• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fermentation Indices

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Effect of dietary mannanoligosaccharide supplementation on nutrient digestibility, hindgut fermentation, immune response and antioxidant indices in dogs

  • Pawar, Mahesh M.;Pattanaik, Ashok K.;Sinha, Dharmendra K.;Goswami, Tapas K.;Sharma, Kusumakar
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.59 no.5
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    • pp.11.1-11.7
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    • 2017
  • Background: Use of prebiotics in companion animal nutrition is often considered advantageous over probiotics because of the ease of handling, ability to withstand processing and storage etc. While most of the studies on prebiotic use in dogs have been done with processed food as basal diet, the response in relation to homemade diet feeding is not very well explored. Methods: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, hindgut fermentation, immune response and antioxidant indices in dogs. Ten Spitz pups were divided into two groups: control (CON) with no supplementation, and experimental (MOS) wherein the basal diet was supplemented with MOS at 15 g/kg diet. All dogs were fed on a home-prepared diet for a period of 150 days. The study protocol included a digestion trial, periodic blood collection and analysis for lipid profile and erythrocytic antioxidants. Immune response of the animals was assessed towards the end of the feeding period. Results: Results revealed no significant (P > 0.05) variations in palatability score, intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients between the groups. Faecal score, faeces voided, faecal pH, concentrations of ammonia, lactate and short-chain fatty acids were comparable (P > 0.05) between the two groups. Cell-mediated immune response, assessed as delayed-type of hypersensitivity response, was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the MOS group. The percent of lymphocyte sub-populations CD4+ and ratio of CD4+:CD8+ were also significantly (P < 0.05) higher in MOS group. The serum IgG levels were similar (P > 0.05) in both the groups. Supplementation of MOS lowered (P < 0.05) serum total- and LDL- cholesterol levels, when compared with the control group. The erythrocytic antioxidant indices were similar (P > 0.05) between the two groups. Conclusions: The results indicated that supplementation of MOS at the rate of 15 g/kg in the diet of dog augmented the cell-mediated immune response and serum lipid profile without any influences on digestibility of nutrients, hindgut fermentation and antioxidants indices.

Dissolved oxygen concentration regulation using auto-tuning PID controller in fermentation process

  • Hwang, Young-Bo;Lee, Seung-Chul;Chang, Ho-Nam;Chang, Yong-Keun
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.790-794
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    • 1989
  • A novel control method involving an automatic tuning of digital PID controller parameters has been developed for better regulation of DO (dissolved oxygen) concentration in batch fermentation processes. Heuristic reasoning allows the PID controller to reach improved tuning decisions based upon the supervision of certain control performance indices in the same cognitive manner as in an expert control.

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Effect of Irradiated Red Pepper Powder on Kimchi Quality during Fermentation

  • Lee, Seung-Cheol
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.218-221
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    • 2004
  • Irradiated red pepper powder (IRPP) was tested for its ability to retard fermentation and to maintain a high quality of Kimchi by the reduction of the initial microbial load. Kimchi containing IRPP at the doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 kGy was prepared. Quality indices for Kimchi in this study were pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugar content, total microbial count, lactic acid bacterial load, and sensory evaluation. Based on the pH and titratable acidity, the Kimchi with IRPP showed a retarded fermentation until 15 days. The number of the total aerobes and lactic acid bacteria of the Kimchi with IRPP were lower by about 1 log CFU/mL compared to control at day 0, however, the counts increased to 8.5 log CFU/mL after 10 days, which was similar to the control group. Kimchi that was fermented with 5 kGy IRPP was better than control and other treatments in odor and color, whereas the control scored highest in taste. Addition of IRPP showed a limited retardation of Kimchi fermentation without other quality deterioration.

Studies on the Processing of Rapid- and Low Salt-Fermented Liquefaction of Anchovy(Engrulis japonica) (I) -Changes in Free Amino Acids during Fermentation and Quality Indices- (저식염 속성 멸치 발효액화물 가공에 관한 연구(I) -숙성 중 유리아미노산 변화 및 품질지표-)

  • Kang, Tae-Jung;Cho, Kyu-Ok;Park, Choon-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.197-213
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    • 2002
  • In order to establish the processing condition of rapid- and low salt-fermented liquefaction of anchovy (Engrulis japonica), effect of temperature on crude enzyme activity of anchovy viscera, pretreatment conditions, and the minimum content of adding NaCl were investigated. The minimum limitation of NaCl content for anchovy liquefaction was 10%. Sample A(water adding, heating, adding 10% NaCl): chopped whole anchovy adding 20% water and then heating for 9 hrs at $50^{\circ}C$ and then adding 10% NaCl and then fermented at room temperature$(8-29^{\circ}C)$ for 180 days. Sample B(water adding, heating, adding 13% NaCl): chopped whole anchovy adding 20% water and then heating for 9 hrs at $50^{\circ}C$ and then adding 13% NaCl and then fermented at room temperature for 180 days. Sample C(adding 13% NaCl): chopped whole anchovy and then adding 13% NaCl and then fermented at room temperature for 180 days. Sample D(adding 17% NaCl): whole anchovy adding 17% NaCl and then fermented at room temperature for 180 days. The content of free amino acids such as aspartic acid, serine and threonine fluctuated severely according to the pretreatment methods. Possibly they might be recommend quality indices of standardization for salt-fermented liquefaction of anchovy. As for the relation between fermentation period(X) and individual free amino acid(Y), five kinds of free amino acids such as glutamic acid, valine, glycine, lysine, and alanine showed highly significant in their coefficient of determination in most of samples. They might be recommend as quality indices for salt-fermented liquefaction of anchovy during fermentation. The difference of taste between products of the rapid- and low salt-fermented liquefaction and the traditional salt-fermented liquefaction were caused by their composition of the free amino acids ratios, in which were umami, sweet, and bitter taste in the extracts of anchovy during fermentation. The appropriate fermentation period of the sample A was shorten 30 days than the sample B and 60 days than the samples C and 90 days than the sample D in the processing of anchovy.

Effects of New Inoculants on In vitro Digestibility and Fermentation Indices of High Moisture Rye Silage

  • Lee, Seong Shin;Paradhipta, Dimas H.V.;Joo, Young Ho;Lee, Hyuk Jun;Son, Hyun;Han, Ouk Kyu;Kim, Dong Hyeon;Kim, Sam Churl
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to examine the effect of new inoculants on in vitro digestibility and fermentation characteristics of high moisture rye silage. Rye was harvested at heading stage and divided into 5 treatments, following: No additives(CON); L. plantarum R48-27(NI1); L. buchneri R4-26(NI2); mixture of NI1 and NI2 at 1:1 ratio(MIX); and L. buchneri(LB). The rye forage was ensiled into 10 L bucket silo for 100 days. In vitro digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber were highest(p<0.05) in NI2 silage. The pH in NI2 and LB silages were lower(p<0.05) than CON silage. Lactate concentration was highest(p<0.05) in NI1 silage. While concentrations of acetate and propionate were highest(p<0.05) in MIX silage. Lactates : acetate ratio was highest(p<0.05) in NI1 silage, but lowest in LB silage. Butyrate concentrations of NI2 and LB silages were lower(p<0.05) than that in CON and NI1 silages. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count in all inoculated silages was higher(p<0.05) than that in CON silage, while yeast count in LB silage was lower than in CON, NI1, and MIX silages. In conclusion, application of NI2 inoculant could improve potentially fermentation quality and digestibility of high moisture rye silage.

Effects of Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of Barley Silage

  • Amanullah, S.M.;Kim, D.H.;Lee, H.J.;Joo, Y.H.;Kim, S.B.;Kim, S.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.511-517
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    • 2014
  • This study examined the effects of bacterial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation indices of barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at 24% dry matter (DM) and wilted to 47.9% DM. The wilted barley forage was chopped to 3-5 cm length and applied with no inoculant (CON), L. plantarum ($1{\times}10^{10}cfu/g$, LP) or Effective Microorganisms ($0.5{\times}10^9cfu/g$, EM). Then the forages were ensiled in four replications for each treatment in 20 L mini silos and stored for 100 days. The contents of crude protein and ether extract were higher in CON silage ensiled for 100-d, while the contents of DM and crude ash were higher in EM silage (p<0.05). The contents of ADF, NDF and hemicellulose as well as the in vitro DM digestibility were not affected by microbial inoculation (p>0.05). The pH, ammonia-N concentration and lactate to acetate ratio were higher (p<0.05) in CON silage, while lactate concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in CON and LP silage. Acetate concentration and lactic acid bacteria was increased (p<0.05) by both inoculants (LP and EM), but propionate concentration and yeast was increased (p<0.05) by EM and LP, respectively. These results indicated that the fermentation quality of barley silage was improved by the application of bacterial inoculants.

Effects of Dietary n-3/n-6 Fatty Acid Ratio on In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics and Fatty Acid Profiles

  • Kim, Dong-Hyeon;Amanullah, Sadar M.;Yoon, Hee;Lee, Hyuk-Jun;Kong, Il-Keun;Kim, Sam-Churl;Cho, Kyu-Woan;Kim, Sang-Bum
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary n-3/n-6 fatty acid (FA) ratio on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), fermentation indices and FA profile. Rice bran was mixed with oil sources (cotton seed oil and linseed oil) to make the diets at 0.02, 0.29 and 0.61 of dietary n-3/n-6 FA ratio. These diets (0.5g) were placed into the incubation bottles with 40 ml of anaerobic culture medium, which contained rumen fluid and Van Soest medium at 1:2 ratio. Five replicates of each diet and two blanks were incubated at $39^{\circ}C$ for 48 hours. After incubation, the incubated contents were centrifuged. The residues were freeze-dried for DMD and FA analyses. The supernatant was used for pH, $NH_3-N$ and volatile fatty acid analyses. The concentrations of lactate (p<0.001) and iso-valerate (p<0.001) decreased linearly with increasing dietary n-3/n-6 FA ratio, but acetate concentration (p=0.056) and the ratio of acetate to propionate (p=0.005) was increased linearly. The concentrations of n-3, n-6 FA and the ratio of n-3/n-6 FA in residues increased (p<0.001) linearly with increasing dietary n-3/n-6 FA ratio, but C18:1n-9 FA concentration was decreased (p<0.001) linearly. With these results, it could affect fermentation characteristics and FA profile of rumen content by dietary n-3/n-6 FA ratio.

Effects of Replacing Mushroom By-product with Tofu By-product on the Chemical Composition, Microbes, and Rumen Fermentation Indices of Fermented Diets (두부비지의 버섯 폐배지 대체 수준이 발효사료의 영양소 함량, 미생물 성상 및 반추위 내 발효특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Joo, Young-Ho;Jeong, Hui-Han;Kim, Dong-Hyeon;Lee, Hyuk-Jun;Lee, Seong-Shin;Kim, Sang-Bum;Kim, Sam-Churl
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.651-659
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    • 2017
  • This study aimed to estimate the effects of replacing Mushroom By-Product (MBP) with Tofu By-Product (TBP) on the chemical composition, microbes, and rumen fermentation indices of Fermented Diets (FDs). The basal diet was formulated using MBP, TBP, rice bran, molasses, and inoculants. The MBP in the basal diet was replaced with TBP at 0, 5, and 10% on Dry Matter (DM) basis for the experimental diets. The experimental diets were fermented at $39^{\circ}C$ for 144 h. Chemical composition, pH, microbes, and rumen fermentation indices of the FDs were analyzed. With increasing TBP replacement, crude protein content of FDs increased (L, P < 0.001), whereas crude ash content decreased (L, P = 0.002). Lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus subtilis contents in the TBP-replaced FDs were higher than those in the control (P < 0.05), whereas pH level and mold count were lower (P < 0.05). With increasing TBP replacement, in vitro rumen digestibility of DM (L, P = 0.053) and neutral detergent fiber (L, P = 0.024) increased, wheres rumen pH changed (P = 0.026) quadratically. Rumen total volatile fatty acid (L, P = 0.001) and iso-butyrate contents (Q, P = 0.003) increased with increasing TBP replacement. In conclusion, this study indicates that the replacement of MBP with TBP could improve the quality of FD.

Effect of Microbial and Chemical Combo Additives on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristic of Whole Crop Barley Silage

  • Kim, Dong Hyeon;Amanullah, Sardar M.;Lee, Hyuk Jun;Joo, Young Ho;Kim, Sam Churl
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.1274-1280
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to assess the effects of microbial and chemical combo additives on nutritive values, fermentation indices and aerobic stability of whole crop barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at about 30% dry matter (DM) by treatments, chopped to 5 cm length and treated with distilled water only (CON), Lactobacillus plantarum (INO), propionic acid (PRO) or an equal mixture of INO and PRO (MIX). Barley forages were ensiled in 4 replications for 0, 2, 7, and 100 days. On 100 days of ensiling, MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) in vitro DM digestibility than CON silage, but lower (p<0.05) acid detergent fiber concentration. The pH in all treated silages was lower (p<0.05) than CON silage. The MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) lactate concentration and lactate to acetate ratio than in CON, but lower (p<0.05) yeast count. Aerobic stability in CON, PRO, and MIX silages were higher (p<0.05) than in INO silage. It is concluded that microbial and chemical combo additives using L. plantarum and propionic acid could efficiently improve nutritive values of barley silage in terms of increased in vitro DM digestibility compared to other treatments. In addition, all treatments except CON reduced yeast count which is the initiate microorganism of aerobic spoilage.

Effects of wild or mutated inoculants on rye silage and its rumen fermentation indices

  • Paradhipta, Dimas Hand Vidya;Joo, Young Ho;Lee, Hyuk Jun;Lee, Seong Shin;Kwak, Youn Sig;Han, Ouk Kyu;Kim, Dong Hyeon;Kim, Sam Churl
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.949-956
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    • 2020
  • Objective: This study was conducted to confirm the effects of new inoculants producing-antifungal or esterase substances on rye silage and its rumen fermentation indices by comparing wild with mutated types. Methods: Rye harvested at dough stage was ensiled into 3 L mini bucket silo (1 kg) for 90 d in triplicate following: distilled water at 20 μL/g (CON); Lactobacillus brevis 100D8 (AT) and its inactivation of antifungal genes (AT-m) at 1.2×105 cfu/g, respectively; and Leuconostoc holzapfelii 5H4 (FD) and its inactivation of esterase genes (FD-est) at 1.0×105 cfu/g, respectively. After silo opened, silage was sub-sampled for the analysis of ensiling quality and its rumen fermentation indices. Results: Among the wild type inoculants (CON vs AT vs FD), FD inoculant had higher (p<0.05) in vitro digestibilities of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, the total degradable fraction, and total volatile fatty acid in rumen, while AT inoculant had higher (p<0.05) lactate, acetate, and lactic acid bacteria in silage. Silage pH and the potentially degradable fraction in rumen increased (p<0.05) by inactivation of antifungal activity (AT vs AT-m), but lactate, acetate, and lactic acid bacteria of silage decreased (p<0.05). In silage, acetate increased (p<0.05) by inactivation of esterase activity (FD vs FD-est) with decreases (p<0.05) of pH, ammonia-N, lactate, and yeast. Moreover, inactivation of esterase activity clearly decreased (p<0.05) in vitro digestibilities of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, the total degradable fraction, and total volatile fatty acid in the rumen. Conclusion: This study concluded that FD inoculant confirmed esterase activity on rye silage harvested at dough stage, while AT inoculant could not be confirmed with antifungal activity due to the absence of mold in all silages.