• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fermented Soybean

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Investigation of Fermented soybean sauce on Literatures before the 17th Century (17세기 이전 장류(醬類)에 대한 문헌적 고찰)

  • Choi, Young-Jin;Cho, Shin-Ho;Chung, Rak-Won;Kim, Eun-Mi;Won, Sun-Im;Cha, Gyung-Hee;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Lee, Hyo-Gee
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.107-123
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    • 2007
  • There were fifty two kinds of fermented soybean sauce before 17th century thirteen recorded in ${\ulcorner}$Sangayorock${\lrcorner}$, two in ${\ulcorner}$Sasichanyo${\lrcorner}$, one in ${\ulcorner}$Yongjechongwha${\lrcorner}$, nine in ${\ulcorner}$Soowonjabbang${\lrcorner}$, one in ${\ulcorner}$Domoondaejak${\lrcorner}$, six in ${\ulcorner}$Dongyoebogam${\lrcorner}$, four in ${\ulcorner}$Gushangchalyo${\lrcorner}$, five in ${\ulcorner}$Guhwangboyubang${\lrcorner}$, two in ${\ulcorner}$Yorock${\lrcorner}$, four in ${\ulcorner}$Chisengyoram${\lrcorner}$ and five in ${\ulcorner}$Joobangmoon${\lrcorner}$. These books had thing to know when making fermented soybean sauce like kinds of soybean sauce, how to make it, its ingredients and quantities to be used, how to make fermented soybean sauce in haste, and how to remake wrong made fermented soybean sauce, etc. Before 17th century, fermented soybean malt was divided into two kinds the only soybean malt and the mixed soybean malt that had bean, wheat, wheat flour and wheat bran. The bean only soybean malt was further divided into mashed soybean malt (Beans were steamed and mashed into past.) and unmashed soybean malt (Beans maintained their shape without being mashed.) while mashed soybean malts were made in Winger, in January of February, unmashed and mixed soybean malts were made in Summer, in July. When made fermented soybean sauce, mashed and unmashed soybean malts were used as they were and mixed soybean malt was dried and powdered for use. Fermented soybean sauce before 17th century could be classified by the features of soybean malts being used, Normal fermented soybean sauce was made from bean only soybean malts and other ingredients. Shi(시) was made from unmashed soybean malts, in which beans maintained their shape, and Gowhajang and Jeupjang were made from mixed soybean and wheat bran. Fermented soybean sauce was also made from old fermented soybean sauce, yeast. water leftover after boiling bean leaves, and soybean chaff without soybean malt. There were also side dish type soybean sauce like Kongjaban today and fish and meat sauce made from flesh ingredients. To make fermented soybean sauce in haste, the soybean sauce was heated. Beside there were how to maintain fermented soybean sauce and how to remake wrong made fermented soybean sauce.

Physico-chemical Properties of Fermented Soybean Roasted on Different Roasting Conditions (볶음 조건에 따른 발효 콩의 이화학적 특성 연구)

  • You, Min jung;Choi, Nam-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.643-651
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    • 2016
  • This study was investigated the difference in the quality characteristics of the fermented soybean roasted with different conditions for making chungyukjang. Roasted condition of soybean was decided by pre-test, which was on $140^{\circ}C$ for 21 min, $180^{\circ}C$ 9.5 min, and $220^{\circ}C$ 6 min. Fermented soybean with different roasted condition and conventionally made cheonggukjang were measured for proximate composition, color, pH, amino nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, free sugar and amino acids. The lightness and yellowness of soybean fermented by conventional method was higher than those of the fermented soybean with roasted soybean. The contents of free sugar of fermented soybean roasted on $220^{\circ}C$ for 6 min (FS220) was the highest among the group and followed by fermented soybean roasted on $180^{\circ}C$ for 9.5 min (FS180), $140^{\circ}C$ 21 min (FS140) and conventional cheonggukjang (FS0). The contents of total free amino acid was highest on fermented soybean roasted on $140^{\circ}C$ for 21 min (FS140) and followed by fermented soybean roasted on $180^{\circ}C$ for 9.5 min (FS180), $220^{\circ}C$ 6 min (FS220) and conventional cheonggukjang (FS0).

Inhibition of Bacillus cereus Growth and Toxin Production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 in Fermented Soybean Products

  • Eom, Jeong Seon;Choi, Hye Sun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.44-55
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    • 2016
  • Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that has been isolated from contaminated fermented soybean food products and from the environment. B. cereus produces diarrheal and emetic toxins and has caused many outbreaks of foodborne diseases. In this study, we investigated whether B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7, isolated from rice doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste), a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, shows antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and regulates its toxin gene expression. B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus and inhibited the expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM). We also found that addition of water extracts of soybean and buckwheat soksungjang (Korean fermented soybean paste made in a short time) fermented with B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 significantly reduced the growth and toxin expression of B. cereus. These results indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 could be used to control B. cereus growth and toxin production in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide a basis for the development of candidate biological control agents against B. cereus to improve the safety of fermented soybean food products.

Understanding the Factors Affecting the Acceptance for Fermented Soybean Products

  • Chung, La-Na;Chung, Seo-Jin
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.144-150
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    • 2008
  • The main objective of this study was to understand the factors affecting the acceptance of fermented soybean products. Seventy-six consumers rated the acceptance and perceived intensity of 4 types of Korean and 4 types of Japanese style fermented soybean products. The consumer's food variety seeking tendency and the general attitude toward various fermented soybean products were measured. Ten descriptive analysis panelists evaluated the sensory characteristics of the 8 samples. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were applied to the data sets. Fermented soybean products consisting of sweet and moist sensory characteristics were preferred the most. The variety seeking tendency was not an effective predictor for understanding the acceptance of the products tasted in the experiment. K-means cluster analysis identified 3 sub-consumer segments sharing a common preference pattern for the 8 samples within each group. These 3 groups somewhat differed in the consumption frequency, acceptance, and familiarity of various fermented soybean products in general.

A Literature Study on the Jang (Fermented Soybean Sauce) in the First Half of the Joseon Dynasty (조선시대 전반기의 두장류(豆醬類)에 관한 문헌적 고찰)

  • Han, Bok-Ryo;Kim, Gwi-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2020
  • This study categorized and made considerations of the fermented soybean pastes into Meju, Chungjang, Si, mixed Jang, and other Jang in accordance with the manufacturing methods described in the fermented soybean paste section of Sangayorok (1450's), Suunjapbang (1540's) and Gyemiseo (1554). These are ancient cook books written in Chinese characters during the first half of the Joseon Dynasty. The content on the fermented soybean pastes recorded in these books included 24 items in Sangayorok, 11 items in Suunjapbang, and 14 items in Gyemiseo. In conclusion, the most important fermented soybean pastes during the first half of the Joseon Dynasty were those used to produce soy sauce-like seasoning for the purpose of a-chieving a salty taste with Meju made of soybeans as the main ingredient. The manufacturing techniques for such traditional fermented soybean pastes have been passed down through history to the present era.

A NOTE ON THE REMOVAL OF PHYTATE IN SOYBEAN MEAL USING Aspergillus usami

  • Ilyas, A.;Hirabayasi, M.;Matsui, T.;Yano, H.;Yano, F.;Kikishima, T.;Takebe, M.;Hayakawa, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.135-138
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    • 1995
  • Soybean meal was fermented by Aspergillus usami in order to reduce phytate content. Aflatoxin B1 was not detected in the fermented soybean meal. The contents of crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract and crude ash were slightly increased following fermentation with a concomitant reduction in nitrogen free extract. Though the fermentation partly degraded proteins in the soybean meal, there was small difference in amino acid composition between the soybean meal and the fermented soybean meal. The results showed that the fermentation did not affect nutritional value of protein in soybean meal. Approximately 55% of phosphorus extracted by trichloroacetic acid was inositol hexaphosphate (phytate) in the soybean meal. The content of inositol tetra to hexaphosphates was not detected in the fermented soybean meal. These results indicated that the fermentation almost completely eliminated phytate in soybean meal. Phytase activity was not detected in the unfermented soybean meal. However, the enzyme activity in the fermented soybean meal was 167.7 U/g. When the fermented soybean meal in supplemented in formula feeds, phytase in the fermented soybean meal might partly degrade the phytate in other ingredients in the digestive tract. The fermented soybean meal is possibly used as a phytate-free protein source of feed, which contains high available phosphorus.

Effects of Fermented Soybean upon Anti-inflammation and Intestinal Mucous Membrane Permeability (청국장의 항염증 및 장점막 투과성 개선 효과)

  • Kim, Hyung-Gu;Lee, Myeong-Jong;Kim, Ho-Jun;Kim, Ki-Cheol;Bose, Shambhunath
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.33-47
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    • 2012
  • Objectives This study was designed to investigate the effects of fermented soybean upon anti-inflammation, cytotoxicity, antioxidant and intestinal mucous membrane permeability by measuring the cell viability, NO (nitric oxide) production, DPPH, Polyphenol, HRP and TEER in cells like Raw 264.7 and HCT 116 using fermented soybean. Methods Raw 264.7 cell and HCT 166 cell were used in this study. And fermented soybean powders were used for the experimental group and soybean powders for the control group. There was inflammation response upon using lipopolysaccharide(LPS). Fermented soybean powders and soybean powders were in a respectively different dose added to the cells with LPS. MTT assay, NO, DPPH and Polyphenol measurement, TEER, HRP were conducted for each cell. The results of this study were presented in mean and standard deviation. Results 1. In Raw 254.7 cells added with $100{\mu}l/ml$ unfermented soybean powders, 104.95% higher than 62.59% was measured. In Raw 254.7 cells added with $100{\mu}l/ml$ fermented soybean powders, there was 74.90% measured higher than 62.59%, which was a significant result. 2. By a gradual increase of unfermented soybean powders like $0.1{\mu}l/ml$, $1.0{\mu}l/ml$, $10{\mu}l/ml$, $100{\mu}l/ml$, the measured NO were also gradually decreased $53.12{\mu}M$, $47.57{\mu}M$, $37.02{\mu}M$, $28.16{\mu}M$. In case of cells added with fermented soybean powders, $43.95{\mu}M$ NO was measured in $0.1{\mu}l/ml$ which is significant, and in other cases, mostly measured over$ 56.72{\mu}M$. 3. It was inferred that fermented soybean powders have anti-inflammatory effects of maintaining intestinal mucous membrane permeability because the measured values of cells in both groups were all higher than $133.62{\Omega}$ measured of cells added with only LPS. And measured values of cells in both groups were all lower than 2.26 measured of cells added with only LPS. 4. In case of experiment DPPH and polyphenol measurement, fermented group was all higher than unfermented group. Conclusion From the results of conducting MTT assay, NO measurement, and TEER, HRP by using cells Raw 264.7 and HCT-116, even though there was no significance in the correlation between cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory effects, both unfermented soybean powders and fermented soybean powders were shown to have intestinal mucous membrane permeability improvement effects. This effects could be applicable for autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases and so additional studies are expected in the future. From the results of conducting DPPH, Polyphenol measurement, Fermented soybean may be useful as potential antioxidant.

Bacillus megatherium group에 의한 발효식품 연구 1

  • 계성렬;정윤수;이계호
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.26-29
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    • 1963
  • 1. Cooked soybean was fermented for about a week by Bacillus megatherium 88-3, D-28 and D-28a; and compared with the cooked soybean which was not fermented, this fermented soybean showed much increase in vitamin $B_{12}$ and $B_2$, while vitamin $B_1$ decreased. 2. In the process of fermenting the cooked soybean, Bacillus megatherium, 88-3 is the bacteria which produces brown pigment; and Bacillus megatherium D-28 and D-28a is the bacteria which produces yellow pigment. 3. In weight, fermented soybean-fed rat showed more increase than the unfermented soybean-fed rat. But the growth of the rat fed with Bacillus megatherium 88-3 fermented soybean was not good. Probably, this phenomenon came from the trouble in rat's metabolism by brown pigment. 4. In food efficiency, Bacillus megatherium D-28a is 4.3% lower than Bacillus megatherium B-938, but it is 17.l% higher than the unfermented cooked soybean. Bacillus megatherium 88-3, which is 47.1% lower in food efficiency than the unfermented cooked soybean, has been found "not good" in the growth of rat.th of rat.

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Physicochemical Quality Characteristics of Fermented Soybean Paste Sauce added Lotus Leaf Powder (연잎분말을 첨가한 된장소스의 이화학적 품질 특성)

  • Han, Hye-Young;Lee, Seung-Ju
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of the study is to examine the physicochemical and quality characteristics of fermented soybean paste sauce containing lotus leaf powder at concentrations of 0% (control), 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%. The color of increasing the amount of concentrated lotus leaf powder in the fermented soybean paste sauce tended to increase the pH, total soluble solids, saltinity and viscosity. It also tended to increase total polyphenol, flavonoids content and DPPH radical scavenging ability. The total bacteria numbers increased with storage period, and those of fermented soybean paste sauce with 4% lotus leaf powder were lower compared to the other samples. The results of this study suggest that lotus leaf is a beneficial ingredient for increasing quality characteristics and the functionality of fermented soybean paste sauce.

Ethanol Extract of Fermented Soybean, Chungkookjang, Inhibits the Apoptosis of Mouse Spleen, and Thymus Cells

  • Kim, Han-Bok;Lee, Hye-Sung;Kim, Sook-Jin;Yoo, Hyung-Jae;Hwang, Jae-Sung;Chen, Gang;Youn, Hyun-Joo
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.256-261
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    • 2007
  • Apoptosis is a step of the cell cycle which is important in the regulation of immune cell populations. Chungkookjang is a Korean traditional fermented soybean containing microorganisms, enzymes, and bioactive compounds which was used in the treatment of mouse spleen as well as thymus cells (CH1-fermented soybean containing barley, wormwood, and sea tangle; CH2-fermented soybean) and was found to exhibit substantially reduced small DNA fragmentation. An MTT assay showed that the treatment of CH1 and CH2 into the mouse splenocytes and thymocytes sharply increased their survival. Moreover, a FACS analysis also showed that CH1 and CH2 are effective at suppressing the apoptosis of splenocytes and thymocytes. The fermented soybean isoflavone concentrations, which are implicated in lowering breast and prostate cancers, lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and improving bone health, were determined using Capillary Electrophoresis-Electrochemical Detection (CE-ED). The amount of Daidzein in fermented soybean significantly increased by 44-fold dramatically, compared with those in unfermented soybean. In this study, we demonstrated that ethanol extracts of Chungkookjang promote the survival of the mouse spleen and thymus cells in culture by suppressing their apoptotic death. Future studies should investigate which genes are related to apoptosis of the immune cells.