• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fetal Lamb

Search Result 5, Processing Time 0.041 seconds

Cellularity of Adipose Tissue Obtained from Different Sex and Growth Stages of Hanwoo Cattle and Sheep

  • Lee, H.J.;Lee, S.C.;Kim, D.W.;Park, J.G.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.13 no.2
    • /
    • pp.155-160
    • /
    • 2000
  • In order to understand the effects of sex or age on cellular characteristics of adipocytes from Hanwoo and sheep, samples were obtained from omental, subcutaneous, intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissue depots of bulls, steers, heifers and cows in Hanwoo, and perirenal, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of fetal lambs, suckling lambs and wethers in sheep. In case of Hanwoo, mean diameter, surface area and volume of adipocytes from each depot were obtained by multisizer II (Coulter Co., UK). Osmium-fixed adipocytes were sized and counted using $560{\mu}m$ aperture. For samples obtained from sheep, cellularity was measured by using microscope and MCV program of Texas Instrument. Bulls had less subcutaneous and kidney fat than steers even though their slaughter and carcass weight were heavier. The amounts of fat from cows were greater in subcutaneous, kidney and internal organs than heifers. Steers had larger adipocytes in subcutaneous, intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues than bulls, although the differences were significant only for the subcutaneous adipose tissue depots. Adipocytes appeared to be largest in omental and smallest in intramuscular adipose tissue, although there were no significant differences among tissues. In a comparison of heifers and cows, significant site effects (p<0.05) were shown in adipocyte diameter, surface area and volume, and adipocyte appeared to be largest in omental tissue. Statistical difference (p<0.05) was only shown in cell volume of intramuscular tissue which was higher in cow than heifer. Intramuscular adipose tissue tended to have relatively greater numbers of cells per gram tissue and reflect lesser maturity of intramuscular adipose tissue relative to other adipose tissues. In sheep, regardless of adipose tissue depots, wethers had the greater adipocyte diameters than those at any other growth stage of sheep. Within adipose depots, the ranking of cell size was the greatest in the omental tissue of wether and the lowest in the renal and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots of fetal lamb. The cell size of adipocyte became larger with age, especially from fetal to suckling lamb due to a rapid hypertrophy of both perirenal and subcutaneous adipocytes during the suckling period.

Effect of Maternal Under-nutrition during Late Pregnancy on Lamb Birth Weight

  • Gao, F.;Hou, X.Z.;Liu, Y.C.;Wu, S.Q.;Ao, C.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.21 no.3
    • /
    • pp.371-375
    • /
    • 2008
  • This study investigated the effects of maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy on lamb birth weight. 45 Mongolian ewes, synchronized for oestrus and then mated, were divided into four groups and offered 0.86 MJME/kgw-0.75d-1 (control group; CG : ad libitum access to feed), $0.44MJME/kgw^{-0.75}d^{-1}$ (Restricted Group 3; R3), $0.33MJME/kgw^{-0.75}d^{-1}$ (Restricted Group 2; R2) and $0.20MJME/kgw^{-0.75}d^{-1}$ (Restricted Group 1; R1) respectively during late pregnancy (90-150 days). During restriction, maternal net body weight loss, insulin and NEFA concentrations and lamb birth weight were measured. The results indicated that loss of maternal body weight in R3, R2 and R1 was 4.42, 7.23, 11.13 kg respectively, which was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that in CG (0.93 kg). Insulin concentrations of the ewes in R1, R2 and R3 were lower and were significantly different (p<0.05) between restricted groups and CG at 124 d of pregnancy. NEFA concentrations in all groups tended to decrease from 90d of gestation to parturition and in R1 were significantly (p<0.05) lower than in CG at 124 d of gestation. Lamb birth weight in R1 was significantly lower than in R2, R3 and CG (p<0.05). In conclusion, with decreasing supply of maternal nutrition, the retardation of fetal growth became worse. When the plane of nutrition was below $0.33MJME/kgw^{-0.75}d^{-1}$, significant effects of maternal undernutrition on lamb birth weight were observed.

Experimental Fetal Cardiopulmonary Bypass in the Fetal Lamb Model (태아양 모델을 이용한 실험적 태아 심폐우회술)

  • 이정렬;임홍국;김원곤;김종성;최정연;김용진
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
    • /
    • v.32 no.6
    • /
    • pp.495-503
    • /
    • 1999
  • Background: We tested the technical feasibility of fetal cardiac bypass and collected baseline data on the fetal hemodynamics and placental functions related to the cardiopulmonary bypass in the fetal lamb model. Material and Method: Eleven fetuses at 120 to 150 days of gestation were subjected to bypass via trans-sternal approach with a 12 G pulmonary arterial cannula and 14 to 18 F venous cannula for 30 minutes. All ewes received general anesthesia with ketamine. In all the fetuses, no anesthetic agents were used except muscle relaxant. Eight served as a group in which placenta was excluded from the extracorporeal circulation by clamping the umbilical cord during the bypass(the oxygenator group) and in the remaining three, the placenta worked as the only source of oxygen supply(the placenta group). Observations were made every 10 minute during a 30-minute bypass and 30-minute post bypass period. No prostaglandin inhibitors were used both in ewes and in fetuses. Result: Weights of the fetuses ranged from 1.9 to 5.2 kg. In the oxygenator group, means of arterial pressure, PaO2, atrial pressure, heart rate, and bypass flow rate ranged 69.8 to 82.6 mmHg, 201.7 to 220.9 mmHg, 4.1 to 4.3 mmHg, 169 to 182/min, and 140.3 to 164.0 ml/kg/min, respectively during bypass, but rapid deterioration of the fetal cardiac functions and the placental gas exchange was observed after the cessation of bypass. In the placenta group, means of arterial pressure decreased from 44.7 to 14.4 mmHg and means of PaCO2 increased from 61.9 to 129.6 mmHg during bypass. Flow rate was suboptimal(74.3 to 97.0 ml/kg/min) during bypass. All hearts fibrillated immediately after the discontinuation of bypass. Conclusion: In this study, the technical feasibility of fetal cardiopulmonary bypass was confirmed in the fetal lamb model. However, further studies with modifications of the bypass including an addition of prostaglandin inhibitor, an application of the total spinal anesthesia on the fetus, a creation of more concise bypass circuit, and a use of active pump are mandatory to improve the outcome.

  • PDF

Current Status and Prospects of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer and Cloning

  • Cheong, H.T.
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.393-398
    • /
    • 1999
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer is an efficient technique for the multiplication of elite livestock, engineering of transgenic animals, cell therapy and xenotransplantation, and analyzing the interactions between nucleus and cytoplasm, for various agricultural, biomedical and research purposes. Since the first somatic cell clone lamb was born, tremendous progress has been made toward developing technology for animal cloning. Viable farm animals and mice have now been produced by nuclear transfer using various fetal and adult somatic cells as nuclei donors. Transgenic clones were also produced from nuclear transfer of transfected somatic cells. In the future, somatic cell nuclear transfer will provide more numerous opportunities, both in basic and appled research as well as immediate uses in the generations of superior clone and transgenic animals. However, further technology refinement and improved understanding of the process are essential for commercial and basic research applications.

  • PDF

Establishment of Featal Heart Surgery with an Improvement of the Placental Blood Flow in Cardiopulmonary Bypass Using Fetal Lamb Model (양태아를 이용한 심폐우회술에서의 태반혈류개선을 통한 태아심장수술의 기반기술 확립)

  • 이정렬;박천수;임홍국;배은정;안규리
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
    • /
    • v.37 no.1
    • /
    • pp.11-18
    • /
    • 2004
  • Background: We tested the effect of indomethacine and total spinal anesthesia on the improvement of placental flow during cardiopulmonary bypass on fetal lamb. Material and Method: Twenty fetuses at 120 to 150 days of gestation were subjected to bypass via trans-sternal approach with a 12 G pulmonary arterial cannula and 14 to 18 F venous cannula for 30 minutes. All ewes received general anesthesia with ketamine. In all the fetuses, no anesthetic agents were used except muscle relaxant. Ten served as a control group in which placenta was worked as an oxygenator during bypass (Control group). The remainder worked as an experimental group in which pretreatment with indomethacine and total spinal anesthesia was performed before bypass with the same extracorporeal circulation technique as control group (Experimental group). Observations were made every 10 minutes during a 30-minute bypass and 30-minute post bypass period. Result: Weights of the fetuses ranged from 2.2 to 5.2 kg. In Control group, means of arterial pressure decreased from 44.7 to 14.4 mmHg and means of Pa$CO_2$ increased from 61.9 to 129.6 mmHg at each time points during bypass. Flow rate was suboptimal (74.3 to 97.0 $m\ell$/kg/min) during bypass. All hearts fibrillated immediately after the discontinuation of bypass. On the contrary, in Experimental group, means of arterial pressure reamined higher (45.8 to 30 mmHg) during bypass (p<0.05). Means of Pa$CO_2$ were less ranging from 59.8 to 79.4 mmHg during bypass (P<0.05). Flow rates were higher (78.8 to 120.2 $m\ell$/kg/min) during bypass (p<0.05). There were slower deterioration of cardiac function after cessation of bypass. Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated that the placental flow was increased during fetal cardiopulmonary bypass in the group pretreated with indomethacine and total spinal anesthesia. However, further studies with modifications of the bypass including a creation of more concise bypass circuit, and a use of axial pump are mandatory for the clinical application.