• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fermented-TMR

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Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

  • Hao, W.;Wang, H.L.;Ning, T.T.;Yang, F.Y.;Xu, C.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.816-826
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    • 2015
  • The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from $10^7$ to $10^{10}cfu/g$ during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to $10^9cfu/g$ DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.

Development of a Fermented TMR for Pigs Using Bale-Wrapping System (랩-베일을 이용한 양돈용 TMR 발효사료 제조 시스템 개발)

  • Kim, Hyuck-Joo;Yu, Byeong-Kee;Lee, Sunghyoun;Yu, Ji-Su;Seo, Hyoung-Duk
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.105-116
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we developed a fermented TMR producing system which could a continuous operation of baling and wrapping the mixed TMR. The baling part has fixed chamber of dia. 900 mm and width 900 mm. And the the turn-table type wrapping part is very compact compared to conventional one in market. The test result were: The absorbed power of the prototype in working was 9.0~15.7 kW. The combined baling and wrapping performance was over 20 bales/hr. The leakage in the process was around 1.9 kg for making a 350 kg TMR bale. The diameter of wrapped TMR bale was 900~950 mm, and its weight was 350 kg in average. Therefore the density was $718kg/m^3$, and it was very high density to the inputted TMR. The pH of the fermented TMR was 5.0~5.6 which was similar to the fermented haylage, also the TMR had no butyric acid's odor.

Development of a Pelletizing System of Fermented TMR for Pig Feeding

  • Cha, Jaeyoon;Ali, Mohammod;Hong, Young Sin;Yu, Byeong Kee;Lee, Sunghyun;Seonwoo, Hoon;Kim, Hyuck Joo
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.119-127
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Fermented feedstuffs have been found to improve productivity, reduce manure odor, and increase immunity. However, because there is not a commercialized pelletizing system for fermented total mixed ration (TMR) for pig feeding in Korea, a pelletizing system using TMR fermented feed was developed. Methods: The particle size, density, and volumetric density of the TMR feeds used in the test were measured. The pellet durability index (PDI, %) value of the pelletized TMR feed based on its moisture content, and the amount of pellet production based on the rotation speed of the compression roller were measured. Results: The test materials, TMR1 and TMR2, were approximately compressed to 387 kg/m3 with 18.2% (w.b.) and 544 kg/m3 with 22.2% (w.b.), respectively. Throughout this pellet molding test, the moisture content from 15 to 20% (w.b.) of mixture feedstuffs, including fermented forage, could be used for pellet molding. Based on the results, a small-scale pellet molding system of fermented TMR was designed and manufactured for pig farms. As rotation speed increased, the throughput increased, whereas the moisture content decreased by approximately 2% (w.b.) because of pellet molding. The best yield of pellets with 94.2% PDI was of 536 kg/h at 135 rpm rotation speed. Conclusions: Although the throughput of the prototype increased as the rotation speed increased, it was difficult to operate because of the greater noise and the lower PDI (%) at the higher rotation speed of the pellet molding rotor. It was found that the best production of pellets using the prototype was 536 kg/h having a PDI of 94.2% or more at a rotation speed of 135 rpm.

Effects of Supplemental Synbiotics Composed of Anaerobic Bacteria, Yeast and Mold on the Change of Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of Total Mixed Ration for Cattle (혐기성 박테리아, 효모 및 곰팡이로 제조된 synbiotics 첨가 축우용 완전혼합사료의 성분 변화 및 발효 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Shin-Ja;Shin, Nyeon-Hak;Jung, Ho-Sik;Moon, Yea-Hwang;Lee, Sang-Suk;Lee, Sung-Sill
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.241-248
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    • 2009
  • In order to investigate the effects of synbiotics on change of chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of total mixed ration (TMR), eight TMRs fermented by synbiotics composing the anaerobic microbes (bacteria, yeast, mold) were alloted to the experimental treatments. Treatments were composed of untreated synbiotics(US), bacterial synbiotics (BS), yeast synbiotics (YS), mold synbiotics (MS), bacterial and mold synbiotics (BMS), yeast and mold synbiotics (YMS), bacterial and yeast synbiotics (BYS), and bacterial, yeast and mold synbiotics (BYMS). After 7 days of anaerobic fermentation, fermented-TMRs were exposed to air during 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days. One hundred forty four (8 treatments ${\times}$ 6 exposing days ${\times}$ 3 replications) fermented- TMRs were manufactured by vinyl bag sized of 43 cm by 58 cm. The results obtained were as follows. Moisture contents of the fermented TMRs anaerobically ranged from 41% to 45%, and was similar to those of basal TMRs. As results of anaerobic fermentation, the concentration of crude protein was decreased by 11.7% to 14.8% in the untreated sample, while was rather increased by 11% when the TMR was fermented with BMYS. And also BMYS treatment showed decreases by 32% for crude fiber, 15.5% for NDF and 26.1% for ADF. Internal temperature of fermented-TMRs was highest at 7 day of exposing in the air. The pH of fermented-TMR juice was significant difference betweentreatments after 7 day of exposing in air, and that of BMS was highest at 14 day after exposing in air (P<0.05). Acid buffering capacity was increased in proportion to the exposing day of TMR, and peaked at 7 or 14 days after exposing. Ammonia concentration of fermented-TMRs was highest at 5 day after exposing in the air. Individual volatile fatty acid of fermented-TMR juice was very low level in all treatments. Although BMYS treatment to TMR inclined to increase in crude protein and decrease in fibers, but there were no positive effects on the fermentation characteristics after exposing in the air by supplementation of anaerobic synbiotics to TMR.

Effect of Total Mixed Ration with Fermented Feed on Ruminal In vitro Fermentation, Growth Performance and Blood Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers

  • Kim, S.H.;Alam, M.J.;Gu, M.J.;Park, K.W.;Jeon, C.O.;Ha, Jong-K.;Cho, K.K.;Lee, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.213-223
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    • 2012
  • In this study, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the total mixed ration with fermented feed (TMRF) and total mixed ration (TMR) by rumen in vitro fermentation and their effects on the growth performance and blood characteristics of Hanwoo steers. In experiment 1, three Hanwoo steers ($600{\pm}47$ kg), each permanently fitted with a ruminal cannula were used. In this experiment, three diets designated as T1, TMRF (18.4% fermented feed, tall fescue, mammoth wild rye forage and whole crop barley); T2, TMRF (17.7% fermented feed, rice straw and whole crop barley); and T3, TMR (rice straw, whole crop barley and probiotics, but no fermented feed), which were subjected to rumen in vitro fermentation for 48 h. The results demonstrated that DM disappearance rate gradually increased with advancing fermentation time, but T1 and T2 were higher than the T3 (p<0.05) from 3 h to 12 h, but insignificant (p>0.05) at 24 and 48 h. None of the specific VFAs were affected except for acetic and non volatile lactic acids, which were produced more in T2 than in T1 and T3 at 24 h and 48 h of incubation. A/P was lower in T1 and T2 than inT3 at 24 h (p<0.05) and 48 h (p>0.05) of incubation. These results confirmed that TMRF-related treatment shows a superior performance to that of TMR during the ruminal fermentation period. In experiment 2, the three diets in experiment 1 plus 1 more control diet (concentrates, probiotics and 2% rice straw of body weight) were fed to the 48 Hanwoo steers ($160{\pm}10$ kg) for a period of 168 d. The results demonstrated that the daily and total live weight gain and feed efficiency were higher (p<0.05) in the TMRF and TMR groups than in the control group. SGOT, SGPT and BUN (p<0.05) were reduced in TMRF relative to the control and TMR groups by 168 d which confirmed that TMRF shows better blood profiles than the TMR and control groups. Overall, these results appear to show that TMRF has better in vitro ruminal characteristics than those of TMR; growth performance and blood profiles were also found to be superior in TMRF than in the TMR and control groups. Thus, our findings suggest that TMRF-based feed supplies are favorable for Hanwoo cattle.

Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculant on Fermentation Quality and in vitro Rumen Fermentation of Total Mixed Ration

  • Choi, Yeon Jae;Lee, Sang Suk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.132-140
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    • 2019
  • Fermented total mixed ration (TMR) is a novel feed for ruminants in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the quality of TMR and in vitro ruminal fermentation. Strains of three LAB spp. (Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, L. mucosae) were used in fermentation of TMR. Inoculations with the three LAB spp. lowered pH and increased concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and total organic acid compared to non-LAB inoculated control (only addition of an equivalent amount of water) (p<0.05). Bacterial composition indicated that aerobic bacteria and LAB were higher. However, E. coli were lower in the fermented TMR than those in the control treatment (p<0.05). Among the treatments, L. brevis treatment had the highest concentration of total organic acid without fungus detection. Gas production, pH, and ammonia-nitrogen during ruminal in vitro incubation did not differ throughout incubation. However, ruminal total VFA concentration was higher (p<0.05) in the LAB spp. treatments than the control treatment at 48 hours. Overall, the use of L. brevis as an inoculant for fermentation of high moisture. TMR could inhibit fungi growth and promote lactic fermentation, and enhance digestion in the rumen.

Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

  • Hu, Xiaodong;Hao, Wei;Wang, Huili;Ning, Tingting;Zheng, Mingli;Xu, Chuncheng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.502-510
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR) silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

Effect of the Dietary Supplementation of Fermented Spent Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) Substrates on the Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Hanwoo Steers (새송이버섯 수확 후 배지 발효산물 첨가급여가 한우 거세우의 성장과 도체등급에 미치는 영향)

  • Gal, Sang-Wan;Moon, Yea-Hwang;Cho, Soo-Jeong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1705-1709
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to investigate the feeding effects of the dietary supplementation of fermented spent mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) substrates with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CS47 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (F-SMS) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Thirty two Hanwoo steers were allocated into two feeding groups and assigned equally to two dietary treatments; Control (commercial formula feed for Hanwoo steers and rice straw) and TMR including 30% F-SMS. The nutritional values of TMR including 30% F-SMS was higher crude protein (11.67%) and TDN (72.11%) than rice straw, but not significantly different from commercial formula feed (p<0.05). Feed intake was significantly greater in the TMR including 30% F-SMS than the control (p<0.05), but body weight gain and carcass grades were not influenced by the experimental diets. Based on this study, fermented spent mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) substrate with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CS47 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is may be used as an ingredient of feed in TMR for Hanwoo steer.

Effect of dietary supplementation of fermented spent mushroom substrates from Pleurotus eryngii on Hanwoo Steers (큰느타리버섯 수확후배지 발효사료 급여가 비육한우에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Yea Hwang;Kim, Hye Soo;Kim, Chul Hwan;Cho, Woong Gi;Yoo, Young Bok;Shin, Pyung Gyun;Cho, Soo Jeong
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.108-113
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to investigate the feeding effects of dietary supplementation of fermented spent mushroom substrates (F-SMS) from Pleurotus eryngii with Bacillus subtilis CS21 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Hanwoo steers. The cellulase and xylanase producing bacteria, designated CS21, was isolated from freshly spent mushroom substrates from Pleurotus eryngii and used as probiotics to fermented spent mushroom substrates. Twenty Hanwoo steers were allocated into two feeding groups and assigned equally to two dietary treatments; Control (TMR) and TMR including 30% F-SMS (30% F-SMS TMR). Total gain and feed intake was significantly greater in the 30% F-SMS TMR than control (p<0.05), but carcass grades were not influenced by the experimental diets. Based on this study, fermented spent mushroom substrates from Pleurotus eryngii with B. subtilis CS21 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to use as an ingredient feed in TMR for Hanwoo steers.

Effect of Byproducts Supplementation by Partically Replacing Soybean Meal to a Total Mixed Ration on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics In Vitro (대두박 대체 부산물 위주의 TMR 사료가 반추위 내 미생물의 In Vitro 발효특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Gui Seck;Kim, Eun Joong;Song, Tae Ho;Song, Tae Hwa;Park, Tae Il;Choi, Nag Jin;Kwon, Chan Ho;Chang, Moon Baek
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.129-140
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to evaluate the effects of replacing basic total mixed ration (TMR) with fermented soybean curd, Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal, and spent coffee grounds by-product on rumen microbial fermentation in vitro. Soybean in the basic TMR diet (control) was replaced by the following 9 treatments (3 replicates): maximum amounts of soybean curd (SC); fermented SC (FSC); 3, 5, and 10% FSC + fermented A. princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal (1:1, DM basis, FSCS); and 3, 5, 10% FSC + fermented coffee meal (1:1, DM basis, FSCC) of soybean. FSC, FSCS, and FSCC were fermented using Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 496, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 1493, Lactobacillus plantarum KCTC 1048, and Lactobacillus casei IFO 3533. Replacing dairy cow TMR with FSC treatment led to a pH value of 6 after 8 h of incubation-the lowest value measured (p<0.05), and FSCS and FSCC treatments were higher than SC and FSC treatment after 6 h (p<0.05). Gas production was higher in response to 3% FSC and FSCC treatments than the control after 4-10 h. Dry matter digestibility was increased 0-12 h after FSC treatment (p<0.05) and was the highest after 24 h of 10% FSCS treatment. $NH_3-N$ concentration was the lowest after 24 h of FSC treatment (p<0.05). Microbial protein content increased in response to treatments that had been fermented by the Lactobacillus spp. compared to control and SC treatments (p<0.05). The total concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was increased after 6-12 h of FSC treatment (p<0.05), while the highest acetate proportion was observed 24 h after 5% and 10% FSCS treatments. The FSC of propionate proportion was increased for 0-10 h compared with among treatments (p<0.05). The highest acetate in the propionate ration was observed after 12 h of SC treatment and the lowest with FSCS 3% treatment after 24 h. Methane ($CH_4$) emulsion was lower with A. princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal and spent coffee grounds treatments than with the control, SC, and FSC treatments. These experiments were designed to replace the by-products of dairy cow TMR with SC, FSC, FSCS, and FSCC to improve TMR quality. Condensed tannins contained in FSCS and FSCC treatments, which reduced $CH_4$ emulsion in vitro, decreased rumen microbial fermentation during the early incubation time. Therefore, future experiments are required to develop a rumen continuous culture system and an in vivo test to optimize the percentages of FSC, FSCS, and FSCC in the TMR diet of the dairy cows.