• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fingernail

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Fingernail Configuration

  • Jung, Jin Woo;Kim, Kwang Seog;Shin, Jun Ho;Kwon, Yu Jin;Hwang, Jae Ha;Lee, Sam Yong
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.753-760
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    • 2015
  • Background A number of conditions can alter a person's fingernail configuration. The ratio between fingernail width and length (W/L) is an important aesthetic criterion, and some underlying diseases can alter the size of the fingernail. Fingernail curvature can be altered by systemic disorders or disorders of the fingernail itself. Although the shape and curvature of the fingernail can provide diagnostic clues for various diseases, few studies have precisely characterized normal fingernail configuration. Methods We measured the W/L ratio of the fingernail, transverse fingernail curvature, hand length, hand breadth, and distal interphalangeal joint width in 300 volunteers with healthy fingernails. We also investigated whether age, sex, height, and handedness influenced the fingernail W/L ratio and transverse fingernail curvature. Results In women, fingernail W/L ratios were similar across all five fingers, and were lower than those in men. The highest value of transverse fingernail curvature was found in the thumb, followed by the index, middle, ring, and little fingers. Handedness and aging influenced transverse fingernail curvature, but not the fingernail W/L ratio. Fingernails were flatter on the dominant hand than on the non-dominant hand. The radius of transverse fingernail curvature increased with age, indicating that fingernails tended to flatten with age. Conclusions Our quantitative data on fingernail configuration can be used as a reference range for diagnosing various diseases and deformities of the fingernail, and for performing reconstructive or aesthetic fingernail surgery.

PRELIMINARY STUDY OF WATER CONTENTS AND SIGNAL BEHAVIOR IN FINGERNAIL/EPR DOSIMETRY

  • Choi, Hoon;Choi, Sul A;Lee, Byungil
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.185-188
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    • 2013
  • Heating method using electric heater was used to reduce water content in fingernail clippings. Authors found that low water content is helpful to measure EPR signal of fingernail sample with enhanced variability. Generally, natural dehydration happens in normal room condition at least one month and needs much time for using in experiment. So, artificial heating method is applied in this study for time savings. Fingernail samples were tested to find effect of water content to the EPR signal on microwave power levels for dosimetry. Low water content in fingernail reduced variability of EPR signal and makes it possible to measure accurate EPR signal. It also made it possible to measure constant movement of EPR signals on several microwave power levels. Although this method was difficult to apply directly in fingernail/EPR dosimetry, we, authors, believe that this heating method would be useful to differentiate MIS2 and RIS which are generally located at the same g-factor and almost impossible to be identified with each other.

Fingernail for the Physiological Indicator of Fluoride Exposure in Korean Children

  • Kho, Young-Lim;Hwang, Jung-Hee;Kim, Sung-Yeon;Ma, Deuk-Sang;Jung, Se-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Health Society Conference
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    • pp.213-216
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    • 2004
  • This work was based on the hypotheses that fingernail clippings can be used as a biomarker for the subchronic exposure to fluoride. This study was conducted to prove the hypotheses and fingernail clippings were collected form 120 preschool children aged $3{\sim}6$ residing in Jumunjin(community water fluoridation area) and Kangnung(non-fluoridation area). The acid-diffusible fluoride in the fingernail clipping was isolated by the acid-diffusion technique and measured with a fluoride electrode. The mean fingernail fluoride as the children's living area were 4.49ug/g(SD 2.43) to Jumunjin and 2.68ug/g(SD 1.13) to Kangnung. As would be expected, the fluoride concentration in fingernail clippings were significantly different between the two geographical groups(p<0.001) determined by t-test.

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Classification of Adult Women's Fingernail Type (성인 여성의 손톱 유형 분류)

  • Kim, Ha Eun;Kim, Nam Soon;Do, Wol Hee
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.504-514
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    • 2020
  • This study improves the dimensional suitability of nail tip products by reviewing the type of fingernail as seen among adult women in Korea. Subjects were 147 adult women ranging from age 20 to 40. Direct fingernails measurements were made using digital Vernier calipers and a curvature gauge. Data on various fingernail shapes were collected through indirect measurements using photography to reveal the shape characteristics of each fingernail types. In this sense, data were analyzed by statistical methods with the use of factor analysis. There were various factors considered to classify extracted fingernail types such as five factors (for the thumb), four factors (index, middle, and little fingers), and three factors (for the ring finger). The cluster analysis resulted in three types. Type 1 is a 'Square' shape characterized with wide fingernails, low height, flat, and low curvature of the cuticle line. Type 2 is 'U-round' shape characterized with narrow fingernails, high height, convex, and the highest curvature of the cuticle line. Type 3 is a 'Round' shape in which the fingernails are wide, high in height, convex, and characterized with a medium curvature of the cuticle line. The results are useful for companies that develop the free edge shape of fingernails for consumer products. The measured values of fingernail can be applied to the shape and lake setting of the nail tip product, depending on type of fingernail.

Retrospective dosimetry using fingernail electron paramagnetic resonance response

  • Noori, Abbas;Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba;Ziaie, Farhood
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.526-530
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    • 2018
  • Human fingernails were used to estimate the radiation dose via electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of radiation-induced radicals. The limiting factors in this research were mechanically induced electron paramagnetic resonance signals due to the mechanical stress during the preparation of the samples. Therefore, different treatment methods of fingernails were used to reduce the mechanically induced signals. The results demonstrate that the mechanically induced and radiation-induced signals have apparently different microwave power saturation behaviors. In addition, the mechanically induced signal shows a fading evolution over time and reaches a constant value. Chemical treatment using the different reagents showed that the minimum mechanically induced signal was obtained using the dithiothreitol reagent. The dose-response curves of the samples treated with dithiothreitol for 30 minutes demonstrated a greater linearity than those of samples treated for 5 minutes. Therefore, to find an unknown absorbed dose in a fingernail sample using a calibration curve, we recommend adopting the mentioned chemical treatment procedure to reduce the uncertainty.

Lack of Association between Fingernail Selenium and Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in French Polynesia

  • Ren, Yan;Kitahara, Cari Meinhold;de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington;Clero, Enora;Brindel, Pauline;Maillard, Stephane;Cote, Suzanne;Dewailly, Eric;Rachedi, Frederique;Boissin, Jean-Louis;Sebbag, Joseph;Shan, Larrys;Bost-Bezeaud, Frederique;Petitdidier, Patrick;Xhaard, Constance;Rubino, Carole;de Vathaire, Florent
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5187-5194
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    • 2014
  • Background: Numerous studies have suggested that selenium deficiency may be associated with an increased risk for several types of cancer, but few have focused on thyroid cancer. Materials and Methods: We examined the association between post-diagnostic fingernail selenium levels and differentiated thyroid cancer risk in a French Polynesian matched case-control study. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: The median selenium concentration among controls was $0.76{\mu}g/g$. Significantly, we found no association between fingernail selenium levels and thyroid cancer risk after conditioning on year of birth and sex and additionally adjusting for date of birth (highest versus lowest quartile: odds-ratio=1.12, 95% confidence interval: 0.66-1.90; p-trend=0.30). After additional adjustment for other covariates, this association remained non-significant (p-trend=0.60). When restricting the analysis to thyroid cancer of 10 mm or more, selenium in nails was non-significantly positively linked to thyroid cancer risk (p-trend=0.09). Although no significant interaction was evidenced between iodine in nails and selenium in nails effect (p=0.70), a non-significant (p-trend =0.10) positive association between selenium and thyroid cancer risk was seen in patients with less than 3 ppm of iodine in nails. The highest fingernail selenium concentration in French Polynesia was in the Marquises Islands ($M=0.87{\mu}g/g$) and in the Tuamotu-Gambier Archipelago ($M=0.86{\mu}g/g$). Conclusions: Our results do not support, among individuals with sufficient levels of selenium, that greater long-term exposure to selenium may reduce thyroid cancer risk. Because these findings are based on post-diagnostic measures, studies with prediagnostic selenium are needed for corroboration.

Restoration of the Injured Fingertip with Eponychial Cutaneous Flap (손톱위 피부피판을 이용한 손톱형태 복원의 치험례)

  • Kim, Ho Kil;Kim, Cheol Hann;Kang, Sang Gyu;Jung, Sung Gyun;Kim, Yong Bae
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.763-766
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    • 2005
  • The restoration of the fingernail is not simple in case of amputated distal fingertip which involved the pulp and nail. The nail should maintain a length of at least 2 mm from the eponychium for an adequate grip and decent appearance. Various methods to reconstruct the fingernail bed are available. The nail bed graft from amputated finger or great toe, and free onychocutaneous flap are commonly used. The nail bed of the injured tip tends to be atrophied, deformed and failed as a graft. And the great toe is often turned down as a donor. We have restored satisfactorily the nail beds of three injured finger tips with eponychial cutaneous flaps. The pulps were reconstructed with either a reverse dorsal digital island flap or free pulp graft. Repeated again. A mean follow- up was six months. The nail grew up to the average of 3.7 mm. All patients were satisfied with the length of the nail and met with good cosmetic results. An eponychial cutaneous flap is useful to restore the nail of the distal fingertip amputation. The procedure is relatively simple and morbidity is minimum.

Noninvasive Hematocrit Monitoring Based on Parameter-optimization of a LED Finger Probe

  • Yoon, Gil-Won;Jeon, Kye-Jin
    • Journal of the Optical Society of Korea
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.107-110
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    • 2005
  • An optical method of measuring hematocrit noninvasively is presented. An LED Light with multiple wavelengths was irradiated on fingernail and transmitted light from the finger was measured to predict hematocrit. A finger probe contained an LED array and detector. Our previous experience showed that prediction accuracy was sensitive to reliability of the finger probe hardware and we optimized the finger probe parameters such as the internal color, detector area and the emission area of a light source based on Design of Experiment. Using the optimized finger probe, we developed a hematocrit monitoring system and tested with 549 persons. For the calibration model with 368 persons, a regression coefficient of 0.74 and a standard deviation of 3.67 and the mean percent error of $8\%$ were obtained. Hematocrits for 181 persons were predicted. We achieved a mean percent error of $8.2\%$ where the regression coefficient was 0.68 and the standard deviation was 3.69.

Usefulness of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Preoperative Assessment of Nail Deformities

  • Cha, Han Gyu;Park, Eun Soo;Nam, Seung Min
    • Archives of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.138-140
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    • 2018
  • Secondary nail deformities are often seen at some time after fingertip and nail bed injuries. A proper evaluation of the fingernail enables appropriate diagnosis and treatment, especially in patients who need surgical management. To date, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are the only diagnostic tools that most surgeons use in cases of nail deformities. Herein, we report the case of a patient with a nail deformity who underwent successful correction based on the preoperative use of real-time optical coherence tomography.