• Title, Summary, Keyword: Female ratio

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Study on Body Circumference Ratio according to Sasang Constitution Using Body Composition (체성분 분석을 통한 사상체질의 신체 둘레 비율에 대한 연구)

  • Kang, Ju-No;Cha, Yun-Yeop
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.338-344
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to find the charateristics of Sasang Constitution, Soeumin, Soyangin and Taeumin from the result of body Circumference ratio. In this study, 324 data of body circumference were measured by body composition analysis. We analyzed the body circumference ratio by Sasang Constitution, Soeumin, Soyangin and Taeumin. Taeumin's body circumference were significantly higher than those of Soeumin and Soyangin. Soyangin's body circumference was significantly higher than that of Soeumin. Male Taeumin's muscle circumference were significantly higher than those of male Soyangin and male Soeumin. Female Taeumin's fat thickness were significantly higher than those of female Soyangin and female Soeumin. Male Soeumin's ratio of hip circumference and neck circumference to abdomen circumference were significantly higher than those of male Taeumin and male Soyangin. Male Taeumin's ratio of hip circumference to abdomen circumference were significantly lower than those of male Soeumin and male Soyangin. Female Taeumin's ratio of hip circumference and chest circumference to abdomen circumference were significantly lower than those of female Taeumin and female Soyangin. In body circumference ratio, Soyangin had no difference among Sasang Constitution. In body circumference ratio, male Soeumin had big lower area ratio and big upper area ratio to lower-middle area. Male Taeumin had big lower-middle area ratio to lower area. Female Taeumin had big lower-middle area ratio to lower area and upper-middle area.

Cone Sex Ratio and Pollen Traits in Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae)

  • Kang, Hyesoon;Yoon, Jumsoon
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.131-140
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    • 2000
  • The pattern of variations in cone sex ratio and pollen traits such as pollen number and size was examined for two years in populations of red pines In Korea. We evaluated; (1) the relationship between tree size and cone sex ratio, (2) the relationship between year and cone sex ratio, and (3) the relationship between cone sex ratio and pollen traits. Larger trees in height and circumference at breast height produced more male as well as female cones. However, cone sex ratio was independent of these plant sizes. Across the two populations, both female cone numbers per tree and male cone numbers per new shoot increased 2.2 and 1.2 times, respectively, in 1999 compared to 1998, while the yearly pattern of male cone-bearing shoots per tree differed significantly between populations. Thus, cone sex ratio varied significantly between years in one of the two populations. Pollen traits such as the number of pollen grains and diameter did not vary significantly among populations. Pollen diameter and grain numbers per male cone were significantly negatively correlated with the cone sex ratio in two populations and one population, respectively. Trees which stopped female cone production in the first year and those which produced female cones in both years differed in the cone sex ratio and pollen size in the second year. The long duration of one reproductive episode and the potential of masting in red pines emphasize the need to conduct long-term studies on the dynamics of cone production, cone sex ratio, and simultaneous changes in pollen traits in red pines.

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A Clinical Properties on Nutrients Intake, anthropometric Measurement and Serum Contents of Diabetic Subjects by Body Fat Distribution in Ansung District (경기도 안성지역 당뇨환자의 체지방분포 형태에 따른 영양소 섭취 실태와 체위 및 혈앵성상의 임상적 특징)

  • 노숙령;고희숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.892-900
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to investigate the clinical characteristics of 78 diabetics by body fat distribution pattern. It was based on the survey of nutritional status, anthropometric measurements and serum components of the patients. The results were as follows: the average ages of male and female subjects were 57.1, and that of female subjects was 58.9, respectively. The average diabetic durations of male and female subjects were 4.8 and 5.9 years, respectively. In male, the ratio of upper body obese subject was 62.5% and the lower body obese subjects was 37.5%, while those of female were 69.4% and 30.6%, respectively. In nutrient intake state, there was no significant difference between male and female subjects, but calory intake of upper body obese subjects was difference between male and female subjects, but calory intake of upper body obese subjects was tend to be higher in both male and female subjects. among the three major nutrients/calory ratio, protein/calory ratio was significantly lower in the male upper body obese subjects than in the male lower body obese subjects. Since weight, circumference of arm and waist, waist hip ratio(WHR) of both male and female subjects, body muscle mass(BMM) of male subjects and body mass index (BMI) of female subjects were significantly higher in upper body obese group, upper body obese subjects represented ore fat than lower body obese subjects. In male subjects, hemoglobin(Hb), A/G of upper body obese subjects were lower than the standard value, but there was no significant difference in the serum components between two subjects. In female subjects, Hb and A/G of lower body obese subjects were lower than those of the normal subjects, but Hb and Ht of upper body obese subjects were significantly higher than those of the lower body obese subjects.

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Assessment of the Optimum LDL : HDL-cholesterol(LDL : HDL-C) Ratio for Predicting CHD (심혈관질환 예측을 위한 저밀도 대 고밀도 지단백 콜레스테롤 비(LDL : HDL-cholesterol ratio)의 적정기준에 관한 연구)

  • Yeoum, Soon-Gyo
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.917-931
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This study was aimed to determine the optimum low-density lipoprotein : high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL : HDL-C) ratio for predicting coronary heart disease(CHD) in Korean people. Methods: It was analyzed this data of 5,431 adults who had undergone health examinations in a hospital in Gyeonggi-do between January 2006 and December 2007. The covariation of the coronary risk factors such as age, HbA1C, systolic blood pressure(SBP), and waist-to-stature ratio(WSR) were analyzed by using logistic regression analysis. Results: The LDL : HDL-C ratio in the male and female groups was mostly distributed between 1.5 and 4.0. The LDL : HDL-C ratio was the most significant cholesterol-related parameter influencing CHD (male: B = .306, p = .054, female : B = .940, p = .010), followed by LDL-C and total cholesterol. It was observed a sharp increase in the odds ratios for LDL : HDL-C ratios of 2.25 - 2.50(male) and 2.00 - 2.25(female). A significant difference was observed in both male(2.25 : $x^2$ = 2.494, p = .072) and female(2.00 : $x^2$ = 413.742, p = .000) groups. Conclusion: The risk level of CHD was set to 2.25 for males and 2.00 for females. Therefore, the optimum LDL : HDL-C ratio for Koreans should be far lower than that for the people in western countries.

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The Ratio of Testosteron and Follicle Stimulating Hormone in the Amniotic Fluid (양수내(羊水內)의 Testosteron대(對) Follicle Stimulating Hormone 비율(比率)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Cho, Suk-Shin
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.37-47
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    • 1982
  • To evaluate fetal sex-hormonal status before delivery, testosterone and follicle stimulating normone(FSH) levels were measured in 64 amniotic fluid samples at midgestation by radioimmunoassay method. The mean concentration of testosterone in amniotic fluid of 37 cases carrying male fetus was 90.7 pg/ml and 27 cases carrying female fetus was 62.3 pg/ml. The mean :amniotic fluid FSH concentration of male fetus was 1.15 mIU/ml and of female fetus was 11.98 mIU/ml. The amniotic fluid testoserone and FSH concentrations had statistical difference between male and female fetuses. The ratio of testosterone over FSH in the amniotic fluid was 231.2 in male, 9.8 in female respectively and very significant difference was noticed. The levels of testosterone/FSH greater than 25 were found over 92% of male fetus and lesser than 25 were found over 92% female fetus. Measurement of testosterone and FSH especially testosterone/FSH ratio in amniotic fluid in midgestation may be an adjunct to other method of fetal sex determination.

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A Case-Control Study for Risk Factor Related to Hypertension (고혈압의 위험요인에 대한 환자-대조군 연구)

  • Kam, Sin;Yeh, Min-Hae;Lee, Sung-Kook;Chun, Byung-Yeol
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.221-231
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    • 1991
  • A case-control study was conducted to investigate the risk factors (Part of job, Obesity, Alcohol, Smoking, Milk, Salt. and Family history) for hypertension. We selected 330 hypertension cases (male;247, female;83) and 1,336 controls (male;887, female;449) from employees in Taegu city from 1 May to 30 November, 1908. Data was analysed using a logistic regression model. Statistically significant elevated odds ratio were noted for alcohol (odds ratio=3.23), obesity (odds ratio=2.31), salt(odds ratio=1.75) in male (p<0.05) and those in female were noted for alcohol (odds ratio=16.49), family history(odds ratio=3.70), obesity (odds ratio=1.74) and salt (odds ratio=1.73) (p<0.05). Statistically significant reduced odds ratio was noted for milk in both sexes (odds ratio=0.69 for male and 0.65 for female)(p<0.05) and the dose-response relationship between milk intake and hypertension was confirmed (p<0.05). Therefore, milk seems to be preventive factor for hypertension. Smoking was not significantly associated with hypertension in both sexes. The part of job was significantly associated with hypertension in female by simple analysis (P<0.05) but the relationship was disappeared when multivariate analysis (logistic regression analysis) was done.

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Coverage Difference of Female Newsmakers among National Newspapers: Influences of Journalist Gender and Gender Ratio in the Newsroom (일간지의 여성인물 보도방식의 차이게 관한 연구: 기자 성별과 조직 성비 요인의 영향력 분석)

  • Kim, Kyung-Mo;Kim, Youn-Jung
    • Korean journal of communication and information
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    • v.29
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    • pp.7-41
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    • 2005
  • This article examines the influences of Journalist gender and gender ratio in the newsroom on news coverage of women among three national newspapers in Korea. Results reveal that female reporters describe women newsmakers in greater length, of more diversity in occupations, and of more positive pattern than their colleagues, male reporters do. The newspaper employing more female reporters also covers female newsmakers with less personal information, of more diversity in occupations, and of more positive pattern. It is suggested that increase of female reporters in the newsroom induce male reporters to cover women newsmakers toward a pro-female attitude. Lastly, the relation of the gender ratio variation in the news organization and news coverage of women is discussed.

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Effect of Mixed Rearing of Male and Female Chickens on the Stress Response of Korean Native Chickens (토종 종계의 암수 합사가 개체의 스트레스 반응 정도에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Hyeon Cheol;Choi, Eun Sik;Kwon, Jae Hyun;Cho, Eun Jung;Sohn, Sea Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.29-37
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    • 2020
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of mixed rearing of male and female chickens on the stress response in Korean native chickens. To identify the degree of the stress response, heterophil-lymphocyte ratio (H/L ratio), heat shock protein genes (HSPs) expression, and intracellular nuclear DNA damage rate were analyzed before and after the mixed rearing of male and female chickens. The results showed that the H/L ratio of chickens after mixing males and females was more than thrice as higher than before mixing (P<0.001), but the differences between males and females were not significant. HSP-70, HSP90-α, and HSP90-β expression levels were 2.5 to 3.4 times higher after mixing male and female chickens, compared to before mixing (P<0.01). In the mixed rearing of male and female chickens, the increase in HSPs expression in females was higher than in males. Comet indicators in intracellular DNA damage rate analysis showed a significant increase after mixing male and female chickens compared to before mixing (P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference between males and females with respect to DNA damage rate. Taken together, these results suggest that male and female mixed rearing acts as a strong external stressor in both male and female chickens.

A Study of Nutrient Intakes, Blood Lipids and Bone Mineral Density according to Obesity Degree by Percentage of Body Fat and Age between Male and Female Teacher in Jeonbuk Province, Korea (전북지역 일부 남녀교사의 체지방률에 의한 비만도와 연령에 따른 영양소 섭취와 혈중지질 및 골밀도에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Hye-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.49-68
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient intakes, blood lipids and bone mineral density of male (n = 59) and female (n = 172) teachers according to the obesity index by percentage of body fat and age. The energy intakes of obesity group were higher than normal group in male (p < 0.05), but were not significant in female. The protein intake ratio among three energy nutrients for male was higher than female (p < 0.001), and lipid intake ratio of obesity group in female was a little higher than male that was not significant. TC, LDL, TC/HDL, risk of coronary heart disease, blood glucose and blood pressure of obesity group were higher than normal group in female (p < 0.01 ~ p < 0.001), but were little significance in male. Risk of coronary heart disease was affected by gender (p < 0.001), obesity degree (p < 0.01), age (p < 0.001), and interaction of gender and age (p < 0.001). Blood glucose was affected by obesity degree (p < 0.05), but was not affected by age. T-scores of forearm for female (= -1.42) were lower than that of male = -0.95), and T-scores of obesity group in male (= 0.12) were higher than that of normal group (= -0.33) but were not significant in female. The T-scores of forearm for female were affected by age (p < 0.05) and gender (p < 0.01), but calcaneus was not affected by gender. These results suggest lipid intake ratio should be balanced for obesity group in female. Nutritional education for treatment obesity to prevent hyperlipidemia and arteriosclerosis is necessary for obesity group and older age groups. T-scores of forearm were lower than calcaneus, so arm exercise would be especially required to prevent osteoporosis for older age women groups.

Influence of Sex Ratio on Behavior and Welfare Indexes in Broiler Chicken (육계의 성비가 행동 및 복지지표에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, Jang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 2010
  • The effect of sex ratio on behavior and welfare indexes in broiler chickens was investigated. Five variants of the sex ratio (male to female), namely, 100:0 (T1), 75:25 (T2), 50:50 (T3), 25:75 (T4) and 0:100 (T5) were tested in broilers between the ages of 7 to 35 days. It was found that the most common behavior in all sex ratios was resting behavior, ranging over 74.4 % of total behavioral frequency. The ranges of other behavior traits of total behavior traits were as follows: pecking, 5.4 to 23.1 %; standing, 1.8 to 24.8 %, and moving, 0.6 to 11.5 %. The behavioral frequency of resting, pecking, standing and moving were not affected by the sex ratio and between male and female. But the percentage of pecking, resting and moving behavioral frequency was significantly different by the age of birds (P<0.05). Age of birds had no effect on standing behavioral frequency. It seems that gait, food pad and hock burn score were no affect by sex ratio but tend to decreased in female than male. Claw length of 21 and 35 days was not affected by sex ratio and between male and female. The duration of tonic immobility (TI- reaction) was tend to decreased age of 21 than 35 days, and female than male. Both male and female of the study, hock burn score, claw length and TI-reaction were tend to lower in T4 than other treatments. The results suggest that, when male and female broilers are reared together, sex ratio can influence broiler welfare indexes in this study.