• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fertilization

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Fertilizer Use Efficiency of Taro (Colocasia esculenta Schott) and Nutrient Composition of Taro Tuber by NPK Fertilization

  • Lee, Ye-Jin;Sung, Jwa-Kyung;Lee, Seul-Bi;Lim, Jung-Eun;Song, Yo-Sung;Lee, Deog-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.388-392
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    • 2016
  • The objectives of fertilizer recommendation are to prevent the application of excessive fertilization and to produce target yields. Also, optimal fertilization is important because crop quality can be influenced by fertilization. In this study, yields and fertilizer use efficiency of Taro (Colocasia esculenta Schott) were evaluated in different level of NPK fertilization. N, P and K fertilizer application rates were 5 levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200%) by practical fertilization ($N-P_2O_5-K_2O=180-100-150kg\;ha^{-1}$), respectively. In the N treatment, the yields of Taro tuber were about $33Mg\;ha^{-1}$ from 90 to $360kg\;ha^{-1}$ N fertilization. However, the ratio of tuber to total biomass decreased with increasing N fertilization rate. In the P and K treatments, yields of Taro tuber were the highest at $150kg\;ha^{-1}$ fertilization. Fertilizer use efficiency was decreased by increase of N and K fertilization. Crude protein of Taro tuber was the highest at practical fertilization. Sucrose content of tuber was influenced by phosphate application.

Pollutant Concentrations at Experimental Paddy Plots during Irrigation Season (관개기 시험구 논에서의 오염물질의 농도특성)

  • Cho, Jae-Won;Kim, Jin-Soo;Oh, Kwang-Young;Oh, Seung-Young
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.97-106
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    • 2006
  • The pollutant concentrations at experimental paddy plots with three (excessive, standard, reduced) different fertilization rates were investigated during 2001-2002 irrigation seasons. Mean concentrations of pollutants in ponded water were not significantly different among three experimental plots, but the T-N concentrations in percolated water significantly depended on fertilization rates. The T-N, T-P and $COD_{Cr}$, concentrations in ponded water during early irrigation season (late May to mid-June) were much higher than those during later irrigation season likely due to fertilization and low uptake by young rice crops. The T-N concentrations decreased but the concentrations of T-P and $COD_{Cr}$, increased three days after tillering fertilization. The removal rates of T-N by paddy plots were $0.13-0.16g/m^2{\cdot}d$ for an excessive fertilization plot, $0.08-0.25g/m^2{\cdot}d$ for a standard fertilization plot, and $0.03-0.34g/m^2{\cdot}d$ for a reduced fertilization plot three days after tillering fertilization. On the other hand, T-P and $COD_{Cr}$, were released three days after tillering fertilization.

Growth, Carbon and Nitrogen Status of Container Grown Black Pine (Pinus thunbergii) Seedlings at Various Levels of Foliar Fertilization

  • Kim, Choonsig;Jeong, Jaeyeob;Moon, Tae-Shik;Park, Jun-Ho;Lim, Jong-Taek;Kim, Jong-Ik;Goo, Gwan-Hyo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.98 no.5
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    • pp.558-562
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    • 2009
  • The growth, carbon and nitrogen status of container grown black pine (Pinus thunbergii) seedlings were examined at various levels of foliar fertilization (control, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%). Root collar diameter, height and dry weight of black pine seedlings increased significantly with increasing levels of foliar fertilization (P<0.05). Carbon concentration in needle of black pine seedlings was significantly higher in the foliar fertilization than in the control treatments (P<0.05), while other seedling components such as stem and roots were not significantly different (P>0.05) between the foliar fertilization and the control treatments. Nitrogen concentration and content were significantly greater in the foliar fertilization than in the control treatments (P<0.05). Shoot/root ratio of black pine seedlings (needle+stem dry weight/root dry weight) was greater in the foliar fertilization (2.40-2.89) than in the control treatments (1.87). However, nitrogen use efficiency was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the foliar fertilization (28-46) than in the control (111) treatments. The results indicate that morphological characteristics and nutritional status on container grown black pine seedlings were enhanced by various levels of foliar fertilization.

Effects of Planting Date and Fertilization Amounts on Growth and Yield of Aruncus dioicus var.kamtsccus HARA (정식시기와 시비량이 눈개승마의 생육과 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 김상국
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.142-145
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    • 1998
  • The experiment was conducted to elucidate the optimum planting data and fertilization level of Aruncus dioicus var. kamtscacus HARA. Plant height was increased as the seeding date was delayed. There was no transparent difference on plant height indifferent fertilization level. Nuber of stems was remarkably increased in the fertilization 14-14-12kg. Fresh leaf yield in the fertilization of 24-18-15kg was incresed about 31% comparing in the fertilization of 14-14-12kg. As a result, the optimum planing date and fertilization level was Jan. 15 and 24-18-15kg per 10a, respectively.

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Effect of Preincubation Time, Concentration and Exposure Time of Sperm on In Vitro Fertilization of Porcine Follicular Oocytes Matured in In Vitro (정자의 전처리시간, 농도 및 공동배양시간이 돼지난포란의 체외수정에 미치는 영향)

  • 박병권;임정훈;방남수;이규승
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.225-231
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of preincubation time, concentration and exposure time of sperm on in vitro fertilization of porcine follicular oocytes rnatured in in vitro. The results obtained are as follows ; 1. Effect of preincuhation time for porcine sperm capacitation on in vitro fertilization in medium with heparin was investigated. Normal fertilization rate was highest in 15 min(26.4%). However, there were no significant differences among preincuhation times of 5~90 min, 2. Normal fertilization rates of sperm concentrations were 17.0~26.5%, and normal fertilization rate from l$\times$ l05cell /ml concentration was also higher than those of other sperm concentration. 3. Normal fertilization rates of sperm exposure time of 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 hours were 6.1, 20.8, 27.8, 25.0 and 26.7%, respectively. Normal fertilization rate from sperm exposure time of 12 hours was also higher than that of other sperm exposure times.

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Responses of weed community and soil biota to cessation of fertilization

  • Eo, Jin-U
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.317-323
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    • 2010
  • Nutrient availability is a critical component of agroecosystems, and is relevant to both above- and below- ground interactions. The principal objective of this study was to determine how the cessation of fertilization affects the communities of weeds and soil organisms in a corn/wheat field. Changes in dominant weed species, substrate-induced respiration, and the population density of nematodes and microarthropods were evaluated. Microbial substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and the population density of microarthropods decreased following the cessation of fertilization and were partly correlated with the aboveground weed biomass. The cessation of organic fertilizer application but continuing application of inorganic fertilizer reduced the population density of nematodes. In response to the cessation of fertilization, weed communities were dominated by species with little dependency on fertilization. Amaranthus retroflexus was identified as the most dominant species in the corn field; however, it was replaced by Digitaria ciliaris after the cessation of fertilization. In the wheat field, the cessation of fertilization led to a rapid reduction in the biomass of most weeds, except for Vicia angustifolia, supposedly as the result of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Additionally, the fact that weed biomass was partially correlated with SIR or the population density of microarthropods may reflect a mutual feedback between soil organisms and weeds. The results indicate that the cessation of fertilization alters communities of weeds and soil organisms through changes in weed biomass and interactions with symbiotic microorganisms.

Effect of Long Term Fertilization on Microbial Biomass, Enzyme Activities, and Community Structure in Rice Paddy Soil

  • Lee, Chang Hoon;Kang, Seong Soo;Jung, Ki Youl;Kim, Pil Joo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.487-493
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    • 2013
  • The effects of long-term fertilization on soil biological properties and microbial community structure in the plough layer in a rice paddy soil in southern Korea were investigated in relation to the continuous application of chemical fertilizers (NPK), straw based compost (Compost), combination these two (NPK + Compost) for last 40 years. No fertilization plot (Control) was installed for comparison. Though fertilization significantly improved rice productivity over control, the long-term fertilization of NPK and compost combination was more effective on increasing rice productivity and soil nutrient status than single application of compost or chemical fertilizer. All fertilization treatments had shown significant improvement in soil microbial properties, however, continuous compost fertilization markedly increased soil enzyme and microbial activities as compared to sole chemical fertilization. Results of microbial community structure, evaluated by EL-FAME (ester-linked fatty acid methyl esters) method, revealed big difference among Control, NPK, and Compost. However, both Compost and Compost+NPK treatments belonged to the same cluster after statistical analysis. The combined application of chemical fertilizer and organic amendments could be more rational strategy to improve soil nutrient status and promote soil microbial communities than the single chemical fertilizer or compost application.

Study of Nutrient Uptake and Physiological Characteristics of Rice by $^{15}N$ and Purified Si Fertilization Level in a Transplanted Pot Experiment (중질소와 순수규산 시비수준이 벼의 양분흡수 및 생리적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho Young-Son;Jeon Won-Tae;Park Chang-Young;Park Ki-Do;Kang Ui-Gum
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.408-419
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    • 2006
  • A pot experiment was conducted for two years to evaluate the effects of purified Si fertilization combined with $^{15}N$ on the nutrient uptake, plant growth characteristics, and photosynthetic characteristics of rice in water melon cultivated soil. In 2002, plant height was positively affected at 25 DAT (Day After Transplanting) by Si fertilization in 100%N treatment. However, in 2003, plant height at 25 DAT was negatively affected by Si fertilization in low N level but it was reversed in high N level with initial increase of plant height. Tiller number per pot was positively affected by N and Si fertilization level, especially for high N fertilized treatment. Leaf color was positively affected by Si fertilizatlon in no N fertilized pots, however, Si was not effected in 50%N and 100%N fertilized treatments. N harvest index (NHI) increased with increased Si fertilization in no N plots, however it decreased with increasing of N fertilization level. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increasing of fertilized N but Si fertilization increased NUE in 50%N plots, however, it was not different by the Si fertilization level in 100%N plots. In 50%N+200%Si plots, NUE was greatest with 130 and shoot N content was $16.2g-N/m^{2}$. N content ($g/m^{2}$) in rice plant increased with increasing Si fertilization in no N plots at panicle initiation stage, 50 and 100%N plots at heading stage and all N treatment at harvesting time. This was mostly more efficient in late growth stage than early growth stage. The concentration (%) of P and K increased with increasing N fertilization level at heading and harvesting but it was not significantly different by the Si fertilization treatment except a little decreasing with increasing Si fertilization level at heading. Potassium content was also not significantly related with N fertilization level except increasing with Si fertilization level at panicle initiation stage. Plant Ca content (%) decreased with increasing of Si fertilization at heading stage and Si fertilization increased Ca content at panicle initiation stage and heading stage and it increased with increasing of Si fertilization level. Photosynthetic activity was not directly related with Si fertilization amount, however, Fluorescent factors, Fv'/Fm' and PsII, were positively affected by Si fertilization level. In conclusion, N fertilization in Si 200% fertilized condition should be reduced by about 50% level of recommended N fertilization for rice cropping in green-house water-melon cultivated paddy field. However, improvement of Ps by Si fertilization could not be attributed to Ps activity in the same leaf area but because of increased total leaf area per pot improved fluorescent characteristics.

EFFECTS OF OVARY TYPE, OOCYTE GRADE, HORMONE, SPERM CONCENTRATION AND FERTILIZATION MEDIUM ON IN VITRO MATURATION, FERTILIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF BOVINE FOLLICULAR OOCYTES

  • Im, K.S.;Kim, H.J.;Chung, K.M.;Kim, H.S.;Park, K.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 1995
  • In vitro embryo production (IVP) is affected by various factors during in vitro maturation, fertilization, and development. In this experiment, the effect of ovary type, quality of follicular oocyte, medium used for fertilization, presence of hormone in medium, sperm concentration on in vitro maturation and fertilization were examined for effective IVP. In vitro maturation was carried out using TCM-199 supplemented with 15% FCS and hormones in 5% $CO_2$ incubator for 24h. In vitro fertilization was performed with frozen-thawed sperm in modified mTALP medium containing 0.3% BSA, $10{\mu}g/ml$ heparin, and 5mM/ml caffeine for 24h. The fertilized embryos were co-cultured on monolayer of cumulus cells in TCM-199. When oocytes were collected from functionally active and inactive ovaries, maturation rate was 76.9 and 7.7%, respectively. When oocytes were classified morphologically to good and poor grades, maturation rate was 75 and 58.8%, respectively. FSH + LH + $E_2$ (86.4%) showed higher maturation rate than control (53.0%) and FSH (73%). The fertilization rate was 28.2, 100 and 91.7% in $1.6{\times}10^5$, $5.0{\times}10^5$ and $10.0{\times}10^5$ sperm concentration per ml. When oocytes were fertilized in mTALP and BO media, fertilization and cleavage rates of oocytes in mTALP were higher (84.3 and 56.9%) than those (67.4 and 23.3%) in BO medium. In this experiment, in vitro maturation, fertilization and development of oocytes were affected by type of ovary, grade of oocyte, hormones, sperm concentration and fertilization medium.

Responses of Lactuca Sativa (Lettuce) to Fertilization Rates at Various Soil Moisture Conditions at Protected Cultivation

  • Jung, Kang-Ho;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Han, Kyoung-Hwa;Zhang, Yong-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 2015
  • This research was performed to test the hypothesis that the optimal fertilization rate for lettuce is various with soil moisture conditions. The experiment was conducted under a rainfall-intercepted facility in Suwon, South Korea from 2002 to 2003. Soil was irrigated at 30, 50, or 80 kPa of soil moisture tension at 15 cm soil depth in 2002 spring and fall and 20, 30, 50, or 80 kPa in 2003 spring. Fertilization was performed with four levels in spring for both years: none, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 times of the recommended N, P, and K fertilization rate. The irrigation amount increased with decreased irrigation starting point as soil moisture tension. The maximum yield was found at the lowest soil moisture tension in spring while irrigation at 50 kPa resulted in the greatest yield in fall. The yield responses of lettuce to fertilization rates were various with soil moisture condition. In spring, maximum yield was found at 1.0 or 1.5 times of the recommended fertilization rate at 20, 30, and 50 kPa irrigation while 0.5 or 1.0 times of fertilization rate resulted in the maximum yield in fall. Especially for 80 kPa irrigation in 2003 spring, yield was decreased by fertilization. It suggested that the optimum fertilization rate for lettuce is affected by soil moisture condition and that lower fertilization rate should be suggested when soil is managed in drier condition.