• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fermentation and Digestion

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A study on Enhanced Efficiencies of Methane Fermented Alcohol Wastewater Treatment by Supplement of Nutrients (영양물질 주입에 의한 메탄 발효 주정폐액의 효율증진에 관한 연구)

  • 안승구;이인학;진서형
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.40-49
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    • 1997
  • In Korea, naked barley and tapioca are main raw materials for the production of fermentation ethyl alcohol, and one million drums bf 95% fermentation ethyl alcohol is produced per year by use of them. Stillage of alcoholic fermentation is mostly digested by methane fermentation process, and methane gas occured if methane fermentation process is recovered and mixed with fuel to decrease 25-30% for total fuel used in factories. In the anaerobic digestion process of naked barley stillage, supplement of nutrients is necessary to slove the problems caused by inhibitory materials contained if stillage and deficiency of nutrients. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine why the anaerobic digesters using the naked barley distillery wastewater have shown the poor digestability frequently and how to control it. As the poor digestion was supposed to be occurred by the lack of iron as trace nutrient, the experiments were carried out to find out the optimum dosage and the way of addition of iron and to assess the quantitative evaluation of the type of iron in digesters. Initially, bottle test as batch digesters and lab-scaled continuous flow digesters were used in order to determine the digestion characteristics with tapioca and naked barley distillery wastewater. According to the results of batch tests, the poor digestion was caused by volatile fatty acids and could be improved by adding of calcium. The activity of the methanogenic bacteria were increased remarkably when the iron was added to the digester in the form of mixture with substrates.

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New Fermentation Technique for Complete Digestion of Soybean Protein

  • Lee, Jeong-Ok;Park, Mi-Hwa;Choi, Yung-Hyun;Ha, Yeong-Lae;Ryu, Chung-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1904-1907
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    • 2007
  • The aim of this study was to develop a new fermentation method in order to improve the digestion of soybean protein, and to promote normal fermentation of soybean. A proximate composition, such as moisture, pH, and reducing sugar, of fermented soybeans by the new fermentation was similar to those of controls. Neutral protease activity, the most important factor for fermented soybean products, was the highest, having about 636 Dig at 54 h fermentation. The content of total free amino acid was almost 3-18 times higher than controls. The three-step fermented soybeans can be used as a functional food ingredient for human consumption, with higher protein digestibility.

Kinetic Evaluation of Methane Fermentation of Thermally Disintegrated Wastewater Sludge (열처리한 하수슬러지 메탄발효의 동력학적 해석)

  • Park, Ki Young;Lee, Jae Woo;Chung, Tai Hak
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.927-933
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    • 2007
  • Waste activated sludge (WAS) was thermally pretreated to enhance hydrolysis and ultimately methane yield. Batch and semi-continuous anaerobic digestion were conducted to evaluate the performance of methane fermentation of the hydrolyzed sludge and to investigate the kinetics of sludge fermentation. Thermal pretreatment remarkably enhanced digestion performances particularly the methane fermentation with three times more methane production than before the pretreatment. Gas production and kinetic parameters in the semi-continuous anaerobic digestion were estimated using Chen Hashimoto model. The model simulation fitted well the experimental results and the model was shown to be suitable for evaluating the effects of disintegration of WAS in anaerobic digestion. Three parameters ($B_o$, K, and ${\mu}_m$) determined by model simulation were $0.0807L-CH_4/g-VS$, 0.453 and $0.154d^{-1}$ for control sludge, and $0.253L-CH_4/g-VS$, 0.835 and $0.218d^{-1}$ for thermally pretreated sludge, respectively.

Comparative Analysis of Performance and Microbial Characteristics Between High-Solid and Low-Solid Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge Under Mesophilic Conditions

  • Lu, Qin;Yi, Jing;Yang, Dianhai
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.110-119
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    • 2016
  • High-solid anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge achieves highly efficient volatile solid reduction, and production of volatile fatty acid (VFA) and methane compared with conventional low-solid anaerobic digestion. In this study, the potential mechanisms of the better performance in high-solid anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated by using 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing and real-time PCR to analyze the microbial characteristics in sewage sludge fermentation reactors. The results obtained by 454 highthroughput pyrosequencing revealed that the phyla Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were the dominant functional microorganisms in high-solid and low-solid anaerobic systems. Meanwhile, the real-time PCR assays showed that high-solid anaerobic digestion significantly increased the number of total bacteria, which enhanced the hydrolysis and acidification of sewage sludge. Further study indicated that the number of total archaea (dominated by Methanosarcina) in a high-solid anaerobic fermentation reactor was also higher than that in a low-solid reactor, resulting in higher VFA consumption and methane production. Hence, the increased key bacteria and methanogenic archaea involved in sewage sludge hydrolysis, acidification, and methanogenesis resulted in the better performance of high-solid anaerobic sewage sludge fermentation.

Kinetics of Anaerobic Digestion : Temperature Effects on Highly Loaded Digesters (혐기성소화(嫌氣性消化)의 동역학(動力學) : 고부하시(高負荷時)의 온도영향(溫度影響))

  • Chang, Duk;Chung, Tai Hak
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 1988
  • Anaerobic digestion at the temperature of $35-55^{\circ}C$ was conducted using an artificial sludge of uniform composition. The hydraulic retention time of 5 days was chosen because the temperature effect was effectively shown at a high loading. Inhibition of the methane fermentation decreased as the temperature increased. Acid fermentation was prevalent at the mesophilic and intermediate temperatures, while active methane fermentation took place at $55^{\circ}C$. Temperature not only affects activity of the microorganisms, but also affects physical and chemical properties of the sludge, Digestion inhibition was much reduced when the feed sludge was diluted, and active methane fermentation was possible at all temperatures. The digestion efficiency was governed by the organic loading rate as well as the hydraulic 10ading rate. No reduction of the digestion efficiency at $40-45^{\circ}C$, which had been referred to a critical temperature range, was observed. The digestion efficiency increased monotonically from mesophilic to thermophilic range. Improved settling properties of digested sludge was also recorded at higher temperatures.

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Effects of Grass Lipid and Its Fatty Acids on Ruminal Fermentation and Microbial Growth In Vitro

  • Yang, U.M.;Fujita, H.;Chung, T.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.176-181
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    • 2000
  • In order to clarify the inhibitory effects of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) lipids on ruminal fermentation and digestion, two experiments were carried out in vitro. Experiment 1 was carried out using residues of grass hay from which the lipid fraction was removed by ether extraction. To ground grass samples were added 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% lipids and incubated anaerobically at $39^{\circ}C$ for 24 h, with the mixtures of artificial saliva and rumen fluid. Increasing grass lipid levels remarkably reduced DM and NDF disappearances. Volatile fatty acid concentration was significantly reduced at 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% lipid levels. Microbial nitrogen proportion to total nitrogen tended to decrease by the addition of the lipids. These results indicated that grass lipids have a marked inhibitory effect on ruminal fermentation and digestion, especially when to the substrate was added 3% or more grass lipids as ether extracts. Experiment 2 was conducted to study the relationship between changes in the free fatty acids and changes in the fermentation traits. Samples were incubated for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 h as a sole substrate. The polyunsaturated fatty acids steadily decreased during incubation, whereas the saturated fatty acid ($C_{18:0}$) increased. It was suggested that the hydrogenation was extended during the initial stage of incubation. The unsaturated fatty acids ($C_{18:2}$, $C_{18:3}$) produced at the initial stage of incubation were negatively correlated with the amount of microbial N and DM disappearance, indicating that polyunsaturated fatty acids had the possibility to show an inhibiting effect on ruminal fermentation and digestion.

Effect of Additives and Fermentation Periods on Chemical Composition and In situ Digestion Kinetics of Mott Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) Silage

  • Nisa, Mahr-un;Touqir, N.A.;Sarwar, M.;Khan, M. Ajmal;Akhtar, Mumtaz
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.812-815
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to see the influence of additives and fermentation periods on Mott grass silage (MGS) characteristics, its chemical composition and to compare the digestion kinetics of Mott grass (MG) and MGS in Nili buffaloes. Mott grass chopped with a locally manufactured chopper was ensiled using two additives, cane molasses and crushed corn grains each at 2, 4 and 6% of forage DM for 30 and 40 days in laboratory silos. The pH, lactic acid concentration, dry matter (DM), crude protein and fiber fractions of MGS were not affected by the type or level of additive and fermentation periods. The non-significant pH lactic acid concentration, and chemical composition of MGS indicated that the both molasses and crushed corn were utilized at similar rate for the growth of lactic acid bacteria and production of organic acids. The MG ensiled with molasses at 2% of fodder DM for 30 days was screened out for in situ digestion kinetics in Nili buffaloes. Ruminal DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradabilities of MGS were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of MG. The DM and NDF rate of degradation, lag time and extent of degradation was nonsignificant between MGS and MG. The higher ruminal degradation of DM and NDF of MGS than MG was probably a reflection of fermentation of MG during ensilation that improved its degradability by improving the availability of easily degradable structural polysaccharides to ruminal microbial population. The results in the present study have indicated that MG ensiled with either 2% molasses or 2% crushed corn for 30 days has better nutritive value for buffalo.

Effects of Soybean Small Peptides on Rumen Fermentation and on Intestinal and Total Tract Digestion of Luxi Yellow Cattle

  • Wang, W.J.;Yang, W.R.;Wang, Y.;Song, E.L.;Liu, X.M.;Wan, F.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.72-81
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    • 2013
  • Four Luxi beef cattle ($400{\pm}10$ kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square to assess the effects of soybean small peptide (SSP) infusion on rumen fermentation, diet digestion and flow of nutrient in the gastrointestinal tract. The ruminal infusion of SSP was 0 (control), 100, 200 and 300 g/d. Ruminal SSP infusion linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) increased microbial protein synthesis and rumen ammonia-N concentration. Concentrations of total volatile fatty acid were linearly increased (p = 0.029) by infusion SSP. Rumen samples were obtained for analysis of microbial ecology by real-time PCR. Populations of rumen Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Streptococcus bovis, Ciliate protozoa, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Prevotella ruminicola were expressed as a proportion of total Rumen bacterial 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA). Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens populations which related to total bacterial 16S rDNA were increased (p<0.05), while Streptococcus bovis populations were linearly (p = 0.049) and quadratically (p = 0.020) decreased by infusion of SSP. Apparent rumen digestibility of DM and NDF were (Q, p<0.05; L, p<0.05) increased with infusion SSP. Total tract digestion of DM, OM and NDF were linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) increased by infusing SSP. The flow of total amino acids (AA), essential amino acids (EAA) and individual amino acids were linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) increased with infusion SSP. The digestibility of Lysine was quadratically (p = 0.033) increased and apparent degradability of Arginine was linearly (p = 0.032) and quadratically (p = 0.042) increased with infusion SSP. The results indicated that infusion SSP could improve nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation and AA availability.

Effects of Mixing Ratio and Organic Loading Rate of Acid Fermented Food Wastes and Sewage Sludge on the Anaerobic Digestion Process (음식물찌꺼기 산발효산물과 하수슬러지의 혼합비 및 유기물부하가 병합처리에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, Chul-Woo;Park, Jin-Sik;Jang, Seong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.247-256
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    • 2006
  • This study has been conducted for the process of food wastes disposal using surplus capacity of established sewage treatment plant by co-digestion of fermented food wastes and sewage sludge after thermophilic acid fermentation of food wastes. The co-digestion of thermophilic acid fermented food wastes and sewage sludge was performed by semi-continous method in mesophilic anaerobic digestion reactor. It showed great digestion efficiency as the average SCOD and VS removal efficiency in organic loading rate 3.30g VS/L.d. were 74.2% and 73.6%, and the gas production rate and average methane content were 0.440 L/g $VS_{add}.d$ and 66.5%, respectively. Based on the results of this study, the co-digestion of thermophilic acid fermented food wastes and sewage sludge in sewage treatment plant is able to improve treatment efficiency of anaerobic digestion reactor and to dispose food wastes simultaneously, and was proved excellent economical efficiency comparing with any other treatment methods.

Studies on the Fermentation of Fish Protein -1. A Model Design of Fermentor- (수산 발효식품 제조에 관한 연구 -1. 어육 발효조의 설계-)

  • Lee, Kang-Ho;Choi, Ho-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.51-62
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    • 1972
  • In Korea, fermented fish has been playing an important role as a preserved and flavor rich food. It is said that the digestion of fish protein is due to both action of intrinsic (autolytic enzymes) and bacterial enzymes in fish. The mass production of fermented fish has been impeded since traditional method of fermentation requires a long duration for a complete digestion. A high concentration of salt and unsanitary condition are also considered disadvantages of the old method. To improve the quality of the product and to develop mechanized process of fermentation, fermentors which have such control device as temperature, pH and agitation control system have been urgently needed. In this study, a model design of a fermentor is studied. The calculation was based on the optimum conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of fish protein which involve temperature, pH, viscosity and other factors.

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