• Title/Summary/Keyword: Feeding Strategy

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Effects of Low Crude Protein Diets Supplemented with Synthetic Amino Acids on Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs Reared Using a Phase Feeding Regimen

  • Lee, J.H.;Kim, J.H.;Kim, J.D.;Kim, S.W.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.655-667
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding a low CP diet supplemented with synthetic amino acids on performance, nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs fed under a three-phase feeding regimen. Ninety-six finishing pigs (Landrace$\times$Large White$\times$Duroc), $55.75kg{\pm}0.65$ of initial body weight, were blocked by weight and sex and allotted to four dietary treatments in a randomized block design. There were six pens per treatment and four pigs per pen. Pigs were fed a 16%-14%-12% CP (for phase I-II-III, respectively), sequence of diets. Dietary treatments were 1) Control, 2) Con+L (a sequence of diets reduced in CP by l percentage unit with lysine (L) supplementation, 3) Con+LMT (a sequence of diets reduced in CP by 2 percentage unit with LYS, methionine (MET) and threonine (THE) supplementation) and 4) Con+LMTT (a sequence of diets reduced in CP by 3 percentage unit with LYS, MET, THR and tryptophan (TRP) supplementation). The finishing period (55 to 105 kg) was divided into three phases (55 to 72 kg, 72 to 90 kg and 90 to 105 kg). Pigs fed either the control or Con+L diet grew faster (p<0.05) than pigs fed the Con-LMT or Con+LMTT diet. There was no difference in ADFI among dietary treatments. Phosphorus (P) digestibility was lowest in the control group and highest in the Con+LMTT group (p<0.05). Within each phase, no significant differences in dry matter (DM) and CP digestibilities were found. Although some amino acid digestibilities were affected by dietary treatments, digestibilities of essential amino acids (EAA), non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and total amino acid were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments. For the entire experiment periods, Con+L, Con+LMT and Con+LMTT treatments resulted in 13.4, 18.8 and 21.6% lower total N excretion compared with the control. Con+LMT and Con+LMTT treatments showed significantly lower BUN concentration compared with the control and Con+L treatment (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in BUN concentration between pigs fed the control and Con+L treatment or between pigs fed Con+LMT and Con+LMTT treatments (p>0.05). Carcass length, backfat thickness and carcass grade were not significantly affected by dietary treatments (p>0.05). In conclusion, reducing dietary CP level by 1 percentage unit and supplementing only LYS at each phase could be a very beneficial feeding strategy for finishing pigs fed under a three phase feeding regimen in terms of both environmental and economical aspects.

Substituting oat hay or maize silage for portion of alfalfa hay affects growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility of weaned calves

  • Zou, Yang;Zou, XinPing;Li, XiZhi;Guo, Gang;Ji, Peng;Wang, Yan;Li, ShengLi;Wang, YaJing;Cao, ZhiJun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.369-378
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The impact of forage feeding strategy on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in post-weaning calves was investigated. Methods: Forty-five female Holstein calves (body weight [BW] = $79.79{\pm}0.38kg$) were enrolled in the 35-d study at one week after weaning and randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments. All diets were fed as total mixed ration containing 60% (dry matter [DM] basis) of basal starter feed and 40% (DM basis) of forage, but varied in composition of forage source including i) alfalfa (40% DM, AH); ii) alfalfa hay (26.7% DM)+oat hay (13.3% DM; OH); iii) alfalfa hay (26.7% DM)+corn silage (13.3% DM; WS). Results: Dry matter intake was not different among treatment groups (p>0.05). However, BW (p<0.05) and average daily gain (p<0.05) of calves fed AH and OH were greater than WS-fed calves, whereas heart girth was greater in OH-fed calves than those fed AH and WS (p<0.05). Ruminal fermentation parameters including proportion of butyric acid, acetated-to-propionate ratio, concentration of total volatile fatty acid, protozoal protein, bacterial protein, and microbial protein in rumen were the highest in OH (p<0.05) and the lowest in WS. Compared with the AH and WS, feeding oat hay to postweaning calves increased crude protein digestibility (p<0.05), and decreased duration of diarrhea (p<0.05) and fecal index (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggested that partially replacing alfalfa hay with oat hay improved ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization, and reduced incidence of diarrhea in post-weaning dairy calves.

Effect of Ascidian Tunic Extracts on Cholesterol Accumulation and Pigmentation of Kuruma Prawn, Penaeus japonicus (우렁쉥이 껍질 추출물이 보리새우 Cholesterol 축척 및 착색에 미치는 영향)

  • CHOI Byeong-Dae;KANG Seok-Joong;LEE Kang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.393-408
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    • 1996
  • The effect of various levels of ascidian tunic extracts and carophyll pink on the growth rate, pigmentation, lipid and total cholesterol accumulation, and fatty acid compositions were studied in kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus. The kuruma prawn was fed the purified diets with or without ascidian tunic extract and carophyll pink at the levels of 100, 200, and 400 ppm for 8 weeks. In the experiment diet with ascidian tunic extracts or carophyll pink, the values of daily growth rate were ranged between $1.065\;to\;1.292%$, compared with control group. The content of astaxanthin in kuruma prawn was not significantly affected by the feeding levels of tunic extracts. Feeding of the tunic extracts, on the other hand, increased the kuruma prawn lipid and total cholesterol content, and pigment deposition in concentration-dependent manners without influencing the free astaxanthin concentration of prawn flesh and heads between two feeding groups(200 and 400 ppm). And it was also demonstrated that the dietary astaxanthin was deposited in kuruma prawn body tissue mainly as astaxanthin esters. The results suggest that the best feeding strategy for pigmentation in kuruma prawns is the diets with ascidian tunic extracts at the level of 4g/kg feed (200 ppm) for 8 weeks.

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Feeding Habits of Moon Dragonet Repomucenus lunatus in the Coastal Waters off Gori, Korea (동해 남부 고리 주변해역에 출현하는 돛양태(Repomucenus lunatus)의 식성)

  • Huh, Sung Hoi;Kim, Jin Min;Park, Joo Myun;Baeck, Gun Wook
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 2013
  • The feeding habits of Repomucenus lunatus were studied using 232 specimens collected from January to December 2006 in the coastal waters off Gori, Korea. The size of R. lunatus ranged from 4.7 to 14.0 cm in standard length (SL). R. lunatus was a bottom-feeding carnivore which consumed mainly amphipods and polychaetes. Its diet also included small quantities of shrimps, cumaceans, bivalvies, gastropods, crabs, copepods, euphausia, mysids, stomatopods, ostracods and sipunculides. Amphipods were eaten predominantly for the smallest size class. The proportions of polychaetes increased gradually with increasing fish size and large size class of R. lunatus mainly consumed polychaetes. The feeding strategy graphical method revealed that R. lunatus is a specialized feeder. The mean number and weight of preys per stomach of larger size classes were higher than those of smaller size classes. The mean weight of preys per stomach ontogenetically changed with size classes.

Super-intensive Culture of Whiteleg Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931), in HDPE-lined Ponds with no Water Exchange (사육수 비교환방식을 이용한 포장 사육지에서의 흰다리새우, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)의 초고밀도양식)

  • Cho, Yeong-Rok;Kim, Bong-Rae;Jang, In-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.331-339
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    • 2010
  • Shrimp farming is the most important mariculture industry on the west coast of South Korea. However, it has suffered from mass mortality due to viral disease outbreaks and coastal pollution due to water discharge. This study developed an intensive shrimp culture method for outdoor ponds, without water exchange, which minimizes the chance of viral transmission from the environment, reduces coastal pollution by water discharge and enhances shrimp production. A culture trial was conducted in two high-density polyethylene (HDPE)-lined ponds with a $550\;m^2$ surface area. The ponds were stocked with postlarvae of Litopenaeus vannamei, the major farmed shrimp species in Korea, on July 10, 2007, and cultured for 90 days with no water exchange. The stocking density of the postlarvae (B.W. 0.0015 g) was $272\;ind./m^2$, which is eight times higher than in traditional pond culture in Korea. At harvest, the total production of ponds 1 and 2 was 1,362kg ($2.48\;kg/m^2$) and 1,282 kg ($2.33\;kg/m^2$), respectively. This is 20~22 times higher than the mean farmed shrimp production ($0.112\;kg/m^2$) in Korea and about eight times higher than in traditional ponds with a good harvest. Although there was no water exchange throughout the culture period, the mean concentrations of unionized ammonia and nitrite-nitrogen were as low as 0.038 and 6.0 mg/L, respectively. The feed conversion rate (FCR) was 1.38, which is 20~45% lower than that of traditional pond cultures. The high efficiency of the diet in this study is thought to be due to a well-managed feeding strategy and well-developed bioflocs used as diet additions for the shrimp. The final body weight of the shrimp at harvest was low (12.2~12.5 g), compared with that of traditional pond culture. This may have resulted from the combination of a short culture period, high density of shrimp, and low temperature. This study suggests that a super-intensive shrimp pond culture method using biofloc technology with no water exchange can minimize viral transmission via water exchange, reduce coastal pollution, and enhance shrimp production.

Recent Advances in Amino Acid and Energy Nutrition of Prolific Sows - Review -

  • Boyd, R.D.;Touchette, K.J.;Castro, G.C.;Johnston, M.E.;Lee, K.U.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1638-1652
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    • 2000
  • Prolific females require better nutrition and feeding practice because of larger litter size and the substantial decline in body fat. Life-time pig output will be compromised if body protein and fat are not properly managed. First litter females are especially vulnerable because they can loose ${\geq}15%$ of whole-body protein. Conservation of body protein mass during first lactation minimizes wean to estrus interval and increases second litter size (up to 1.2 pigs). The ability to influence litter-size by amino acid nutrition is a new dimension in our understanding. A P2 fat depth below 12 mm at farrow and below 10 mm at wean compromised wean to estrus interval (>2 d) and next litter size (0.5 to 1.5 pigs) in sows. It is now clear that a 'modest' excess of feed during the first 72 h of pregnancy decreases embryo viability so that the potential for an increased litter size at birth is not realized. The capacity for milk production by prolific young sows is 25% higher than the standard used previously (NRC, 1988). First litter females averaged 9.82 kg milk/d for a 21 d lactation. Second and third litter counterparts averaged 10.35 kg/d. Milk production was 95% of peak by 10 d of lactation and sows were in greatest negative energy and lysine balance during the first 6 d. Nearly 45% of the total loss in body protein occurred within the first 6 d, but this could reduced to 30-35% by using a more aggressive feeding strategy after parturition. There appear to be 2 phases in lactation for lysine need (d 2-12 vs 12-21). Feeding to the higher level alleviates the second litter size decline. The lysine requirement for lactation can be predicted with accuracy, but we are not able to predict the second limiting amino acid. Mammary uptake of valine relative to lysine and recent work with practical diets suggest that the recent NRC (1998) pattern is realistic and that threonine and valine could be co-limiting for corn-soy diets for prolific sows nursing 10-11 pigs. Empirical studies are needed to refine the ideal pattern so that synthetic lysine can be used with more confidence. Milk fat output for the elite sow is extraordinary and poses an unnecessarily high energetic cost. Methods that reduce mammary fat synthesis will benefit the sow and may enhance piglet growth.

Effects of Various Feeding Methods for Gestating Gilts on Reproductive Performance and Growth of Their Progeny

  • Piao, L.G.;Ju, W.S.;Long, H.F.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1354-1363
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    • 2010
  • This study compared the effect of four different feeding methods for gestating gilts on reproductive performance and growth of their progeny. A total of 40 F1 primiparous sows (Yorkshire${\times}$Landrace) were allotted to four treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD). For treatments, gestating period of sows was divided into three trimesters (0-35 d, 36-90 d and 91-110 d) and different amounts of feed were provided to each treatment group by Flat, Down-Up-Down (DUD), Up-Down-Up (UDU) and Down-Up-Up (DUU) feeding methods. The experimental diet was formulated to meet or exceed the standards of NRC (1998). Body weight gain of gestating gilts from d 0 to 110 was affected by feeding method (p<0.05). When gilts were fed constant feed ration (Flat feeding), less body weight loss was observed during lactation (-0.9 kg, p<0.05) and desirable backfat thickness (average 19.5 mm) was acquired at 110 days of gestation. Feed intake of lactating sows tended to be greater (4.22, 3.60, 3.97 and 4.13 kg/d, p>0.05) as sows in Flat feeding treatment had lower backfat thickness during gestation compared with other treatments (p<0.05). When gestating gilts were fed higher amount of feed during mid-trimester, the number of stillborn (1.4 piglet per litter, p<0.05) and mummies (0.8 piglet per litter, p = 0.25) were increased compared to other treatments. Feeding methods for gestating gilts had no effect on litter weight and gain of litter weight during the nursing period. Flat feeding method resulted in decreased plasma glucose concentration at 7 d postpartum (p<0.05), and increased LH concentration at 21 d postpartum (p<0.01) compared to other treatments. These results suggested that higher feed intake of gestating gilts resulted in detrimental effects on body condition and reproductive performance of sows. When gestating gilts consumed constant feed during gestation (2 kg/d), better reproductive performance and less body weight loss in lactation were observed because sows consumed more feed during the whole lactation period. Consequently, Flat feeding will be a desirable feeding strategy for gestating gilts to maximize reproductive performance, and better body condition of sows without any negative influence on the growth of their progeny.

Effects of three different diets on the fatty acid profile and sensory properties of fresh Pecorino cheese "Primo Sale"

  • Fusaro, Isa;Giammarco, Melania;Vaintrub, Michael Odintsov;Chincarini, Matteo;Manetta, Anna Chiara;Mammi, Ludovica M.E.;Palmonari, Alberto;Formigoni, Andrea;Vignola, Giorgio
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.12
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    • pp.1991-1998
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    • 2020
  • Objective: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of three different diets on the fatty acids (FA) profile and sensory properties of a characteristic Italian fresh cheese: Pecorino "Primo Sale" (PS). Methods: Fifty-four sheep were divided into three feeding groups: total mixed ration (TMR) enriched with extruded linseed (TL), control diet with TMR without any integration (TC), and pasture (P). During cheese production, six cheeses per experimental group were produced each week, stored for 10 days at 4℃, and then analyzed for chemical composition, FA profile, and sensory properties. Results: Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were significantly higher in PS from group TC (82.11%) than in cheese from other two groups (P 75.48% and TL 66.83%). TL and P groups presented higher values of polyunsaturated fatty acids, 4.35 and 3.65%, respectively, than that of TC group (2.31%). The lowest SFA/unsaturated fatty acid ratio was found in TL and P groups, while the highest was found in the TC group. Vaccenic acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were higher in group P (p<0.05) than in groups L and TC. Sensory properties of cheese from group P received the highest scores for odor intensity and friability, while control group had a greater chewing consistency. Overall, all cheeses received good scores for acceptability. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study showed how the integration of extruded linseed improved the FA profile of fresh pecorino cheese PS preserving its sensory properties. Levels of CLA in the PS group achieved using this approach was not higher than that in a grazing diet. Cheeses from groups P and L contained a higher value of FA, with nutritional implications for humans, when compared with un-supplemented diet. Linseed may be a good feeding strategy when pasture is not available.

Effect of Dietary Feeding Regimens on Urea and Protein Concentration of Milk in Murrah Buffaloes

  • Roy, B.;Mehla, R.K.;Sirohi, S.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.973-979
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    • 2005
  • The present study was planned to examine the effect of different feeding regimens on milk urea concentration and milk protein concentration. The objectives are to describe the diurnal variations of milk urea (MU) concentration and to predict plasma urea (PU) concentration from MU concentration. Six lactating Murrah buffaloes were distributed in two groups and were fed two different diets in a crossover design. The diets consisted of leguminous crops as diet 1 (berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum)+concentrate mixture 1+wheat straw)) and non-leguminous crops as diet 2 (oats (Avana sativa)+concentrate mixture 2+wheat straw). All the diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Each diet was fed to the animals for a period of 28 days, followed by a 10 day gap to obviate the carry over effect of the previous diet and then a switch over to the other diet. Digestibility trials were conducted on the last 7 days of each feeding period. Milk samples were collected on day 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24 and 28 of the feeding period and blood samples were collected on the same day at morning within 30 minutes after morning milking. The average milk urea (MU) values (mg/dl) differed significantly (p<0.01) and were 44.83${\pm}$0.62 and 42.53${\pm}$0.73, respectively, for diets 1 and 2. Milk urea concentrations (mg/dl) also varied (p 0.01) among the days of feeding period, but were stabilized after 10th day of feeding period. In contrast, diets and days of feeding period had no significant effect on percent milk protein. Plasma urea concentration showed a significant (p<0.01) positive correlation (r = 0.93) with MU concentration. To predict the PU from MU the following equation was developed 'PU = 10.67${\pm}$0.76${\times}$MU (mg/dl) with $R^2$ = 0.87'. A clear diurnal variation of MU was found with lowered morning value (42.04${\pm}$0.68 mg/dl) than the evening value (45.32${\pm}$0.66 mg/dl). Present findings suggested that MU or PU concentration could be used as an indicator to monitor the feeding strategy. Plasma urea can be predicted from MU, whenever interpretation of milk urea data required consideration of diurnal variation.

Production of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-E2 Specific Human Monoclonal Antibody in Fed-batch Culture Systems with High Cell Density Recombinant Escherichia coli (고농도 재조합 대장균의 Fed-batch 배양 시스템을 이용한 Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-E2 특이성 인간 모노클론 항체의 생산)

  • 이미숙;전주미;차상훈;정연호
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.489-496
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    • 2000
  • Several culture systems including batch, two-stage CSTR, semi-fed batch, and two-stage cyclic fed-batch were investigated for the efficient production of the Fab fraction of PDC-E2 specific human monoclonal antibody using high cell density recombinant E. coli. A two-phase batch system and a two-stage continuous system were examined to overcome plasmid instability problems, by separating the growth and the production stages. The cell density and productivity of the two-stage continuous culture was better than that of the two-phase batch fermentation. In the two-stage continuous culture system with DO-stat, the cell growth and the productivity were superior to those of the system without the DO control. Also, almost total plasmid stability was maintained in the two-stage continuous culture system. Modified M9 medium was selected as an optimum feeding medium for the fed-batch process, and the optimum C/N ratio determined to be 2:3. The optimum feeding rate was $0.6g/\ell/hr$ for a constant feeding strategy in semi-fed batch system. When the feeding medium was fed by pulsing, it was observed that more frequent pulsing resulted in improved cell growth. The linear feeding method was the most efficient of the various feeding methods tested. Finally, high cell density culture using a two-stage cyclic fed batch system with pH-stat was tried because the linear feeding method showed limitations in terms of obtaining high cell densities, and a cell density of $54 g/\ell$ was achieved. It was concluded that the two-stage cyclic fed batch system was the most efficient system for high cell density culture of the systems tested. However, productivity improvements were lower than expected due to the extremely high accumulations of acetate, although the low levels of residual glucose were maintained.

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