• Title, Summary, Keyword: Field burning

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Assessment of Greenhouse gases Emission of Agronomic Sector between 1996 and 2006 IPCC Guidelines (1996년과 2006년 IPCC 가이드라인별 경종부문 온실가스 배출량 평가)

  • Jeong, Hyun-Cheol;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Lee, Deog-Bae;Shim, Kyo-Moon;Kang, Kee-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.1214-1219
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to compare of greenhouse gas emissions between 1996 and 2006 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) guidelines change. Greenhouse gas emissions were calculated separately by rice cultivation, agricultural soils and field burning of agricultural residues from 2000 to 2008 according to 1996 and 2006 IPCC guidelines. To calculate greenhouse gas emissions, emission factor and activity data were used IPCC default value and the food, agricultural, forestry and fisheries statistical yearbook of MIFAFF (Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries). The greenhouse emissions by 1996 IPCC guidelines were highest in rice cultivation as 4,008 $CO_2$-eq Gg of 2000 and 3,558 $CO_2$-eq Gg of 2008. The emissions by N-fixing crops, crop residues returned soils and field burning did not much affect the total emissions. $CO_2$ emissions by urea and lime were calculated by adding in 2006 IPCC guidelines and its emissions were 157 and 82 $CO_2$-eq Gg in 2008 respectively. The emissions by N-fixing crops, crop residues returned to soils and field burning, in common with 1996 IPCC guidelines, did not have a significant impact on total emissions. The total emissions in agronomic sector was decreased continuously from 2000 to 2008 and annual emissions by 2006 IPCC guidelines were approximately 26-29% less than the 1996 IPCC guidelines.

A Field Survey on the Characteristics of Air Pollutants Emission from Commercial Charcoal Kiln (숯가마에서 발생하는 대기오염물질의 배출특성에 관한 현장조사 연구)

  • Park, Seong-Kyu;Choi, Sang-Jin;Kim, Jin-Yun;Park, Gun-Jin;Hwang, Ui-Hyun;Lee, Jeong-Joo;Kim, Tae-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.601-614
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    • 2013
  • The commercial charcoal kiln was projected the largest source of biomass burning sector in Korea. Commercial charcoal kiln was operated to emit air pollutants into the air without any air pollution prevention equipment. The object of this field survey was to understand characteristics of air pollutants concentration and emission factors and to provide preliminary data for effective processor from oak charcoal manufacturing process. As result of field survey, TSP, $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ concentration from charcoal kiln were 400~37,000 $mg/m^3$. These values were over the 100 $mg/m^3$ in TSP, this value was effluent quality standard of Clean Air Conservation Act. The average concentration of CO, $SO_2$ and TVOC were 2~5%. 0~110 ppm and 820~10,000 ppm respectively. The emission factors were 42.4 g-PM/kg-oak in TSP, 40.3 g-PM/kg-oak in $PM_{10}$, 38.2 g-PM/kg-oak in $PM_{2.5}$, 182.5 g-CO/kg-oak, 1.0 g-NO/kg-oak, $SO_2$ 0.2 g-$SO_2/kg$-oak and 104.4 g-TVOC/kg-oak. The part of commercial charcoal kiln had air pollution prevention equipment but it was difficult to work properly. Much wood tar excreted in exhaust emissions from oak charcoal manufacturing process. This wood tar was cause of many troubles sticking in the air pollutant prevention equipment. For handling particulate matters and gaseous air pollutants from oak charcoal manufacturing process in biomass burning, air pollutant prevention equipment design and management needs preprocessor for removal wood tar.

The Carrier Diffusion Modeling of CSP-DH Semiconductor Laser Structures (CSP-DH 구조 반도체 레이저의 캐리어 확산 방정식을 위한 모델링)

  • Lee, S.T.;Jeon, H.S.;Lee, C.Y.;Um, K.Y.;Yoon, J.W.;Yoon, S.B.;Oh, H.S.
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.469-471
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    • 1988
  • The basic modeling is analyzed on the optoelectronic properties of CSP-DH laser structure using self-consistent calculation of optical field and the electron-hole distribution in the active region. Laser properties is modelled include gain profile, threshold, near field and far field pattern. This new characterization is allowed for consideration such as carrier spatial hole burning due to strong optical fields which stimulate recombination.

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Characteristics of Resistant Lines to High-Temperature Injury in Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer)

  • Lee, Joon-Soo;Lee, Jang-Ho;Ahn, In-Ok
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.274-281
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    • 2010
  • This experiment was conducted to examine ginseng lines resistant and susceptible to high-temperature injury and to investigate characteristics of the selected lines: leaf burning phenomenon, chlorophyll content, quantum yield, and maximum light interception rate. The leaf burning phenomenon incidence rates of the resistant lines Yunpoong, high-temperature injury resistance (HTIR)1, HTIR2, and HTIR3 were low: 5.8%, 3.6%, 4.0%, and 1.9%, respectively. Resistance of the susceptible lines Chunpoong, high-temperature injury susceptible (HTIS)1, and HTIS2 was high: 58.5%, 23.2%, and 21.7%, respectively. The chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of the resistant lines Yunpoong, HTIR1, HTIR2, and HTIR3, which were exposed to high temperatures and intense light, remained as high at 24.8, 27.9, 24.9, and 30.6, respectively, but that of the susceptible lines Chunpoong, HTIS1, and HTIS2 was low at 21.0, 21.1, and 20.1, respectively. During the summer season, the quantum yield of the resistant lines (Yunpoong, HTIR1, HTIR2, and HTIR3) changed little, but that of the susceptible lines (Chunpoong, HTIS1, and HTIS2) changed dramatically. The maximum light interception rate (Fm/Fv value) for the resistant lines (Yunpoong, HTIR1, HTIR2, and HTIR3) was as high as 0.848, 0.794, 0.805, and 0.813, respectively, while that of the susceptible lines (Chunpoong, HTIS1, and HTIS2) was 0.678, 0.642, and 0.717, respectively. Based on these results, the high-temperature injury-resistant lines seemed to be less susceptible to high light, even at high temperatures. Future studies on red ginseng quality and its active ingredients in resistant ginseng lines and field experimentation will be conducted to verify the potential of the resistant lines.

Reactive Fields Analysis of Hybrid Combustor Under Different Arrangements of Oxidizer Injectors (하이브리드 연소기의 산화제 주입기 배열 특성에 따른 반응유동장 해석)

  • Cho Sung-Chan;Kim Soo-Jong;Lee Seung-Chul;Kim Jin-Kon;Koo Ja-Yae;Moon Hee-Jang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.78-88
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    • 2005
  • The combustion characteristics of End-Burning hybrid combustor using different types of injector system are numerically investigated to visualize the temperature fields in the combustion chamber The basic characteristics of combustion with different O/F ratio is also analyzed in order to capture the main behavior of diffusion flame inside the swirl induced hybrid combustion chamber It was found that the arrangement of oxidizer injectors give strong effect on the temperature field dominating mixing between fuel and oxidizer. The results show that among five different oxidizer injectors arrangement, the counter flow injector has the highest mixing efficiency. However, the observed high wall temperature presence near the oxidizer injectors remains to be solved.

An Analysis of the Fire Load and Ventilation Factor in Underground Commercial Space (지하상업공간의 환기계수 및 화재하중 분석)

  • Choo Yeun-Hee;Lee Ji-Hee;Hong Won-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.135-142
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to obtain the fire safety for underground commercial space with analysing fire loads and ventilation factors. It was adopted the investigation method of field survey with commercial uses for more confidential data. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; 1) The ventilation factor shows $0.04{\sim}0.24m^{1/2}$ and it may develop ventilation-controlled fires which have much fire hazard more than fuel-controlled fires. 2) The highest value of fire load is $158.48kg/m^2$ and appeared in footwear shop which has the value $137.35kg/m^2$ for unfixed combustibles and $21.13kg/m^2$ for fixed combustibles. 3) The average value of burning rates which mean the velocity of fire development and the fire damage range is 0.143. Therefore it is desired to decrease the combustibles of compartment and is needed the method of dispersion arrangement of goods and storage to steel cabinet and so on.

Single Crystal 133Cs NMR Study of Cs+(15-Crown-5)2I-

  • Lee, Kang-Yeol;Kim, Tae-Ho;Shin, Yong-Woon;Kim, Jin-Eun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.529-532
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    • 2004
  • Cesium-133 NMR spectra of a single crystal of tetragonal $Cs^+ (15-crown-5)_2I^-$ were obtained as a function of crystal orientation in an applied magnetic field of 9.40T and analyzed to provide the magnitudes and orientations of the $^{133}Cs$ chemical shift and quadrupolar tensors for two magnetically nonequivalent and symmetry related sites. Chemical shift tensor components and parameters of quadrupolar interactions are obtained as ${\delta}_{11}=46(1),\;{\delta}_{22}=60(1),\;{\delta}_{33}=-30(1)$ ppm, quadrupole coupling constant QCC = 581(1) kHz, and asymmetry parameter ${\eta}$ = 0.481(1), respectively. The nonaxially symmetric NMR parameters imply that the local environment of the cesium nuclei is nonaxially symmetric. The DANTE experiment burned holes in the $^{133}Cs$ NMR line of the title compound. The hole burning of the single crystal and powder $^{133}Cs$ NMR lines showed that the NMR lines are not homogeneously broadened.

Estimation of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agricultural Sector from 1990 to 2013 - Focusing on the Crop Cultivation - (1990년부터 2013년까지 농업 분야 국가 온실가스 배출량 평가 - 경종부문 중심으로 -)

  • Choi, Eun Jung;Jeong, Hyun Cheol;Kim, Gun Yeob;Lee, Sun-il;Lee, Jong Sik
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.443-450
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    • 2016
  • The major greenhouse gases (GHGs) in agricultural sector are methane ($CH_4$), nitrous oxide ($N_2O$), carbon dioxide ($CO_2$). GHGs emissions are estimated by pertinent source category in a guideline book from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) such as methane from rice paddy, nitrous oxide from agricultural soil and crop residue burning. The methods for estimation GHGs emissions in agricultural sector are based on 1996 and 2006 IPCC guideline, 2000 and 2003 Good Practice Guidance. In general, GHG emissions were calculated by multiplying the activity data by emission factor. The total GHGs emission is $10,863Gg\;CO_2-eq$. from crop cultivation in agricultural sector in 2013. The emission is divided by the ratio of greenhouse gases that methane and nitrous oxide are 64% and 34%, respectively. Each gas emission according to the source categories is $7,000Gg\;CO_2-eq$. from rice paddy field, $3,897Gg\;CO_2-eq$. from agricultural soil, and $21Gg\;CO_2-eq$. from field burning, respectively. The GHGs emission in agricultural sector had been gradually decreased from 1990 to 2013 because of the reduction of cultivation. In order to compare with indirect emissions from agricultural soil, each emission was calculated using IPCC default factors (D) and country specific emission factors (CS). Nitrous oxide emission by CS applied in indirect emission, as nitrogen leaching and run off, was lower about 50% than that by D.

한국산의 죽류에 관한 연구(제육보) 산죽류의 번식에 관하여

  • 정현배
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.9-13
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    • 1964
  • As to the up-lnd bamboos, I have reported, in my previous works, that Korea has two species in the genus of Pseudosasa, four in Pleioblastus, and other four in Sasa. In the present work, I dealt with Sasamorpha Purpurascens Nakai var. Borealis Nakai which proved the strongest vitality of all up-land bamboo yet found in various up-lands of Korea, and which might be most important from the utility view-point. This report is chiefly on its procreation. Sasamorpha Purpurascens Nakai var. Borealis Nakai can be found almost everywhere throughout the country, and its leaves and stems are much used in farms in various forms of manufacture. It is also welcomed as the feed for livestocks and as cover plants for aforestation, especially as the excellent means of errosion control on devastated hill sides. It is also widely accepted that it will provide, in the immediate future, abundant sources for the up-land bamboo pulp. As the first phase of my research plan on the subject, I undertook to determine the possible best way of its procreation, for which were included the experiments of inducing the growth of subterranean stems, the entire stand cutting, transplanting, reclaimed planting after burning etc. in order to observe the plant elongation, growing conditon, climatical effect etc. What has been fuond out so far given here as follows: 1) Of the various sections of the country, Mt. Odae area gives out the most excellent Sasamorpha Purpurascens Nakai var. Borealis Nakai(the leaf weight of which is 450 gr.) and Taekwanryong area comes the next class. This species can be transplanted anywhere in the South Korea. 2) The elongation of S.P. Nakai var. Borelais begins at around the middle of May and almost completely stops by the 20th of August. 3) The best studied transplanting season is supposed to be Feb. -April, for those transplanted during that period proved 100% of success. The next best transplanting season may be October. Rain fall does not have so much effect on transplanting as the growing season does. 4) In inducing the subterranean stems, the growing season can be ignored. The root expnsion is most animated during the months of April-June, the most active season for water absorption. Those stems induced during the winter proves more rapid growth. 5) The entire stand cutting shows greater growth than the reclaimed planting after burning and that, the growth is most vigorous during May-July, whereas during the hottest months of Aug-Sept. the growth shows only 5 cm. The new shoots grow slower both in the field of entire stand cutting and in the field of reclaimed planting after burning than in the otherwise fields.

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Numerical Simulation of Two-Phase Flow field and Performance Prediction for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle

  • Wahab, Shafqat;Kan, Xie;Yu, Liu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • pp.275-282
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    • 2008
  • This paper presents numerical investigation of multi-phase flow in solid rocket motor nozzle and effect of multi-phases on the performance prediction of the Solid Rocket Motor. Aluminized propellants are frequently used in solid rocket motors to increase specific impulse. An Eulerian-Lagrangian description has been used to analyze the motion of the micrometer sized and discrete phase that consist of the larger particulates present in the Solid Rocket Motor. Uniform particles diameters and Rosin-Rammler diameter distribution method has been used for the simulation of different burning of aluminum droplets generating aluminum oxide smokes. Roe-FDS scheme has been used to simulate the effects of the multi-phase flow. The results obtained show the sensitivity of this distribution to the nozzle flow dynamics, primarily at the nozzle inlet and exit. The analysis also provides effect of two phases on performance prediction of Solid Rocket Motor.

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