• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fibrolytic enzyme

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Effects of Fibrolytic Enzyme Addition on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition of Dairy Cows (Fibrolytic Enzyme 첨가가 반추위 발효 성상 및 착유우의 유량 및 유성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, J. H.;Kim, Y. J.;Kim, H. J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.131-142
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    • 2003
  • We evaluated the effects of adding fibrolytic enzyme into ruminant diets on ruminal fermentation (in vitro) and lactational performances of dairy cows (in vivo). Through the in vitro experiment that was carried out with different contents of NDF (34, 38, 43%) in diets, digestibilities of NDF in the rumen appeared not significantly different by the addition of enzyme but were different by NDF content in diets showing higher digestibility in NDF 43% diet. It could be attributed by the relatively higher amount of hemicellulose in the current experimental diets than in conventional diets that might have been digested easily by the addition of fibrolytic enzyme in the rumen. The addition of fibrolytic enzyme tended to increase NDF digestibilities to a little extent both in 0.05 and 0.1% enzyme levels. Ruminal pH, NH3-N concentrations and VFA production in the rumen were not affected by the addition of fibrolytic enzyme. Activities of CMCase and xylanase were higher in enzyme treated diets of both NDF 34 and 38%. In particular, the activities of xylanase that slowly decreased from 0 to 12 hr but rapidly after 24 hr indicates that the major action of the enzyme in the rumen occurs in early period of incubation. Through an in vivo experiment, fibrolytic enzyme addition into the diets of dairy cows indeed affected lactational performance of milk yield. The cows fed enzyme treated diets produced 8% (1.9kg/d) more amounts of milk than with no enzyme addition. Milk composition of milk fat and protein was not affected by enzyme addition. Overall, the results of this in vivo study indicates that fibrolytic enzyme can be used to improve milk production in lactating cows. In respect that animals in different treatments of this study had the same amounts of intake, the increased milk yield with enzyme addition may be attributed to the improved utilization of nutrients in the digestive tract.

The Effects of Aqueous Fibrolytic Enzyme Products Supplementation on In vitro Fermentation and Growth Performance of Hanwoo Steers (섬유소분해효소 발효액의 첨가가 In vitro 발효 및 거세한우의 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Kook, Kil;Chung, Wan-Tae;Park, Hong-Seok;Jang, Ki-Yeoung;Lee, Ji-Wung;Moon, Seung-Ju;Kim, Kwang-Hyun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an enriched diet supplemented with aqueous fibrolytic enzyme products (FEP) on In vitro fermentation and growth performance of Hanwoo Steers. Total mixed ration combined with fibrolytic enzyme products showed a slight increase in the pH level on In vitro fermentation. Acetate ratio in volatile fatty acids, and the concentration of total volatile fatty acids were significantly greater at 12hr and 24hr after cultivation (p<0.05). Dry matter digestibility was significantly increased in groups supplied with aqueous fibrolytic enzyme products at 24hr after cultivation (p<0.05). In a rearing trial, the average daily gain and feed efficiency improved in the treatment groups supplied with aqueous fibrolytic enzyme products. Nutrient digestibility such as DM, crude fiber, NDF, and ADF digestibility were also significantly increased with the addition of aqueous fibrolytic enzyme products (p<0.05). Therefore, the aqueous fibrolytic enzyme products supplementation on In vitro fermentation is effective in improving the condition of rumainal fermantation. Also two kinds of aqueous fibrolytic enzyme products were found to be effective in improving the average daily gain and feed efficiency in Hanwoo Steers.

Effects of Tween 80 and Fibrolytic Enzymes on Ruminal Fermentation and Digestibility of Feeds in Holstein Cows

  • Baah, J.;Shelford, J.A.;Hristov, A.N.;McAllister, T.A.;Cheng, K.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.816-824
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    • 2005
  • The effects of the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 and a mixture of fibrolytic enzymes on total tract digestion, in situ disappearance (ISD) and ruminal fermentation characteristics of orchardgrass hay and barley grain were investigated in a 4${\times}$4 Latin square experiment with 4 non-lactating Holstein cows and 4 diets in 4 periods. Cows were offered a total mixed ration of 50% rolled barley grain and 50% orchardgrass hay treated with either 1) water (control), 2) 0.2% (vol/wt) Tween 80, 3) 0.2% (vol/wt) hydrolytic enzyme, or 4) 0.2% hydrolytic enzyme plus 0.2% Tween 80. Total tract digestibility coefficients of DM, nitrogen, NDF and ADF were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatment. Compared to the control, the rate of ISD of DM from orchardgrass hay was faster (p<0.05) in cows receiving diets treated with the enzyme alone or with enzyme plus Tween 80 (0.06/h vs. 0.076 and 0.069/h). The rate of digestion was lower (p<0.05) as compared to control when barley grain was treated with these additives. Ruminal fluid pH and concentrations of total VFA, acetate, isobutyrate and butyrate were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Cows that consumed diets treated with enzyme plus Tween 80 had higher (p<0.05) ruminal concentrations of propionate and isovalerate, and lower (p<0.05) acetate:propionate ratios. Compared to the control, microbial protein synthesis tended (p = 0.13) to increase with the addition of enzyme to the diet while nonammonia nitrogen flow to the duodenum increased (p<0.05) with both enzyme and Tween 80 treatments. The study indicated that fibrolytic enzymes alone or in combination with Tween 80 could enhance ISD of orchardgrass hay and ruminal concentrations of propionate, valerate and iso-valerate, but do not affect total tract digestibility.

Evaluation of Feeding a Fibrolytic Enzyme to Lactating Dairy Cows on Their Lactational Performance during Early Lactation

  • Titi, H.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.677-684
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    • 2003
  • Twenty eight multiparous lactating cows were utilized in an experiment to evaluate the response to an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme on their lactational performance during early lactation period (in terms of milk production, milk composition, feed intake, milking efficiency, body weight change) and the exact time of this response. Cows were randomized into two groups (14 each) with similar parities and were fed a concentrate ration of barley, ground corn, soybean meal, and wheat bran and roughage ration of alfalfa hay. One of the two groups was supplemented with the fibrolytic enzyme immediately after parturition up to 100 post partum. The experiment was of two phases with 50 days each. The enzyme, which has a cellulase/hemicellulase activity (derived from Trichoderma group), was added to the concentrate part of the ration in a dry powder form. Milk production, 3.5% fat corrected milk, energy corrected milk were higher (p<0.05) for cows fed treated diet. At the same time, No differences were observed in percentages of milk components, feed intake, body weight, body weight change, or rectal temperature for the whole experimental period or during any of the two phases. Efficiency of milk production was higher (p<0.05) for treatment group cows than for that of the control ones. However, efficiency was better during the second phase than during the first phase. Feeding enzyme treated diets to dairy cows improved lactational performance during early 100 day of the lactation period. However, the first 50 days of lactation looked to be the critical.

Limits of Exogenous Fibrolytic Enzymes to Improve Digestion and Intake of a Tropical Grass

  • Assoumaya, C.;Boval, M.;Weisbecker, J.L.;Saminadin, G.;Archimede, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.914-919
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    • 2007
  • The effect of the addition of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (mainly xylanase and cellulase activities, 15 ml/15 kg of fresh forage), on intake, total tract digestibility and nylon bag degradability of a chopped fresh Digitaria decumbens grass was studied at 2 stages of regrowth ( 21 and 56-day old grasses). Moreover, comparisons between ground and chopped grass were done using the nylon bag degradability method. DM intake (g/kg $BW^{0.75}$) and organic matter total tract digestibility for control and enzyme treatments respectively were 69.1 vs. 65.9 (p>0.05) and 0.723 vs. 0.727 (p>0.05) with the 21-day old regrowth. Based on the same parameters, values for the 56-day old grass were 58.1 vs. 52.7 (p>0.05) and 0.621 vs. 0.591 (p>0.05). Nylon bag degradation at 24 h of the dry matter for control versus enzyme treatments were 0.653 vs. 0.70 (p<0.05) and 0.644 vs. 0.733 (p<0.0001) for the 21-day old chopped and ground forage respectively, whereas with the 56-day old grass, corresponding values were 0.321 vs. 0.392 (p<0.0001) and 0.463 vs. 0.481 (p>0.05). The positive impact of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on degradability of the young and ground pangola grass may suggest that in some cases, enzyme accessibility to potentially digestible cell wall is a limiting factor in their digestion.

Development of Appropriate Fibrolytic Enzyme Combination for Maize Stover and Its Effect on Rumen Fermentation in Sheep

  • Bhasker, T. Vijay;Nagalakshmi, D.;Rao, D. Srinivasa
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.945-951
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    • 2013
  • In vitro studies were undertaken to develop an appropriate fibrolytic enzymes cocktail comprising of cellulase, xylanase and ${\beta}$-D-glucanase for maize stover with an aim to increase its nutrient utilization in sheep. Cellulase and xylanase added individually to ground maize stover at an increasing dose rates (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, 3,200, 6,400, 12,800, 25,600, 32,000, 38,400, and 44,800 IU/g DM), increased (p<0.01) the in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro sugar release. The doses selected for studying the combination effect of enzymes were 6,400 to 32,000 IU/g of cellulase and 12,800 to 44,800 IU/g of xylanase. At cellulase concentration of 6,400 IU/g, IVDMD % was higher (p<0.01) at higher xylanase doses (25,600 to 44,800 IU/g). While at cellulase doses (12,800 to 32,000 IU/g), IVDMD % was higher at lower xylanase doses (12,800 and 25,600 IU/g) compared to higher xylanase doses (32,000 to 44,800 IU/g). At cellulase concentration of the 6,400 to 32,000 IU/g, the amount of sugar released increased (p<0.01) with increasing levels of xylanase concentrations except for the concentration of 44,800 IU/g. No effect of ${\beta}$-D-glucanase (100 to 300 IU/g) was observed at lower cellulase-xylanase dose (cellulase-xylanase 12,800 to 12,800 IU/g). Based on the IVDMD, the enzyme combination cellulase-xylanase 12,800 to 12,800 IU/g was selected to study its effect on feed intake and rumen fermentation pattern, conducted on 12 rams (6 to 8 months; $20.34{\pm}2.369$ kg body weight) fed 50% maize stover based TMR. The total volatile fatty acids (p<0.01) and ammonia-N concentration was higher in enzyme supplemented group, while no effect was observed on dry matter intake, ruminal pH and total nitrogen concentration.

Rumen Microbes, Enzymes and Feed Digestion-A Review

  • Wang, Y.;McAllister, T.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.1659-1676
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    • 2002
  • Ruminant animals develop a diverse and sophisticated microbial ecosystem for digesting fibrous feedstuffs. Plant cell walls are complex and their structures are not fully understood, but it is generally believed that the chemical properties of some plant cell wall compounds and the cross-linked three-dimensional matrix of polysaccharides, lignin and phenolic compounds limit digestion of cell wall polysaccharides by ruminal microbes. Three adaptive strategies have been identified in the ruminal ecosystem for degrading plant cell walls: production of the full slate of enzymes required to cleave the numerous bonds within cell walls; attachment and colonization of feed particles; and synergetic interactions among ruminal species. Nonetheless, digestion of fibrous feeds remains incomplete, and numerous research attempts have been made to increase this extent of digestion. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) have been used successfully in monogastric animal production for some time. The possibility of adapting EFE as feed additives for ruminants is under intensive study. To date, animal responses to EFE supplements have varied greatly due to differences in enzyme source, application method, and types of diets and livestock. Currently available information suggests delivery of EFE by applying them to feed offers the best chance to increase ruminal digestion. The general tendency of EFE to increase rate, but not extent, of fibre digestion indicates that the products currently on the market for ruminants may not be introducing novel enzyme activities into the rumen. Recent research suggests that cleavage of esterified linkages (e.g., acetylesterase, ferulic acid esterase) within the plant cell wall matrix may be the key to increasing the extent of cell wall digestion in the rumen. Thus, a crucial ingredient in an effective enzyme additive for ruminants may be an as yet undetermined esterase that may not be included, quantified or listed in the majority of available enzyme preparations. Identifying these pivotal enzyme(s) and using biotechnology to enhance their production is necessary for long term improvements in feed digestion using EFE. Pretreating fibrous feeds with alkali in addition to EFE also shows promise for improving the efficacy of enzyme supplements.

Effect of Lactic acid bacteria and Enzyme Supplementation on Fermentative Patterns of Ensiling Silages, Their In vitro Ruminal Fermentation, and Digestibility (젖산균과 효소제 처리에 의한 동계사료작물 발효성상, In vitro 반추위 발효 및 소화율에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Lee, A-Leum;Shin, Su-Jin;Yang, Jinho;Cho, Sangbuem;Choi, Nag-Jin
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effect of bacterial inoculation (Lactobacillus plantarum or combo inoculant mixed with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri) and addition of fibrolytic enzyme on chemical compositions and fermentation characteristics of whole crop barley (WCB) and triticale (TRT) silage, their ruminal in vitro fermentation, and digestibility. In TRT silage, enzyme addition significantly (p<0.01) decreased NDF content compared to no enzyme addition treatment. Organic acids such as lactate and acetate contents in WCB and TRT silages were significantly (p<0.01) higher compared to those in the control. Particularly, lactate content was the highest in L. plantarum treatment. Fibrolytic enzyme treatment on both silages had relatively higher lactic acid bacteria content, while mold content was lower in both treatments compared to that in the control. In vitro dry matter digestibility was generally improved in WCB silages. It was higher (p<0.01) in TRT with mixed treatment of L. plantarum, L. buchneri, and enzyme compared to others. In vitro ruminal acetate production was relatively higher in treatments with both enzyme and inoculant additions compared to that in the control. Therefore, the quality of silage and rumen fermentation could be improved by inoculants (L. plantarum and L. buchneri) regardless whether whole crop barley (WCB) or triticale (TRT) silage was used. Although it was found that fibrolytic enzyme addition to both silages had various quality and rumen fermentation values, further study is needed.

Effects of Cordyceps militaris Mycelia on Fibrolytic Enzyme Activities and Microbial Populations In vitro

  • Yeo, Joon-Mo;Lee, Shin-Ja;Shin, Sung-Hwan;Lee, Sung-Hoon;Ha, Jong-Kyu;Kim, Wan-Young;Lee, Sung-Sill
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.364-368
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    • 2011
  • An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of Cordyceps militaris mycelia on microbial populations and fibrolytic enzyme activities in vitro. C. militaris mycelia was added to buffered rumen fluid with final concentrations of 0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 g/L and incubation times were for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h. At all incubation times, the supplementation of C. militaris mycelia linearly increased the number of total viable and celluloytic bacteria; maximum responses were seen with 0.25 g/L supplementation of C. militaris mycelia. The addition of C. militaris mycelia above the level of 0.20 g/L significantly (p<0.01) increased the number of total and cellulolytic bacteria compared with the control. On the other hand, the response of fungal counts to the supplementation of C. militaris mycelia showed a linear decrease; the lowest response was seen with 0.30 g/L supplementation of C. militaris mycelia. It would seem that C. militaris mycelia possess a strong negative effect on rumen fungi since the lowest level of C. militaris mycelia supplementation markedly decreased fungal counts. Carboxylmethyl cellulase activities were linearly increased by the addition of C. militaris mycelia except at 3 and 9 h incubation times. At all incubation times, the supplementation of C. militaris mycelia linearly increased the activities of xylanase and avicelase. In conclusion, the supplementation of C. militaris mycelia to the culture of mixed rumen microorganisms showed a positive effect on cellulolytic bacteria and cellulolytic enzyme activities but a negative effect on fungi.

Effects of Increasing Level of Dietary Rice Straw on Chewing Activity, Ruminal Fermentation and Fibrolytic Enzyme Activity in Growing Goats

  • Wanga, M.;Zhaoa, X.G.;Tan, Z.L.;Tang, S.X.;Zhou, C.S.;Sun, Z.H.;Han, X.F.;Wang, C.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.1022-1027
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    • 2010
  • Effects of increasing dietary rice straw on chewing activity, ruminal fermentation, and fibrolytic enzyme activity in growing goats were investigated in a $4{\times}4$ Latin Square experiment. The goats were offered four diets with an increasing proportion of rice straw (i.e. 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20, respectively, on dry matter basis). Increasing level of rice straw increased ($P_{linear\;effect}$ <0.05) the time spent on eating, ruminating, and chewing. The ruminal pH and acetate: propionate ratio were increased ($P_{linear\;effect}$ <0.05), while the $NH_3$-N concentration was decreased ($P_{linear\;effect}$ <0.01). Increasing level of rice straw in the diet increased ($P_{linear\;effect}{\leq}0.01$) molar proportion of acetate and isovalerate, and decreased ($P_{linear\;effect}$ <0.01) molar proportion of propionate. The CMCase, xylanase and cellobiase activities in the rumen were decreased ($P_{linear\;effect}$ <0.05) with increasing level of dietary rice straw, whereas the avicelase activity was increased ($P_{linear\;effect}$ <0.01). In summary, increased level of rice straw elevated the dietary neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content in the diet and had a great impact on chewing activity and ruminal fermentation.