• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fermented garlic

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The Inhibiton Effects of Hypercholesterolemia and Platelet in Fermented and Non-Fermented Preparation of Garlic

  • Kim, Hyun-Kyoung
    • International Journal of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2019
  • This Dietary cholesterol augments lipid profile and primes production and activation of platelets, leading to development of atherosclerosis which produce several detrimental effects on cardiovascular health. Ethnomedicine and Mediterranean diet are natural sources and cost effective modes against several ailments including cardiovascular diseases while fermented foods have gained interest due to their increased nutrient profile, enhanced bioavailability and efficacy. Garlic has been known to reduce cholesterol and inhibit platelet activation. We examined whether fermented garlic ameliorates effects of hypercholesterolemia and platelet functions in rats. Methodology: Male SD rats were fed with hypercholesterolemia diet and treated with spirulina, fermented and non-fermented preparations of garlic for one month. Platelet aggregation and granule secretion were assessed to evaluate platelet activation. Liver and kidney weights, lipid and enzymatic profile of serum and whole blood analysis was performed. Expressions of SREBP, ACAT-2 and HMG-CoA were assessed using RT-PCR while liver and adipose tissues were analyzed for histological changes. Both fermented and non-fermented garlic inhibited platelet aggregation and granule secretion while fermented garlic showed greater inhibitor tendency. Fermented garlic significantly reduced liver weight and triglycerides concentrations than non-fermented garlic. Similarly, fermented garlic greatly abrogated the detrimental effects of steatosis on liver and adipose tissues. Fermented garlic significantly improved lipid profile and modulated platelet functions, thereby inhibiting atherosclerosis and platelet related cardiovascular disorders.

Antioxidant Activities and Quality Characteristics of Fermented and Aged Garlic Yanggeng (발효숙성마늘 페이스트의 양을 달리하여 제조한 발효숙성마늘 양갱의 품질특성 및 항산화성)

  • Kwak, Eun-Shil;Kim, Hye-Ran;Lee, Kun-Jong;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.739-746
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    • 2009
  • The quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of Yanggeng prepared with different amounts of fermented and aged garlic paste(0, 10, 20 or 30%) were determined. The pH of fermented and aged garlic Yanggeng decreased according to the amount of added fermented and aged garlic paste, whereas the acidity increased. In addition, the lightness of fermented and aged garlic Yanggeng decreased according to the amount of added fermented and aged garlic paste. In the texture analysis, hardness, cohesiveness and springiness of fermented and aged garlic Yanggeng were lower than those of the control. Total phenol content was highest in 30 % fermented and aged garlic Yanggeng. The antioxidant activities of fermented and aged garlic Yanggeng increased according to the amount of added fermented and aged garlic paste. The IC50 value of 30% fermented and aged garlic Yanggeng was 45.1 mg/g for DPPH and 29.6 mg/g for hydroxyl radical. The results of the sensory test showed that Yanggeng with 20% fermented and aged garlic paste had the highest score in appearance, overall preference and texture. Based on these results, it was suggested that the addition of 20% fermented and aged garlic to Yanggeng was appropriate for good food qualities both in terms of the physicochemical and antioxidative activities.

Processing Optimization of Chocolate with Fermented and Aged Garlic Extract (발효숙성마늘 추출물 첨가 초콜릿 제조 조건의 최적화)

  • Shin, Ji-Hun;Joo, Na-Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.216-224
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to aid in the development of the optimal recipe for chocolate with fermented and aged garlic extract (Allium sativum var. pekinense). We added garlic extract in order to increase the nutritional value of the chocolate. The optimal sensory composite recipe was determined, following Central Composites for chocolate with different levels of fermented and aged garlic extract (A) and cream (B), while analysis was performed by Response Surface Methodology, from the date that the sensory evaluation was performed. Ten experimental recipes, including 2 reference points in the composition, were selected. The compositional and functional properties were measured, and physical and sensory values were applied to the mathematical models. Perturbation plots showed the influence of each ingredient on the final product. Measurements showed significant values in lightness, sweetness, pH, hardness and cohesiveness, while sensory measurements showed significant values in color, texture, sourness, bitterness and overall quality. The optimum formulations were calculated by numerical and graphical methods, as being 34.61g fermented and aged garlic extract and 72.68g cream for each 200g chocolate. As well it was revealed that the aptitude of chocolate was more influenced by fermented garlic extract than it was by cream.

Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Fermented Garlic Husk (발효 마늘껍질의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Ra-Jeong;Kang, Min-Jung;Lee, Soo-Jung;Shin, Jung-Hye;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.12
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    • pp.1731-1738
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the possibility for functional characteristics of garlic husk and its products fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum. Each water and 80% ethanol extracts made from garlic husk and its fermented products were tested for antioxidant activities. Total mineral content of fermented garlic husk was 2,056.23 mg/100 g and its content was 1.5 times higher than the unfermented sample. Total phenol contents were the highest in the ethanol extracts made from fermented garlic husk. Activities of electron donating, reducing power and NO radical scavenging in the ethanol extracts of fermented product were significantly higher than the unfermented sample. ABTS radical scavenging activity of fermented garlic husk was higher than the unfermented sample. Also, its activity was higher in the ethanol extracts than the water extracts. Nitrite scavenging activity of garlic husk was significantly different between fermented and not fermented sample. Because antioxidative effects of fermented garlic husk were elevated, these results recommended its utilization as a functional materials for animal feed.

Effects of Black Garlic on the Rheological and Functional Properties of Garlic Fermented by Leuconostoc mesenteroides (흑 마늘 첨가에 따른 마늘 젖산 발효물의 물성 및 기능성평가)

  • Son, Se-Jin;Lee, Sam-Pin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.864-871
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    • 2010
  • White and black garlic pastes were fermented by Leuconostoc mesenteroides and evaluated for its rheological and functional properties such as consistency, antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The pH, acidity and solid content of black garlic paste were 4.60, 1.23%, 22.63%, respectively. The viable cell counts and consistency of fermented garlic was decreased by adding higher amounts of black garlic paste. Fermentation of white garlic (40%)/black garlic (10%) showed viable cell counts of $1.6\times10^{11}$, fluid consistency of 9.31 $Pa{\cdot}s^n$. Water and 70% ethanol extract from fermented garlic showed the polyphenol content of 6.29mg/mL and 5.99 mg/mL, respectively. Also, water extract indicated the DPPH radical scavenging effects and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity with $IC_{50}$ 1.03 mg/mL and $IC_{50}$ 68.54 mg/mL, respectively. ACE inhibitory activity was increased with adding black garlic paste. Conversion of sucrose into dextran polymer in fermented garlic was drastically decreased by the addition of black garlic paste, indicating from 85% (0% black garlic) to 20% (20% black garlic) conversion yield. Garlic paste fermented with 10% black/40% white garlic showed the decrease in consistency and viable cell counts during both cold and freezing storages. In particular, consistency of fermented garlic was lower during freezing storage than cold storage, and the viable cell counts was drastically decreased after storage for 2 weeks.

Effects of Fermented Garlic Powder on Production Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Profiles and Fatty Acids Composition of Egg Yolk in Laying Hens

  • Ao, X.;Yoo, J.S.;Lee, J.H.;Jang, H.D.;Wang, J.P.;Zhou, T.X.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.786-791
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    • 2010
  • The effects of fermented garlic powder on production performance, egg quality, blood profiles and fatty acid composition of egg yolk in laying hens were studied in a 35-d experiment. Two-hundred and forty (ISA brown) layers aged 41 weeks were randomly allocated into the following four treatments: i) CON (basal diet); ii) G1 (CON+fermented garlic powder 1.0%); iii) G2 (CON+fermented garlic powder 2.0%) and iv) G3 (CON+fermented garlic powder 3.0%). There were no differences (p>0.05) among treatments in egg production, egg weight, eggshell breaking strength and eggshell thickness throughout the whole experimental period. However, yolk height was increased significantly (p<0.05) by the addition of fermented garlic powder during the 5th week while yolk color was greater (p<0.05) in G2 and G3 than in CON and G1 in the 5th week. Compared with CON, Haugh unit was increased (p<0.05) in response to fermented garlic powder treatments during the 5th week. No significant effects on total protein, albumin and IgG were observed in response to any of the treatments over the experimental period (p>0.05). There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration when the dietary level of fermented garlic powder was increased from 0.0 to 3.0%. The levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in response to G2 and G3 while monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were higher (p<0.05) in G2 and G3 treatment groups than in CON and G1. Compared with other treatments, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and PUFA:SFA ratio were higher (p<0.05) in G3. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that addition of fermented garlic powder reduced plasma cholesterol concentration and did not cause adverse effects on production performance. Moreover, addition of 3.0% garlic powder decreased SFA but increased PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio in egg yolk.

Effect of Garlic on Serum Lipids Profiles and Leptin in Rats Fed High Fat Diet

  • Kang, Soon-Ah;Shin, Ho-Jung;Jang, Ki-Hyo;Choi, Sung-Eun;Yoon, Kyung-Ah;Kim, Jin-Sook;Chun, Hye-Kyung;Lim, Yoong-Ho
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2006
  • Although garlic has been reported to have impressive effects in lowering serum lipids, there have been controversial evaluations on these effects. To find the potential fator causing the inconsistency in the previous studies, we examined the effects of two types of garlic according to the producing-area (hangihyung garlic, nangihyung garlic) on serum lipid profiles and leptin level. Thirthy six of 4 wk old Sprague Dawley male rats fed high fat diet (40% of calories as fat) for 6 wks to induce obesity, and subsequently fed 5% garlic powder supplemented (HF+H: hangihyung garlic powder, HF+N: nangihyung garlic powder) high fat diets (w/w) for further 5 wk. For the comparison, normal control group fed AIN-76A diet (11.7% of calories as fat). Supplementation with hangihyung and nangihyung garlic resulted in a significant reduction of high fat induced body weight gain, white fat (i.e., epididymal, visceral and peritoneal fat) development, adipocyte hypertrophy and the development of hyperinsulinemia and hyperliptinemia. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol level was greatly reduced by hangihyung garlic supplementation (p<0.05). The HDL-cholesterol level was increased by dietary hangihyung and nangihyung garlic. There were slight non-significant decreases in triglyceride and total cholesterol of HF+N group as compared to those of HF group. Leptin level of HF+H group was found to be significantly lower than HF group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference among N group and HF+N group. These results suggest that hangihyung garlic may lead to the higher activity in improving lipid profiles than nangihyung garlic. Whether the hypolipidemic effect of garlic increases in a species-dependent has yet to be determined and awaits further research.

Quality Characteristics of Vinegar Added with Different Levels of Black Garlic (흑마늘의 첨가량을 달리한 식초의 품질특성)

  • Sim, Hye Jin;Seo, Weon Taek;Choi, Myoung Hyo;Kim, Kyoung Hwa;Shin, Jung Hye;Kang, Min Jung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.16-26
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we aimed to develop functional vinegar with different levels of black garlic through two stages of fermentation. Black garlic vinegars were prepared from black garlic and water (w/w) mixed with 1:2 (BG3), 1:5 (BG6), 1:9 (BG9) and 1:11 (BG12), and adding the sugar by adjusting the soluble solids content to $14^{\circ}Brix$. The alcohol content of black garlic vinegar was 5.2-5.5% after 7 days of alcohol fermentation at $25^{\circ}C$. Acetic acid fermented was at $30^{\circ}C$ for 25 days and samples were taken at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20 and 25 days. The pH of black garlic vinegar was not significantly different among the samples, but acidity was increased during fermentation. Total polyphenol contents showed irregular changes with the fermentation periods and were higher by black garlic content. At 25 days fermentation, total polyphenol contents were 18.96-56.56 mg/100 mL. Acetic acid content of black garlic vinegars was higher than other organic acids. S-allyl cysteine (SAC) contents of BG3 and BG6 were 13.03-14.54 and 1.69-2.20 mg/L, respectively. However SAC was not detected in BG9 and BG12. In 25 days fermented black garlic vinegar, the major mineral was K with a content ratio of 61-68% of total minerals. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of 25 days fermented black garlic vinegar were stronger at higher black garlic content.

Effects of the Fermented Black Garlic Extract on Lipid Metabolism and Hepatoprotection in Mice (발효흑마늘 추출물이 흰쥐의 지질대사 및 간기능 개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Soo Yeon;Han, Kyung-Hoon;Bae, Song-Hwan;Han, Sung Hee;Lee, Yong Kwon
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the functionality of fermented black garlic extracts under various conditions. Black garlic powder was prepared by aging for 0~72 hours at 80℃ depending on relative humidity (RH). It showed the highest antioxidant effects among the samples; the total antioxidant activity of black garlic powders at RH 75%, 84%, and 90% for 72 hours was increased 31.9 times, 28.2 times, and 22.6 times compared with that of the fresh garlic powder, respectively. Also, the alliin content was gradually decreased. S-ally-L-cysteine and S-ethyl-cysteine levels were increased; the highest values were 495.9 ㎍/g and 1,769.7 ㎍/g after aging for 72 hours at RH 75%. Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were increased following high fat diet feeding, but the rise was obviously reduced by administration of black garlic extract. The total cholesterol, LDL/VLDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride contents in serum were significantly lower in methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet treatment groups than in the positive control group. The concentration was increased following the intake of black garlic and fermented black garlic extracts. Therefore, black garlic extracts could be an ideal material as a dietary supplement in healthy functional foods to improve the effects on fatty liver.

Anticardiovascular Diseases Effects of Fermented Garlic and Fermented Chitosan

  • Kim, Hyun-Kyoung;Lee, Jeong-Hun
    • International Journal of Advanced Culture Technology
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2018
  • Garlic is a medicinal plant used throughout the world for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiplatelet activities. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide obtained from chitin, and derivatives of chitosan have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation and adhesion. We hypothesized that fermented preparations of these products may possess stronger antiplatelet effects than the non-fermented forms owing to the increased bioavailability of the bioactive compounds produced during fermentation. Therefore, we compared these compounds via in vitro and ex vivo platelet aggregation assays by using standard light transmission aggregometry and ex vivo granule secretions from rat platelets. We found that fermented preparations exerted more potent and significant inhibition of platelet aggregation both in vitro and ex vivo. Likewise, ATP release from dense granules of platelets was also significantly inhibited in fermented preparation-treated rat platelets compared to that in non-fermented preparation-treated ones. We concluded that fermented preparations exerted more potent effects on platelet function both in vitro and ex vivo, possibly as a result of the increased bioavailability of active compounds produced during fermentation. We therefore suggest that fermented products may be potent therapeutics against platelet-related CVDs and can be used as antiplatelet and antithrombotic agents.