• Title, Summary, Keyword: Field burning

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Heavy Metals of Landfilled Biomass and Their Environmental Standard, Including CCA-treated Wood for Eco-housing Materials (방부처리 목재를 포함한 토양매립 바이오메스의 중금속 함량과 안전성 문제)

  • Lim, Kie-Pyo;Lee, Jong-Tak;Bum, Jung-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2006
  • Recently, wood-framed houses has been built in the Korea for pension. Wood is good material for human healthy, while the construction lumbers are treated with preservative such as CCA (chromated copper arsenate), which contain some toxic elements for human body. However, if the waste woody biomass treated with various heavy metals, which has been collected from house construction or demolition, was fired in the field, and incinerated or landfilled after mass collection, such components will result in the toxic air pollutants in the burning or land fills, and spreaded into other areas. So the careful selection of wood and chemicals are required in advance for house construction, in particular, for environment-friendly housings. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the content of toxic heavy metals in woody materials such as domestic hinoki and imported hemlock treated with CCA for housing materials, and the post-treated wood components such as organic fertilizer, sludge, dry-distilled charcoal and carbonized charcoal, to be returned finally into soil. The results are as follows. 1) The chemical analysis of toxic trace elements in various solid biomass required accurate control and management of laboratory environment, and reagents and water used, because of the error of data due to various foreign substances added in various processing and transporting steps. So a systematic analyzers was necessary to monitor the toxic pollutants of construction materials. 2) In particular, the biomass treated with industrial biological or thermal conditions such as sludge or charcoals was not fully dissolvable after third addition of $HNO_3$ and HF. 3) The natural woody materials such as organic fertilizer, sludge. and charcoals without any treatment of preservatives or heavy metal components were nontoxic in landfill because of the standard of organic fertilizers, even after thermal or biological treatments. 4) The CC A-treated wood for making the construction wood durable should not be landfilled, because of its higher contents of toxic metals than the criterion of organic fertilizer for agriculture or of natural environment. So the demolished waste should be treated separately from municipal wastes.

Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Cropland Sector on Local Government Levels based on 2006 IPCC Guideline (2006 IPCC 가이드라인을 적용한 지자체별 경종부문 온실가스 배출량 평가)

  • Jeong, Hyun-Cheol;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Lee, Seul-Bi;Lee, Jong-Sik;Lee, Jung-Hwan;So, Kyu-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.842-847
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions on local government levels from 1990 to 2010 using 2006 IPCC guideline methodology. To calculate greenhouse gas emissions based on the 16 local governments, emission factor and scaling factor were used with default value and activity data came from the food, agricultural, forestry and fisheries statistical yearbook of MIFAFF (Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries). The total emissions in crop sector gradually decreased from 1990 to 2010 due to a decline in agricultural land and nitrogen fertilizer usage. The annual average emission of greenhouse gas was the highest in Jeonnam (JN) with 1,698 Gg $CO_2$-eq and following Chungnam (CN), Gyungbuk (GB), Jeonbuk (JB) and Gyunggi (GG). The sum of top-six locals emission had occupied 83.4% of the total emission in cropland sector. The annual average emissions in 1990 by applying 2006 IPCC guideline were approximately 43% less than the national greenhouse gas inventory by 1996 IPCC guideline. Jeonnam (JN) province occupied also the highest results of greenhouse gas emission estimated by gas types (methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide) and emission sources such as rice cultivation, agricultural soil, field burning of crop residue and urea fertilizer.

Indoor PM2.5 Concentrations in Different Sizes of Pubs with Non-comprehensive Smoke-free Regulation (비 포괄적인 금연정책을 시행한 호프집의 면적에 따른 실내 PM2.5 농도)

  • Kim, Jeonghoon;Lim, Chaeyun;Lee, Daeyeop;Kim, Heyjin;Guak, Sooyoung;Lee, Na Eun;Kim, Sang Hwan;Ha, Kwon Chul;Lee, Kiyoung
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.126-132
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The Korean government implemented a smoke-free regulation for pubs with a net indoor area of ${\geq}100m^2$ on January 1, 2014. The purpose of this study was to determine the indoor levels of concentrations of particulate matter smaller than $2.5{\mu}m$ ($PM_{2.5}$) in implemented and non-implemented pubs in Seoul and Changwon. Methods: $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations in fifty-two $100-150m^2$ (implemented) and fifty-seven < $100m^2$ (non-implemented) pubs were measured. A real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations. Field technicians recorded characteristics of the pubs including net indoor area, indoor volume and presence of smoking rooms and counted the number of burning cigarettes, patrons and vents. Results: Differences between indoor and outdoor $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations in $100-150m^2$ and < $100m^2$ pubs were not significantly different in each city. Smoking was observed in 33% of $100-150m^2$ pubs and 51% of < $100m^2$ pubs. Average differences between indoor and outdoor $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations in the $100-150m^2$ and < $100m^2$ pubs were $79.2{\mu}g/m^3$ and $155.6{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. When smokers were not observed, differences between indoor and outdoor $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations ware $12.4{\mu}g/m^3$ in $100-150m^2$ pubs and $24.5{\mu}g/m^3$ in < $100m^2$ pubs. Conclusion: Although the regulation was implemented only in ${\geq}100m^2$ pubs, a higher difference between indoor and outdoor $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations was observed in implemented and non-implemented pubs with smokers. Strict implementation of the regulation in all pubs is needed for better indoor air quality.

Techniques and Traditional Knowledge of the Korean Onggi Potter (옹기장인의 옹기제작기술과 전통지식)

  • Kim, Jae-Ho
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.142-157
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    • 2015
  • This study examines how traditional knowledge functions in the specific techniques to make pottery in terms of the traditional knowledge on the pottery techniques of Onggi potters. It focuses on how traditional pottery manufacturing skills are categorized and what aspects are observed with regard to the techniques. The pottery manufacturing process is divided into the preparation step of raw material, the molding step of pottery, and the final plasticity step. Each step involves unique traditional knowledge. The preparation step mainly comprises the knowledge on different kinds of mud. The knowledge is about the colors and properties of mud, the information on the regional distribution of quality mud, and the techniques to optimize mud for pottery manufacturing. The molding step mainly involves the structure and shape of spinning wheels, the techniques to accumulate mud, ways to use different kinds of tools, the techniques to dry processed pottery. The plasticity step involves the knowledge on kilns and the scheme to build kilns, the skills to stack pottery inside of the kilns, the knowledge on firewood and efficient ways of wood burning, the discrimination of different kinds of fire and the techniques to stoke the kilns. These different kinds of knowledge may be roughly divided into three categories : the preparation of raw material, molding, and plasticity. They are closely connected with one another, which is because it becomes difficult to manufacture quality pottery even with only one incorrect factor. The contents of knowledge involved in the manufacturing process of pottery focused are mainly about raw material, color, shape, distribution aspect, fusion point, durability, physical property, etc, which are all about science. They are rather obtained through the experimental learning process of apprenticeship, not through the official education. It is not easy to categorize the knowledge involved. Most of the knowledge can be understood in the category of ethnoscience. In terms of the UNESCO world heritage of intangible cultural assets, the knowledge is mainly about 'the knowledge on nature and universe'. Unique knowledge and skills are, however, identified in the molding step. They can be referred to 'body techniques', which unify the physical stance of potters, tools they employ, and the conceived pottery. Potters themselves find it difficult to articulate the knowledge. In case stated, it cannot be easily understood without the experience and knowledge on the field. From the preparation of raw material to the complete products, the techniques and traditional knowledge involved in the process of manufacturing pottery are closely connected, employing numerous categories and levels. Such an aspect can be referred to as a 'techniques chain'. Here the techniques mean not only the scientific techniques but also, in addition to the skills, the knowledge of various techniques and levels including habitual, unconscious behaviors of potters.