1, BW 8 kg), eighty growing pigs (Exp. 2. BW 20 kg), thirty growing pigs (Exp. 3, BW 29 kg) and thirty finishing pigs (Exp. 4, BW 50 kg) were randomly allotted to different dietary treatments according to sex and body weight. Pigs weight and feed consumption were measured at initiation and termination of each trial with 4 weeks. At the end of trial, blood samples from three pigs selected in each pen (Exp. 1) and each pig (Exp. 2) were obtained to determine the level of blood urea nitrogen, glucose, insulin and cortisol in the serum. In Exp. 1, pigs fed diet supplemented both with lysine and methionine had the best feed conversion ratio (p < 0.05), but no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in ADG and ADFI. Pigs receiving control diet obtained the obtained the optimal ADG (p < 0.05), ADFI (p < 0.05) and F/G for the whole period. No differences were detected in serum glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations. In Exp. 2, pigs receiving the control diet exhibited the lowest serum urea nitrogen (p < 0.05), ADG, F/G and serum insulin concentration increased linearly (p < 0.05) with the inclusion of lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan in diets. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were detected for glucose and cortisol content in pigs serum among dietary treatments. In Exp. 3 and 4, pigs growth rate increased linearly (p < 0.01), and feed conversion efficiency was also improves by addition of lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan. In conclusion, pigs fed diets supplemented with lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan together obtained optimal growth performance in growing and finishing periods.

Growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing-finishing pigs under different energy concentrations

  • Park, Sangwoo;Kang, Joowon;Lee, Jeong Jae;Kyoung, Hyunjin;Kim, Seong-Ki;Choe, Jeehwan;Song, Minho;Lee, Soo Kee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.275-282
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    • 2020
  • Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of the difference in energy concentration in diets on performance and nutrient digestibility of growing-finishing pigs. The experimental diets were as follows: 1) a normal energy level corn-soybean meal-based diet (CON) and 2) high-energy diet compared with the CON (HE). Pigs had free access to their feed and water ad labium for 6 weeks during each experimental period. In experiment 1, 60 growing pigs (initial body weight [BW] of 23.85 kg) were randomly allotted to 2 treatment groups with 5 replications (6 pigs·pen-1). In experiment 2, 48 finishing pigs (initial BW = 65.13 kg) were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups with 6 replications (4 pigs·pen-1). The growth performance was measured at the beginning and end of each period. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) was determined by chromium oxide as an indigestible marker during the last 7 days of each experiment. In experiment 1, the dietary treatments did not affect the growth performance and ATTD of energy and nutrients. In experiment 2, no differences in growth performance were observed for pigs fed CON and HE throughout the experimental period. Additionally, dietary treatments did not affect the ATTD. In conclusion, the high energy content in diets for the growing-finishing period had no effect on the growth performance or digestibility, indicating that a wide range of energy content changes in diets would be required to affect the performance and digestibility of grower-finisher pigs. It is also necessary to understand the characteristics of components used to adjust the dietary energy concentration.

Influence of Rapeseed Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Profiles, Nutrient Digestibility and Economic Benefit of Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Choi, H.B.;Jeong, J.H.;Kim, D.H.;Lee, Y.;Kwon, H.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.1345-1353
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility and economic benefit of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs ($[Yorkshire{\times}Landrace]{\times}Duroc$) with an initial body weight (BW) $29.94{\pm}0.06kg$ were used in this experiment. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design and 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were divided by dietary RSM supplementation levels (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, or 12%) in growing-finishing diets. A linear decrease (p<0.05) of BW and average daily gain (ADG) were observed at 13th wk of finishing and overall periods of pigs. Additionally, gain-to-feed ratio (G/F) tended to decrease by dietary RSM supplementation in growing-finishing diets (linear, p = 0.07 and quadratic, p = 0.08). Concentrations of serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not influenced by dietary RSM treatments whereas thyroid gland and liver weight were increased at 13th wk of finishing period (linear, p<0.05; p<0.01) by increasing dietary RSM supplementation level. In blood profiles, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not differed by dietary treatments at 13th wk of finishing period whereas concentration of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was affected by the supplementation level of RSM, resulting in a linear RSM level responses (p<0.05). Serum blood urea nitrogen concentration tended to decrease (linear, p = 0.07; p = 0.08) at 6th wk of growing and 13th wk of finishing periods and digestibility of dry matter tended to decrease by dietary RSM (linear, p = 0.09). Crude protein, crude fat and nitrogen retention, whereas, were not affected by dietary RSM supplementation level. In the economic analysis, feed cost per weight gain was numerically decreased when RSM was provided up to 9%. Consequently, RSM could be supplemented to growing-finishing diets up to 9% ($3.07{\mu}mol/g\;Gls$) without detrimental effects on growth performance of growing-finishing pigs.

Effects of protease supplementation on growth performance, blood constituents, and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs

  • Min, Yejin;Choi, Yohan;Kim, Younghwa;Jeong, Yongdae;Kim, Doowan;Kim, Joeun;Jung, Hyunjung;Song, Minho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.234-238
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    • 2019
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protease on growth performance, blood constituents, and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 48 growing pigs (initial body weight, $34.8{\pm}0.62kg$) were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments (6 pigs/pen; 4 replicates/treatment). The treatments were a diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON supplemented with 0.01 % of protease (PRO). Pigs were fed respective dietary treatments with a 2-phase feeding program for 12 weeks. Pigs fed PRO had higher average daily gain (ADG; phase I, 866.38 vs. 821.75 g/d; overall, 910.96 vs. 866.30 g/d; p < 0.05) and gain to feed ratio (G:F; phase I, 0.345 vs. 0.363 g/g; p < 0.05) than those fed CON. However, there were no differences on blood constituents and carcass characteristics between CON and PRO of growing-finishing pigs. In conclusion, dietary protease supplementation in the typical diet for growing-finishing pigs improved growth rate.