• Title, Summary, Keyword: Field burning

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Assessment of Methane (CH4) Emissions from Rice Paddy and Crop Residues Burning in 2011 with the IPCC Guideline Methodology

  • Choi, Eun Jung;Lee, Jong Sik;Jeong, Hyun Cheol;Kim, Gun Yeob;So, Kyu Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.575-578
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    • 2013
  • Rice cultivation in the paddy field and the burning of crop residues have been identified as the important sources of methane emission in agricultural sector. This study aimed at assessment of the methane emission from croplands in the year of 2011 with the IPCC guideline methodology. Methane from rice cultivation was emitted 6,813 $CO_2$-eq Gg in 2011. According to the water management, methane emission amounts by continuously flooded and intermittently flooded were 1,499 and 5,314 $CO_2$-eq Gg, respectively. Methane emission by crop residues burning was highest in red pepper and followed by rice straw, pulses and barely in 2011. Methane emission by field burning was very little compared with rice cultivation.

Assessment of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions from Farmland in 2011 with IPCC Guideline Methodology

  • Jeong, Hyun Cheol;Kim, Gun Yeob;Lee, Jong Sik;Choi, Eun Jung;Ko, Jee Yeon;So, Kyu Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.570-574
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to assess $N_2O$ emissions in agricultural soils of Korea under the 1996 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) methodology. $N_2O$ emissions in agricultural soils were calculated the sum of direct emission and indirect emission by the N sources and emissions by field burning of crop residues. $N_2O$ emission was highest in animal manure as 1,547 $CO_2$-eq Gg. Indirect emissions by atmospheric deposition and leaching and runoff were 1,463 and 1,753 $CO_2$-eq Gg, respectively. $N_2O$ emission by field burning of crop residues was highest in pepper due to the residue/crop ratio and field burning ratio.

A Study on the Source Profile Development for Fine Particles (PM2.5) Emitted from Biomass Burning (Biomass-burning에서 배출되는 미세입자 (PM2.5)의 배출원 구성물질 성분비 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Byung-Wook;Lee, Hak-Sung
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.384-395
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to develop the source profiles for fine particles ($PM_{2.5}$) emitted from the biomass burning. The multi-method research strategy included a usage of combustion devices such as field burning, fireplace, and residential wood burning to burn rice straw, fallen leaves, pine tree, and oak tree. The data were collected from multiple sources and measured water-soluble ions, elements, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC). From this study, it turned out that OC (34~67%) and EC (1.2~39%) are the major components emitted from biomass burning. In the case of burning rice straw at field burning, OC (66.6%) was the most abundant species, followed by EC (4.3%), $Cl^-$ (3.6%), Cl (2.1%), and $SO^{2-}_4$(1.9%). Burning rice straw, fallen leaves, pine tree, and oak tree at fireplace, the amount of OC was 58.5%, 52.7%, 52.5%, and 61.2%, and that of EC was 1.2%, 18.4%, 36.5%, and 2.7%, respectively. The ratio of OC for the burning of pine tree and oak tree from the residential wood burning device was 56.9% and 34.3%, and that of EC was 25% and 38.6%, respectively. Applying the measured data with respect to the proportion of components emitted from biomass burning to reference model, it turned out that self-diagnosed result was appropriate level, and the result based on the model is in highly corresponding to actual timing of biomass burning.

Chemical Composition of Post-Harvest Biomass Burning Aerosols in Gwangju, Korea

  • Kim, Young-J.;Ryu, Seong-Y.;Kang, Gong-U.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2003
  • The main objective of this study was to investigate the chemical characteristics of post-harvest biomass burning aerosols from field burning of barley straw in late spring and rice straw in late fall in rural area in Korea. 12-hr integrated intensive sampling of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ biomass burning aerosols had been conducted continuously at Gwangju, Korea 4-15 June 2001 and 8 October-14 November 2002. The fine and coarse particles of biomass burning aerosols were collected for mass, ionic, elemental, and carbonaceous species analysis. Average fine and coarse mass concentrations of biomass burning aerosols were measured to be 129.6, 24.2 ${{\mu}gm}^{-3}$ in June 2001 and 47.1, 33.2 ${{\mu}gm}^{-3}$ in October to November 2002, respectively. Exceptionally high level of $PM_{2.5}$ concentration up to 157.8 ${{\mu}gm}^{-3}$ well above 24-hour standard was observed during the biomass burning event days under stagnant atmosphere condition. During biomass burning periods dominant ionic species were $Cl^{-}$, ${NO_3}^{-}$, ${SO_4}^{2-}$, and ${NH_4}^{+}$ in fine and coarse mode. In the fine mode $Cl^{-}$ and ${KCl}^{+}$ were unusually rich due to the high content of the semiarid vegetation. High OC values and OC/EC ratios were also measured during the biomass burning periods. Increased amount of fine aerosols with high enrichment, which were originated from biomass burning of post-harvest agricultural waste, resulted in extremely severe particulate air pollution and visibility degradation in the region. Particulate matters from open field burning of agricultural wastes cause great adverse impact on local air quality and regional climate.

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Influence of Levee-burning on the Surroundings of Rice Paddies (논둑 태우기가 논 주변 환경에 미치는 영향)

  • 이영인;김길호
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.345-352
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    • 2003
  • Studies were conducted to find out the justification for levee-burning, customarily executed by farmers for long time, Experiments were carried out in farmers fields with levee-burning early in the season, and some pesticides spraying when necessary from 1995 to 1997. Some data collected are analysed and discussed from several available aspects of surroundings. In relation to some results obtained together with some previous evidences, levee-burning seems to have several adverse effects on levee destruction, partial cause of forest fire, and lowering of spider density in the field during fall, without providing any benefit, while causing no signifant effect on weed flora on levee, insect density in the field, and incidence of the rice-blast. Therefore, concequently, it could be recommend that the levee-burning by farmers should not be continued.

A study on the influence of turbulence characteristics on burning speed in swirl flow field (스월유동장에 있어서 연소속도에 미치는 난류특성의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang Jun;Lee, Jong-Tai;Lee, Song-Yol
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.244-254
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    • 1996
  • Flow velocity was measured by, use of hot wire anemometer. Turbulence intensity was in proportion to mean flow velocity regardless of swirl velocity. And integral length scale has proportional relation with swirl velocity regardless of measurement position. Turbulent burning speed during flame propagation which was determined by flame photograph and gas pressure of combustion chamber was increased with the lapse of time from spark and was decreased a little at later combustion period. Because of combustion promotion effect, turbulent burning speed was increased according to increase of turbulence intensity. Burning speed ratio i.e. ratio of turbulent burning speed ($S_BT$) to laminar burning speed ($S_BL$) was found out by use of turbulence intensity u' and integral length scale $l_x$ , $\delta_L$ is width of preheat zone in laminar flame.

A Preliminary Statistical Stduy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Inorganic Elements Data for Extimation Ambient PM-10 Sources -Near the Huge Young-Tong Construction Area during Feb. 1996 to June 1996- (대기 중 PM-10의 오염원 추정을 위한 다환방향족탄화수소와 무기원소자료의 예비통계분석 -1996년 2월~6월까지 대규모 영통건설지역 주변을 중심으로-)

  • 손정화;황인조;김동술
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.11-22
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    • 2000
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) have known as potentially hazardous air pollutants(HAPs0 to human health because of its carcinogenic and mutagenic behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of 6 PAHs(Fluoranthene, Pyrene, Benzo[a]anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo[b]fluoranthene, and Benzo[a]pyrene) as well as 10 inorganic elements(Cr, Na, K, Zn, Pb, Fe, Cu, Ti, Al and Cd) in the ambient PM-10. The total of 115 samples had been collected from February, 1996 to June, 1996 on quartz fiber by a PM-10 high volume air sampler near the Yong-Tong Apartment complexes. A statistical analysis was performed for the PAHs and inorganic elements data set using a principal component analysis in order to identify qualitatively the potential sources of PM-10. A total of 6 principal components were separated by intensive data pretrement and transformation processes, such as soil, refuse incineration, oil burning, coal burning, field burning, vehicle emission sources. The results showed that PAHs were associated with various burning activities like refuse and field burning, coal burning, and oil burning emissions in the study area. These derived sources were well matched with the previously known source profiles in terms of compositonal order and level of measured species. The combination data set consisted of both organic and inorganic species might provide more powerful source signature and might increase the number of potentially derived sources than PAHs or inorganic data alone.

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Chemical Compositions of Primary PM2.5 Derived from Biomass Burning Emissions

  • Ichikawa, Yujiro;Naito, Suekazu
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.79-95
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    • 2017
  • A number of field studies have provided evidence that biomass burning is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles. In this study, we have collected $PM_{2.5}$ emitted from biomass burning combusted at open burning and laboratory chamber situations. The open burning experiment was conducted with the cooperation of 9 farmers in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, while the chamber experiment was designed to evaluate the characteristics of chemical components among 14 different plant species. The analyzed categories were $PM_{2.5}$ mass concentration, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), ionic components ($Na^+$, ${NH_4}^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, $K^+$, $Cl^-$, ${NO_3}^-$ and ${SO_4}^{2-}$), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-insoluble inorganic carbon (WIOC), char-EC and soot-EC. OC was the dominant chemical component, accounting for the major fraction of primary $PM_{2.5}$ derived from biomass burning, followed by EC. Ionic components contributed a small portion of $PM_{2.5}$, as well as that of $K^+$. In some cases, $K^+$ is used as biomass burning tracer; however, the observations obtained in this study suggest that $K^+$ may not always be suitable as a tracer for biomass burning emissions. Also, the results of all the samples tested indicate relatively low values of char-EC compared to soot-EC. From our results, careful consideration should be given to the usage of $K^+$ and char-EC as indicators of biomass burning. The calculated ratios of WSOC/OC and WIOC/OC were 55.7% and 44.3% on average for all samples, which showed no large difference between them. The organic materials to OC ratio, which is often used for chemical mass closure model, was roughly estimated by two independent methods, resulting in a factor of 1.7 for biomass burning emissions.

Forest Fire Ignition Patterns Caused by Farming Activities (영농활동으로 인한 산불발생 특성)

  • Koo, Kyo-Sang;Lee, Byung-Doo;Lee, Myung-Bo;Lee, Si-Young;Kim, Jeong-Hun;Park, Houng-Sek;ParK, Geon-Young
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.103-110
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    • 2010
  • Farming activity was the second cause of forest fire following the carelessness. In this study, 74 forest fires caused by farming activity and waste burning in 2009 was investigated for analyzing ignition patterns. The main cause to bring about forest fire was the farming waste burning as 25 cases, burning of farming waste matter after product and household waste burning were the second causes as 19 cases. Landcovers which transfer flame from ignition point to forest were fallow field graveyard, field fruit farm, field levee fallow field. The average distance between ignition point and forest sleeve was 19 m, and the maximum distance was 130 m. The probability of forest fire ignition was high in the 100 m buffer zone from the forest sleeve that is the prohibition rule of fire use for forest fire prevention at the forest fire season.