• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fibrous Feeds

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COLONIZATION OF ALKALI-TREATED FIBROUS ROUGHAGES BY ANAEROBIC RUMEN FUNGI

  • Wuliji, T.;McManus, W.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 1988
  • This study reports light and electron microscope examination of rumen fungal colonization of alkali-treated roughage feeds incubated in decron bags in the rumen of cannulated sheep for varying time intervals. Six roughages, pre-treated with ammonium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide at 4% (w/w) level were examined together with untreated control samples. Alkali pre-treatment was associated with an earlier and more pronounced fungal colonization than all control roughages. Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment was significantly more effective than ammonium hydroxide in improving the susceptibility of roughages to rumen fungal colonization and studies by SEM showed that the pre-treatment permitted greater penetration of feeds by fungi. Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment also significantly increased dry matter disappearance from feed held in Dacron bags in the rumen with all feeds except Lucerne stem. It is not known to what extent fungal activity contributed to increased breakdown of the feeds.

Rumen Microbes, Enzymes and Feed Digestion-A Review

  • Wang, Y.;McAllister, T.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.1659-1676
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    • 2002
  • Ruminant animals develop a diverse and sophisticated microbial ecosystem for digesting fibrous feedstuffs. Plant cell walls are complex and their structures are not fully understood, but it is generally believed that the chemical properties of some plant cell wall compounds and the cross-linked three-dimensional matrix of polysaccharides, lignin and phenolic compounds limit digestion of cell wall polysaccharides by ruminal microbes. Three adaptive strategies have been identified in the ruminal ecosystem for degrading plant cell walls: production of the full slate of enzymes required to cleave the numerous bonds within cell walls; attachment and colonization of feed particles; and synergetic interactions among ruminal species. Nonetheless, digestion of fibrous feeds remains incomplete, and numerous research attempts have been made to increase this extent of digestion. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) have been used successfully in monogastric animal production for some time. The possibility of adapting EFE as feed additives for ruminants is under intensive study. To date, animal responses to EFE supplements have varied greatly due to differences in enzyme source, application method, and types of diets and livestock. Currently available information suggests delivery of EFE by applying them to feed offers the best chance to increase ruminal digestion. The general tendency of EFE to increase rate, but not extent, of fibre digestion indicates that the products currently on the market for ruminants may not be introducing novel enzyme activities into the rumen. Recent research suggests that cleavage of esterified linkages (e.g., acetylesterase, ferulic acid esterase) within the plant cell wall matrix may be the key to increasing the extent of cell wall digestion in the rumen. Thus, a crucial ingredient in an effective enzyme additive for ruminants may be an as yet undetermined esterase that may not be included, quantified or listed in the majority of available enzyme preparations. Identifying these pivotal enzyme(s) and using biotechnology to enhance their production is necessary for long term improvements in feed digestion using EFE. Pretreating fibrous feeds with alkali in addition to EFE also shows promise for improving the efficacy of enzyme supplements.

DEVELOPMENT OF UREA MOLASSES BLOCK AND ITS FIELD APPLICATION IN INDIA (A REVIEW)

  • Kunju, P.J. George
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 1988
  • The base of Indian milk production is the millions of nondescript cows and buffaloes in rural areas, fed mainly on crop residues and agro-industrial wastes. The mainstay of the feeding system is straws and stovers. Therefore the approach to increase the fibrous residues utilisation for animal production was ideal and useful. The methods available for the above purpose were not found acceptable in rural areas owing to certain practical problems. The development of urea molasses block was, therefore aimed at solving the practical field problems. Urea Molasses Block has been developed as a feed supplement that can bring forth an effect of rumen manipulation thereby increase the conversion rate of feeds. The formula and process technology were thus developed. Before starting the mass production and popularisation the product was tested in controlled condition in farms and also in villages. Encouraged with the results the feed is now commercially manufactured under Indian Patent No. 156047.

The Nutrition Requirements and Foraging Behaviour of Ostriches

  • Miao, Z.H.;Glatz, P.C.;Ru, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.773-788
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    • 2003
  • Ostrich farming is a developing industry in most countries in the world, with farm profitability being largely dependent on the quality of the products, especially skins and meat. To produce quality products, it is essential to ensure that nutrient supply matches the nutrient requirements of ostriches during their growth. To achieve this, information on feed utilisation efficiency and nutrient requirements of ostriches at different maturity stages is required. In South Africa, a number of experiments were carried out to assess the nutritive value of feed and to define the nutrient requirement of ostriches. These data were derived from limited number of birds and the direct application of the results to ostrich farming in Australia and other countries is questionable due to the difference in environment and feed resources. Initially ostrich farmers used data from poultry as a guideline for feed formulation, but in recent years more data has become available for ostriches. Ostriches have a better feed utilisation efficiency and a larger capacity of using high fibre feeds such as pastures than poultry. This review revealed that there are a number of areas there further nutritional research and development is required to ensure the ostriches are provided suitable diets to maximise farm profitability. These include the assessment of the nutritive value of feed ingredients for ostrich chicks and adult birds, the determination of nutrient requirements of ostriches under different farming systems, the development of ostrich diet for producing specific product, and grazing management strategies of ostriches in a crop-pasture rotation system.

Effect of fibrous diets on chemical composition and odours from pig slurry

  • Mpendulo, Conference Thando;Hlatini, Vuyisa Andries;Ncobela, Cypril Ndumiso;Chimonyo, Michael
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.1833-1839
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Incorporating high fibre ingredients into pig diets has the potential to reduce odour emissions from of pigs. The current study was carried out to determine effect of diets containing 0, 80 and 160 g/kg of each of lucerne hay, maize cobs and sunflower husks on the chemical characteristics and odours from pig slurries. Methods: Twenty eight pigs averaging $18{\pm}2.0kg$ were kept in individual cages, over four weeks. All pigs were fed ad libitum. Faeces and urine were collected, mixed in a 1:2.3 ratio (w/w), stored and fermented for 16 days in a temperature controlled room at $22^{\circ}C{\pm}2.3^{\circ}C$. The slurry was sampled twice (on day 1 and on day 16) of the fermentation period and analysed for pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration, on wet basis. All samples were tested for odour offensiveness using 18 panelists. A scale of 1 to 5 was used to rank the odour severity, (1 = not offensive, 5 = extremely offensive). Results: Slurry pH and COD varied with fibre source (p<0.05). On day 16, COD for lucerne hay, sunflower husk and maize cobs were 369, 512, and 425 (standard error of the mean = 34.2) mg of oxygen per litre. Total SCFA concentration was higher at day 16 than day 1 (p<0.05). Odour offensiveness varied with fibre source across both incubation periods (p<0.05). Sunflower husks and lucerne hay-based diets were rated as less offensive (mean rank = 2.2) than maize cob diets (mean rank of 4.3) (p<0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that different fibre sources and incubation period influence chemical composition and odour of the slurry. There is, thereby, a need to incorporate locally available fibrous feeds in the diet of pigs because they have an economical and environmental relevance to pig management.

A Comparative Study on Digestive Parameters in an Indigenous Fat-tailed and a Conventional Dorper Sheep Fed on Maize Stover Crop Residue

  • Mwenya, B.;Wollny, C.;Blummel, M.;Banda, J.;Takahashi, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.529-533
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    • 2003
  • The intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, total mean retention time (TMRT) and weight changes were investigated in four fat tailed and four Dorper sheep fed on a maize stover crop residue. Animals were subjected to five dietary treatments, which were: 90, 135 and $180g\;DM/kgBW^{0.75}/day$ of chopped maize stover offered with urea, and in subsequent dietary treatments $180g\;DM/kgBW^{0.75}/day$ of stover supplemented with either dried bean husks or poultry manure. Although not statistically different (p>0.05) fat tailed sheep had higher maize stover intake than the Dorper sheep when expressed per metabolic body weight. The DM intake and digestibility increased significantly (p<0.001) in both sheep breeds when the maize stover offer levels were increased from 90 to $135g/kgBW^{0.75}/day$. Dorper sheep had significantly (p<0.001) higher DM digestibility and longer total mean retention times for both the liquid and solid matter than the fat-tailed sheep. Fat-tailed sheep gained 4.75 kg while Dorper sheep gained 3.75 kg over the entire experimental period. The weight change per dietary treatment was affected by the amount of maize stover and the type and amount of supplement consumed. The higher DM digestibility and longer total mean retention time in Dorper sheep shows that the breed has adapted to utilize the low quality roughage diets. An indigenous fat tailed, has the potential to ingest high volumes of fibrous feed and has higher voluntary intakes relative to its body size. The two sheep breeds are a valuable genetic resource in sub Saharan Africa that is characterized by long dry season with no readily available and affordable conventional feeds for small ruminants.

Changes in Metabolites Concentration in Nguni and Crossbred Calves on Natural Pasture

  • Mapekula, M.;Mapiye, C.;Chimonyo, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.11
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    • pp.1569-1576
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    • 2011
  • Accurate assessment of the nutritional status of Nguni cattle is becoming increasingly important in determining their mechanism for adaptation to challenging environments. Changes in body weights and concentrations of total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), phosphorus (SIP), calcium and magnesium were determined in Nguni and crossbred calves raised on natural pasture from birth until weaning. At an early age, TP concentration in crossbreds was higher (p<0.05) than that of Nguni calves. However, TP levels increased with age in Nguni calves so that Nguni's had higher (p<0.05) TP levels than crossbreds at weaning. Nguni calves had higher (p<0.05) glucose concentrations than crossbreds in all the ages except in the third month. Serum NEFA levels in Nguni calves were higher (p<0.05) than in crossbreds at all ages except for the second month. Calcium levels decreased (p<0.05) with age in both genotypes. The blood TP concentrations tended to decrease (p<0.05) as body weight increased up to 80 kg, thereafter blood TP concentration increased (p<0.05) as body weight increased. Calcium concentrations in crossbred calves decreased (p<0.05) quadratically as the body weight increased. There was, however, a linear increase (p<0.05) in calcium concentrations in Nguni calves. The higher NEFA and TP concentrations at weaning and the TP increase in Nguni calves beyond 80 kg suggest that Nguni's utilise fibrous feeds better than crossbreds.

Rumen pH and Ammonia Nitrogen of Cattle Fed Different Levels of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Frond Based Diet and Dry Matter Degradation of Fractions of Oil Palm Frond

  • Islam, M.;Dahlan, I.;Rajion, M.A.;Jelan, Z.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.941-947
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    • 2000
  • Three fistulated Malaysian local bulls were used in a $3{\times}3$ Latin square design to determine the effects of different levels of concentrate with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) frond (OPF) on rumen pH and $NH_3$-N concentration, and DM degradability of different fractions of OPF. Three diets namely, 60% OPF pellet and 40% concentrate (Diet 1), 50% OPF pellet and 50% concentrate (Diet 2) and 40% OPF pellets and 60% concentrate (Diet 3) were used. The levels of concentrate in the diets affected rumen pH and $NH_3$-N concentration. The pH and $NH_3$-N concentration almost in all hourly samples did not show any difference (p>0.05) among the diets except the 6 h and 9 h samples. The highest (p<0.01) $NH_3$-N concentration was obtained on Diet 3 followed by Diet 2 and Diet 1, but there was a slightly higher (p>0.05) pH on Diet 1. The $NH_3$-N concentrations of rumen liquor at 9 h sampling on Diet 1 and Diet 2 were below the critical level (50 mg/liter) required for efficient fermentation of fibrous feeds. The in sacco DM degradation of different fractions of OPF was affected by diets. The DM degradation of fractions of OPF was higher on Diet 3, which showed differences (p<0.01) with the other diets. It was found that a higher level of concentrate (60%) with OPF gave a higher rumen $NH_3$-N concentration that increased the DM degradation of OPF fractions. The results showed that OPF could support an efficient rumen function in terms of $NH_3$-N concentration and pH when ${\leq}50%$ in the diet. A higher level of OPF (>50%) does not support an efficient rumen fermentation in terms of $NH_3$-N concentration, and resulted in lower DM degradation values of the fractions. The results suggested that there is a need to supplement additional nitrogen to OPF based diets.

Effects of Non-ionic Surfactant Supplementation on Ruminal Fermentation, Nutrient Digestibility and Performance of Beef Steers Fed High-roughage Diets

  • Ahn, Gyu-chul;Kim, Jeong-hoon;Park, Eun-kyu;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Lee, Gang-yeon;Lee, Jung-il;Kim, Chong-min;Park, Keun-kyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.993-1004
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    • 2009
  • Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of non-ionic surfactant (NIS) supplementation on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and performance of beef steers fed high-roughage diets. The objective of experiment 1 was to investigate the effects of NIS supplementation on in vitro ruminal fermentation of cultures administered with corn and barley as grain substrate and rice straw and timothy hay as roughage substrate. The in vivo ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance and digestibility of nutrients were also examined with steers fed a high-roughage diet in experiment 2. The aim of experiment 3 was to determine the responses to NIS of growing steers fed a high-roughage diet. In experiment 1, ammonia nitrogen concentration for NIS supplementation was higher (p<0.05) than for the control with all substrates. However, concentrations of total volatile fatty acid (VFA), acetate, butyrate and valerate of the incubated roughage substrates, rice straw and timothy hay, were higher (p<0.05) for NIS supplementation than for the control whereas VFA concentrations in the cultures of corn and barley were unaffected. These results indicated that effects of NIS on ruminal fermentation are diet dependent, specifically on roughage sources. In experiment 2, ruminal pH of steers supplemented with NIS was lower (p<0.05) than the control. Ruminal concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, acetate, total VFA and urinary concentrations of purine derivatives were increased (p<0.05) by NIS supplementation. In experiment 3, supplementation of NIS increased (p<0.05) intakes of total feed and corn silage, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of growing steers although they varied depending on supplementation level. Due to the roughage-specific feature of NIS effects, NIS appears to enhance ruminal fermentation of fibrous parts of feeds and, consequently, performance of steers fed a high-roughage diet.