• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fermentation Quality

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Quality Characteristics of Commercial Baechukimchi During Long-term Fermentation at Refrigerated Temperatures

  • Jung, Lan-Hee;Jeon, Eun-Raye
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.924-927
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    • 2007
  • This study addresses the quality characteristics of commercial baechukimchi by analyzing its physicochemical characteristics and sensory properties in relation to fermentation time and temperature. The salinity of baechukimchi increased to 3.01% after 45 days of fermentation at 2 and $5^{\circ}C$, but decreased to 2.81% by 105 days. The pH decreased gradually at the beginning of fermentation, but decreased after 45 days. The acidity differed most between kimchi fermented at $2^{\circ}C$ (0.36%) and $5^{\circ}C$ (0.48%) at 45 days of fermentation. The vitamin C content was 8.47 mg% in kimchi fermented at both 2 and $5^{\circ}C$ on the day of initial production, then peaked after 45 to 60 days at 14.10 mg%, and decreased thereafter. The total microbial count gradually increased during the first 75 days of fermentation. The appearance and overall acceptability of baechukimchi were highest after 90 days of fermentation at $2^{\circ}C$ and after 60 days of fermentation at $5^{\circ}C$.

Effect of Fermentation Temperature on Quality of Doenjang (숙성온도가 된장의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Moon-Seok;Kim, Eun-Mi;Chang, Kyu-Seob
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2008
  • There were four types of Doenjang fermentation as following conditions for investigation ; 1) low temperature fermentation at $13^{\circ}C$ for 180 days, 2) low temperature at $13^{\circ}C$ for 7 days to room temperature at $30^{\circ}C$ for 10 days, to low temperature at $13^{\circ}C$ for 163 days, and for 173 days, 3) low temperature at $13^{\circ}C$ 7 days to room temperature at $30^{\circ}C$, 4) room temperature at $30^{\circ}C$ for 180 days. There were no changes of moisture, NaCl and total nitrogen content during fermentation period of four types conditions, but pH and amino type nitrogen decreased in room temperature at $30^{\circ}C$ for 180 days. It required 3 times more fermentation period until same quantity of the amino type nitrogen. The low temperature fermentation sample was lower than room temperature fermentation sample in pH and amino type nitrogen. The yeast decreased in low temperature fermentation sample taken 15 to 30 days longer than room temperature sample. The yeast is increased up to 30 days, and decreased little by little. After 60 days, it remained a few without effectiveness on the Doenjang quality. The low temperature fermentation sample showed brighter than room temperature fermentation sample. Different fermentation condition affected Doenjnag quality, especially, low temperature fermentation sample showed bright color in Doenjnag. So low temperature fermentation must be expected as good method for getting high quality Doenjnag.

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Comparative analysis of silage fermentation and in vitro digestibility of tropical grass prepared with Acremonium and Tricoderma species producing cellulases

  • Khota, Waroon;Pholsen, Suradej;Higgs, David;Cai, Yimin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.1913-1922
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    • 2018
  • Objective: To find out ways of improving fermentation quality of silage, the comparative analysis of fermentation characteristics and in vitro digestibility of tropical grasses silage applied with cellulases produced from Acremonium or Tricoderma species were studied in Thailand. Methods: Fresh and wilted Guinea grass and Napier grass silages were prepared with cellulases from Acremonium (AC) or Trichoderma (TC) at 0.0025%, 0.005%, and 0.01% on a fresh matter (FM), and their fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility were analyzed. Results: All silages of fresh Napier grass were good quality with lower pH, butyric acid, and ammonia nitrogen, but higher lactic acid content than wilted Napier grass and Guinea grass silage. Silages treated with AC 0.01% had the best result in terms of fermentation quality. They also had higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility at 6 and 48 h after incubation than other silages. Silages treated with lower levels at 0.005% or 0.0025% of AC and all levels of TC did not improve silage fermentation. Conclusion: The AC could improve silage fermentation and in vitro degradation of Guinea grass and Napier grass silages, and the suitable addition ration is 0.01% (73.5 U) of FM for tropical silage preparation.

Lactic Acid Fermentation of Rice and Quality Improvement by Amylolytic Enzyme Treatment during Fermentation (쌀의 젖산발효 및 발효중 전분가수분해효소 처리에 의한 품질 향상)

  • Mok, Chul-Kyoon;Han, Jin-Suk;Kim, Young-Jin;Kim, Nam-Soo;Kwon, Dae-Young;Nam, Young-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.739-744
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    • 1991
  • A palatable paste-type lactic fermented rice (LFR) was prepared by lactic acid fermentation after liquefaction and saccharification of cooked rice. A mixed culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (1 : 1) produced the LFR of the best quality. A great improvement in quality of the LFR was achieved by 0.02% each ${\alpha}-amylase$ and glucoamylase treatment during the fermentation (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation), which resulted from the increased sourness and sweetness and the decreased size of solid particles contained in the LFR. The resulted LFR was superior in quality. Physical and chemical properties of the LFR were evaluated.

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Improvement of Fermentation Quality of Rice Straw Silage by Application of a Bacterial Inoculant and Glucose

  • Li, Jing;Shen, Yixin;Cai, Yimin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.901-906
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    • 2010
  • The improvement of the fermentation quality of rice straw silage by application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and glucose was investigated in this study. Sixteen rice varieties were harvested at the maturity stage and the rice straw was ensiled with LAB inoculant ($1{\times}10^5$ cfu/g of fresh weight) and glucose (2% of fresh weight). Inoculation with LAB improved the fermentation as reflected in reductions in pH, acetic acid (by 3.7 to 78.3%), butyric acid (by -6.0 to 100.0%) and ammonia nitrogen (by 1.0 to 71.7%) concentrations, and increases in lactic acid (by 43.9 to 282.9%) and crude protein concentrations compared with the control. Application of LAB plus glucose was more effective in improving fermentation quality than LAB alone. The variety of rice straw which contained relatively high levels of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) tended to obtain better fermentation quality. The results suggested that LAB application and selection of rice varieties whose straw contained high levels of WSC were effective in improvement of the fermentation quality of rice straw silage.

Variation in the functional compounds of molten salt Kimchi during fermentation

  • Park, Kyubeen;Kim, Yeonmi;Kim, Jae-Han;Park, Jong-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.173-182
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    • 2019
  • To produce a high-quality Kimchi product, molten salt was used for the Kimchi. Changes in the physiochemical properties and functional compounds were analyzed during fermentation. The salinity of bay salt Kimchi was higher than that of the molten salt Kimchi. The fermentation speed of the lactic acid bacteria in the molten salt Kimchi was significantly faster. To evaluate the effects of the salts on the changes in the functional compounds during fermentation, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds (TPC), flavonols, phenolic acids, and glucosinolates in Chinese cabbage were analyzed. In the first 9 days, antioxidants were decreased during this fermentation period and then, increased after that. TPC was slightly increased for all the conditions after 40 days fermentation. Kaempferol was a major flavonol but had a relatively larger decrease in the molten salt Kimchi than in the bay salt samples. Phenolic acid did not show any significant difference among the samples. The glucosinolate contents were significantly decreased in all the conditions of Kimchi during the fermentation period. Consequently, the molten salt greatly affected the fermentation speed of Kimchi and the total characteristics of the Kimchi lactic acid bacteria. Although the functional compounds of Chinese cabbage were decreased during the fermentation of Kimchi, this decrease did not profoundly deteriorate the food quality. Therefore, high-quality Kimchi with enhanced bioactivity will be available if appropriate Chinese cabbages that have enhanced functional compounds are used.

Effects of different ratios and storage periods of liquid brewer's yeast mixed with cassava pulp on chemical composition, fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal fermentation

  • Kamphayae, Sukanya;Kumagai, Hajime;Angthong, Wanna;Narmseelee, Ramphrai;Bureenok, Smerjai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.470-478
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This study aims to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal fermentation of various ratios and storage periods of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) mixed with cassava pulp (CVP). Methods: Four mixtures of fresh LBY and CVP were made (LBY0, LBY10, LBY20, and LBY30 for LBY:CVP at 0:100, 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70, respectively) on a fresh matter basis, in 500 g in plastic bags and stored at 30 to $32^{\circ}C$. After storage, the bags were opened weekly from weeks 0 to 4. Fermentation quality and in vitro gas production (IVGP) were determined, as well as the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin contents. Results: The contents of CP and EE increased, whereas all other components decreased, in proportion to LBY inclusion (p<0.01). The DM and OM contents gradually decreased in weeks 3 and 4 (p<0.05), while EE contents were lowest in week 0. The pH, ammonia nitrogen per total nitrogen ($NH_3-N/TN$) and V-score in each mixture and storage period demonstrated superior fermentation quality ($pH{\leq}4.2$, $NH_3-N/TN{\leq}12.5%$, and V-score>90%). The pH increased and $NH_3-N/TN$ decreased, with proportionate increases of LBY, whereas the pH decreased and $NH_3-N/TN$ increased, as the storage periods were extended (p<0.01). Although IVGP decreased in proportion to the amount of LBY inclusion (p<0.01), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) was unaffected by the mixture ratios. The highest IVGP and IVOMD were observed in week 0 (p<0.01). Conclusion: The inclusion of LBY (as high as 30%) into CVP improves the chemical composition of the mixture, thereby increasing the CP content, while decreasing IVGP, without decreasing fermentation quality and IVOMD. In addition, a preservation period of up to four weeks can guarantee superior fermentation quality in all types of mixtures. Therefore, we recommend limiting the use of CVP as a feed ingredient, given its low nutritional value and improving feed quality with the inclusion of LBY.

Evaluation of the Quality Characteristics Chinese Cabbage from Two Geographic Origins during Fermentation of Kimchi (국산 및 수입산 배추김치의 품질 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Jin-Sook;Yang, Ji-Won;Kang, Myung-Hwa;Kim, Ja-Young
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.720-726
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    • 2010
  • This study was investigated for quality characteristics of cabbage from two geographic origins during fermentation of kimchi at $4^{\circ}C$ for 50 days. The pH of kimchi made from cabbage of domestic and imported was decreased with increased fermentation period, while total acidity was increased with increased fermentation period In two samples, the best pH was when it became the 10th of the fermentation period. All fermentation period, vitamin C content is gradually increasing, decreasing after the maximum value. And 40 day fermentation period expect that kimchi made using domestic cabbage, kimchi made using imported cabbage had a higher content of vitamin C contents. Hardness and chewiness of two samples decreased during fermentation. Change of hardness was lowed kimchi made using domestic cabbage. The results of sensory evaluation, texture and overall acceptability were higher in both the kimchi made using domestic cabbage.

Effect of Irradiated Red Pepper Powder on Kimchi Quality during Fermentation

  • Lee, Seung-Cheol
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.218-221
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    • 2004
  • Irradiated red pepper powder (IRPP) was tested for its ability to retard fermentation and to maintain a high quality of Kimchi by the reduction of the initial microbial load. Kimchi containing IRPP at the doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 kGy was prepared. Quality indices for Kimchi in this study were pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugar content, total microbial count, lactic acid bacterial load, and sensory evaluation. Based on the pH and titratable acidity, the Kimchi with IRPP showed a retarded fermentation until 15 days. The number of the total aerobes and lactic acid bacteria of the Kimchi with IRPP were lower by about 1 log CFU/mL compared to control at day 0, however, the counts increased to 8.5 log CFU/mL after 10 days, which was similar to the control group. Kimchi that was fermented with 5 kGy IRPP was better than control and other treatments in odor and color, whereas the control scored highest in taste. Addition of IRPP showed a limited retardation of Kimchi fermentation without other quality deterioration.

Enhancement of Ginsenosides Conversion Yield by Steaming and Fermentation Process in Low Quality Fresh Ginseng (증숙 발효 공정에 의한 파삼의 진세노사이드 전환 수율 증진)

  • Choi, Woon Yong;Lim, Hye Won;Choi, Geun Pyo;Lee, Hyeon Yong
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.223-230
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to enhance contents of low molecular ginsenoside using steaming and fermentation process in low quality fresh ginseng. For increase in contents of Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK in low quality fresh ginseng, a steaming process was applied at $90^{\circ}C$ for 12 hr which was followed by fermentation process at Lactobacillus rhamnosus HK-9 incubated at $36^{\circ}C$ for 72 h. The contents of ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rc, Re and Rd were decreased with the steaming associated with fermentation process but ginsenoside Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK increased after process. It was found that under the steaming associated with fermentation process, low molecule ginsenosides such as Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK were increased as 3.231 mg/g, 2.585 mg/g and 1.955 m/g and 2.478 mg/g, respectively. In addition, concentration of benzo[${\alpha}$]pyrene in extracts of the low quality fresh ginseng treated by the complex process was 0.11 ppm but it was 0.22 ppm when it was treated with the steaming process. This result could be caused by that the most efficiently breakdown of 1,2-glucoside and 1,4-glucoside linkage to backbone of ginsenosides by steaming associated with fermentation process. This results indicate that steaming process and fermenration process can increase in contents of Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK in low quality fresh ginseng.