• Title, Summary, Keyword: Field burning

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A Study on Estimation of Air Pollutants Emission from Wood Stove and Boiler, Wood-pellet Stove and Boiler (화목난로∙보일러와 펠릿난로∙보일러 사용에 의한 대기오염물질 배출량 산정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Young;Han, Yong-Hee;Choi, Min-Ae;Park, Sung-Kyu;Jang, Young-Kee
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.251-260
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    • 2014
  • Biomass burning is one of the significant emission source of PM and CO, but a few studies are reported in Korea. Air pollutants emission from biomass burning such as wood stove and boiler, and wood-pellet stove and boiler were estimated in this study. Activity levels related to biomass burning such as fuel types, amount of fuel loading, and location and temporal variation were investigated by field survey over Korea. Fuel loadings were 14.9 kg/day for wood stove, 31.3 kg/day for wood boiler, 12.8 kg/day for wood-pellet stove, 32.5 kg/day for wood-pellet boiler during the season of active use. These were mostly burned in winter season from october to april of next year. Estimated annual emissions from wood stove & boiler were CO 76,677, $NO_x$ 710, $SO_x$ 70, VOC 20,941, TSP 6,605, PM10 2,921, PM2.5 1,851, and NH3 7 ton/yr, respectively. Emissions from wood-pellet stove and boiler were CO 32,798, $NO_x$ 1,830, $SO_x$ 25, VOCs 5,673, TSP 629, PM10 457, PM2.5 344, and $NH_3$ 2 ton/yr, respectively. When the emission estimates are compared with total emissions of the national emission inventory (CAPSS: Clean Air Policy Support System), Those occupy 12.5%, 2.8% of total national emission for CO and PM10, respectively. These results show wood and wood-pellet burning appliances were one of the major source of air pollution in Korea. In future, these types of heaters need to be regulated to reduce air pollution, especially in suburb area.

Effects of Barley Straw Management Practices on Greenhouse Gases(GHGs) Emission During Rice Cultivation in Rice-barley Double Cropping System (벼보리 이모작 재배에서 보리짚 처리 방법이 벼재배시 온실가스 배출에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Jee-Yeon;Lee, Jae-Saeng;Jung, Ki-yul;Choi, Young-Dae;Ramos, Edwin P;Yun, Eul-Soo;Kang, Hwang-Won;Park, Seong-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2008
  • Because main barley straw management is changing these days from off-fields to burning that may relate to air quality concerning the global warming, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley-straw management practices on greenhouse gas emissions during rice cultivation in rice-barley double cropping system. The treatments were barley straw burning, off-field usage of barley straw and incorporation of barley straw in paddy fields. Laboratory experiment showed that burning of barley straw at the rate of $4.5Mg\;ha^{-1}$ emitted GHGs in the amounts of 4,607, 19.5, and $0.9kg\;ha^{-1}$ of $CO_2$, $CH_4$, and $N_2O$, respectively. During the rice cultivation of the rice-barley double cropping system, the highest GHG emission by evaluated close-static chamber method was observed from the soil incorporation of barley straw with 387 and $1.0kg\;ha^{-1}$ of $CH_4$ and $N_2O$, respectively. The GHGs emissions from the barley straw burning and off-field usage treatments were 233 and $160kg\;ha^{-1}$ for $CH_4$ and 0.80 and $0.79kg\;ha^{-1}$ for $N_2O$, respectively. The barley straw burning treatment showed the greatest GHGs emission among barley straw management practices in rice-barley double cropping system when considering GHGs emissions both during burning and from paddy fields during the cropping seasons. As a result, the GHGs emissions recorded in the barley straw incorporation to soil and off-field usage treatments were 22.4 and 66.8%, respectively, less than sum of GHGs emissions from the burning of barley straw and from paddy fields during rice cultivation.

Influence of the Levee-burning on the Fauna of Insect Pests and Their Natural Enemies (쥐불놀이 (논둑태우기)가 해충 및 천적상에 미치는 영향)

  • 김홍선;이영인;이해빈
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.209-215
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    • 1990
  • Some preliminary studies were conducted to find out whether the levee-burning could justifiable for the suppression of insect pests, particularly the smaller brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus F.). Density surveys on pests and their enemies (mostly spiders) were carried out upto the mid May at an experimental paddy field located in Suwon after of it's levee $(72\times1m)$ was burned on Feb. 20, 1987. Results were discussed in relation to density recovering of both pests and their possible enemies (spiders) and summarized as below. Not a single individual of any pest or enemy was found from the levee upto sometime after the levee-burning. Grasses started to grow more vigorously in burned ares than in unburned upto about 60 days after the burning. And densities of both pest and enemies grew higher in burned areas than in unburned from about 75 days after the burning (in Early may). It is suspected that all individuals of pests and enemies fond from the burned areas could have immigrated from the surrounding areas. If levee-burning was carried out in much wider areas, much longer time would be needed to recover the density of both pests and enemies to the center region of the burning. Wingless spiders would require even longer time than winged pest species to re-establish in the center region of the widely burned field. Pirata subpiraticus, the most abundant spider species in Korean paddy fields, starts to move about and searches for food at above $9^{\circ}C$ which is somewhat lower than the critical temperature for the pest species. Thus P. subpiraticus would require more food than other pest species early in the spring, and therefore, it would have lower probability to survive than pest species particularly in burned areas. Experiments for pest suppression with levee-burning would better be carried on in much wider areas, and its justification seems to be discussed after man other disciplines related to both pests and their natural enemies were throughly studied together with their density surveys. However, according to the present point of vie, the opinion that levee-burning is helpful for controlling pests which over winter on levee areas could not be justifiable.

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CCD PHOTOMETRY OF FIELD RR LYRAE STARS I. PERIOD CHANGES OF SV ERI AND XX AND

  • Joo, Jong-Myung;Rey, Soo-Chang;Lee, Young-Wook
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1996
  • CCD time series photometry was performed for two Oosterhoff type II field RR Lyrae stars, SV Eri and XX And, to construct light curves in B and V bands. The maximum light times from our observations were combined with those in the literature to construct phase shift diagrams, from which we determined the period change rates ${\beta}$. We obtained large positive period change rates for these stars, which are expected from current evolutionary models if these stars are evolving rapidly from blue to red toward the end of core helium burning phase.

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The Fabrication of A Semi-conducting Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Device Using A Burning Technique (연소 기술을 이용한 반도체성 단일벽 탄소 나노튜브 장치 제작)

  • 이형우;한창수;김수현;곽윤근
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.881-885
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    • 2004
  • We report a method for making a device on which semi-conducting single-walled carbon nanotubes are attached selectively between two metal electrodes. This method is divided two processes. First we can connect a rope of single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs) between two electrodes using the electric field. But a SWNTs' rope obtained by the first process was composed of a few of metallic and semi-conducting SWNTs together. The second process is to burn the metallic and semi-conducting nanotubes through applying a voltage. As a result, we can obtain a semi-conducting SWNT device. To make the patterned electrodes, we deposited $SiO_2$(150nm) on a wafer. After then, we made a patterned samples with Ti(200 $\AA$)/Au(300$\AA$). We empirically obtained a electric condition 0.66 $V_{pp}$ /${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$@5MHz. From this result, we verified that most of current go through the metallic nanotubes in this device. When we apply DC voltage between two electrodes, the metallic carbon nanotubes are burnt. Finally, we can obtain a semi-conducting nanotube device which we desire to make. We got the I-V characteristic graph which has shown the semi-conducting property. We hope to apply to the various applications using this selective semi-conducting carbon nanotube deposition method.ethod.

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Reactive Flow Fields Analysis of End-Bunting Combustor with Different Impinging Type Injectors (End-Burning 연소기의 충돌형 산화제 주입기 형상 변화에 따른 연소유동장 해석)

  • Min, Moon-Ki;Kim, Soo-Jong;Yoon, Chang-Jin;Kim, Jin-Kon;Moon, Hee-Jang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2007
  • The end-burning combustion field using impinging oxidizer injectors are analyzed with tangential type injectors in order to examine their mixing and combustion characteristics. The impinging type showed further improved mixing effect as well as the combustion efficiency compared to the previously studied tangential injector. A novel injector capable of delivering impinging and swirl effect is introduced in this study where it demonstrated that the grain coning effect can be avoided. It was found that the combined impinging and swirling flow would promote the radial mixing rate increasing the residence time and the turbulent intensity. However, the use of the step combustor which may augment the turbulent intensity did not show any notable difference compared to the basic combustor.

Numerical Study on the Interaction of Liquid Fuel Droplets in the Reacting Flow Field (연소 유동장 내 액체 연료 액적간의 상호작용에 대한 수치적 연구)

  • Cho, Chong-Pyo;Kim, Ho-Young;Park, Sim-Soo
    • 한국연소학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.63-71
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    • 2001
  • The objective of this work is to elucidate the details of two key factors dominating the droplet buring behavior in sprays : droplet-droplet interaction and convective flow. The combustion of a one-dimensional linear droplet array with a convective flow has been studied. A one-step, second order model was employed to simulate the chemical reaction in the combustion process. Results for droplet arrays burning at two Reynolds numbers, 50 and 100, two horizontal droplet spacings, 5 and 11 radii, and two vertical droplet spacing, 2 and 4 radii, were obtained. The results indicate the droplet burning behavior is affected by Reynolds number, droplet-droplet spacing, and the relative location of droplets in the array. Droplet-droplet interaction was found to be strong for arrays with smaller droplet spacing.

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A study on the influence of turbulence characteristics on flame propagation in swirl flow field (스월유동장의 화염전파에 미치는 난류특성의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Jun;Lee, Jong-Tae;Lee, Seong-Yeol
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.20 no.10
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    • pp.3282-3292
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    • 1996
  • Flow velocity was measured using a hot wire anemometer. Turbulence intensity was in proportion to mean flow velocity regardless of swirl velocity. And integral length scale has proportional relation with swirl velocity regardless of measurement position. Flame speed calculated by radius of visualized flame was increased and then decreased according to lapse of time from spark. Maximum flame speed was increased according to increase of turbulence intensity. Burning speed and flame transport effect increased with increase of swirl velocity, but ratio of burning speed to flame speed decreased with increased of swirl velocity. Mass fraction burned versus volume fraction burned was increased in proportion to the increase of turbulence intensity, caused by increase of combustion promotion effect according to increase of turbulence intensity and scale.

A Literature Review and A Clinical Examination of Burning Acupuncture Therapy of using D.I.T.I. (화침요법(火鍼療法)의 연구동향(硏究動向)과 D.I.T.I를 활용(活用)한 임상적(臨床的) 고찰(考察))

  • Park Sang-Jun;Ahn Soo-Gi
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.407-425
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    • 1998
  • We have studied the clinical application of burning acupuncture by examining 18recent-published papers in the journal 'ZHONGGUO ZHENJIU(中國鍼灸)' for the bibliographical study and clinical study and have given medical treatment of burning acupuncture on 21 Patients who suffered 'the body chill symptoms(冷症)' at the oriental hospital of Won-Kwang University, Kwang-Ju. As a result, we have come to some conclusions as below. 1. The diseases for which the modern borning acupuncture is efficacious are widely extended to various kinds of field such as surgery, internal medicine, gynecology, ophthalmology, otolaryngology. etc. as well as numbness, meridian muscle disease(經筋病) mentioned in 'Neijing(內徑)' . 2. The effects of burning acupuncture therapy are wen zhuang yang qi(溫壯陽氣), sheng ji lian chuang(生肌斂瘡), san han chu shi(散寒除濕), qu fens zhi yang(祛風止痒), qu yu chu fu pai nong(祛瘀除腐排膿), san jie xiao zhong(散結消腫), zhi tong huan ji chu ma mu(止痛緩急除麻木), qing re xie hue jie du(淸熱瀉火解毒). 3. The recently reported diseases for which burning acupuncture is good are internal and external humeral epicondylitis, atheroma, menorrhalgia, thecal cyst, tragomaschalia, pruritus, traumatic onychophemia, gout of feet, prostatomegaly, aacne, supprative infection of body surface, snapping finger, backache, numbness, pyocyst etc. 4. The subjective symptoms of 'the body chill symptoms(冷症)' were, most of all, feeling cold accompanied by pain(16 case), while just 4 cases were feeling cold only. 5. In the related diseases of the body chill symptoms(冷症), feeling pain like arthralgia was the most case, and then dysmenorrhea, menorralgia, depression, anemia in order. 6. In the D.I.T.I before and after burning acupuncture treatment, 6 patients had shown 'excellent' effects and 8 patients had turned out 'good', while 7 patients had become'fair'. 7. In the degree of patient-satisfaction, 5 patients announced 'excellence' and 6 patients expressed 'good', 4 expressed 'fair', while the other 6 showed no change. 8. In the correlation of D.I.T.I and patient-satisfaction, the better the result of clinical treatment was, the more satisfied the patient was, however, in the case 'fair', we saw the degree of patient-satisfaction was relatively low, so we could admit the judging significance of D.I.T.I.

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Assessment on Greenhouse Gas ($CH_4$) Emissions in Korea Cropland Sector from 1990 to 2008 (1990년부터 2008년까지 우리나라 경종분야 온실가스 (메탄) 배출량 평가)

  • Jeong, Hyun-Cheol;Kim, Gun-Yeob;So, Kyu-Ho;Shim, Kyo-Moon;Lee, Seul-Bi;Lee, Deog-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.911-916
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    • 2010
  • Rice paddy fields and crop residue burning are a major source of methane ($CH_4$) emissions, a potent greenhouse in agriculture. This study was conducted to assess $CH_4$ emissions in Korea cropland sector from 1990 to 2008. Greenhouse gas emissions from the cropland sector are calculated in two categories: 4C (Rice cultivation) and 4F (Field burning). In 4C: Rice Cultivation, methane emissions from paddy fields (continuously flooded and intermittently flooded) cultivated for rice production had decreased from 395 $CH_4$ $10^3$ Mg in 1990 to 297 $CH_4$ $10^3$ Mg in 2008. $CH_4$ emissions converted into $CO_2$ equivalent were 8,303 $CO_2$-eq. $10^3$ Mg in 1990 and 6,229 $CO_2$-eq. $10^3$ Mg in 2008. Greenhouse gas emissions from paddy field in Korea showed that it was gradually going down as the cultivation area decreased. In 4F: Field Burning, methane emissions by burning crop residue increased from 2,502 $CH_4$ Mg in 1990 to 2,726 $CH_4$ Mg in 2008. Emissions converted $CH_4$ into $CO_2$ equivalent were 53 $CO_2$-eq. $10^3$ Mg in 1990 and 57 $CO_2$-eq. $10^3$ Mg in 2008. Total emissions of $CH_4$ from the cropland sector declined from 8,356 $CO_2$-eq. $10^3$ Mg in 1990 to 6,287 $CO_2$-eq. $10^3$ Mg in 2008.