• Title, Summary, Keyword: Feeding Strategy

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Fermentation Strategies for Recombinant Protein Expression in the Methylotrophic Yeast Pichia pastoris

  • Zhang, Senhui;Inan, Mehmet;Meagher, Michael M.
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.275-287
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    • 2000
  • Fermentation strategies for recombinant protein production in Pichia pastoris have been investigated and are reviewed here. Characteristics of the expression system, such as phenotypes and carbon utilization, are summarized. Recently reported results such as growth model establishment, app58lication of a methanol sensor, optimization of substrate feeding strategy, DOstat controller design, mixed feed technology, and perfusion and continuous culture are discussed in detail.

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A Study on an Operation Strategy of Dual-Infeed HVDC System

  • Kim, Chan-Ki;Jang, Gilsoo
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2017
  • This paper deals with the operation strategy of reactive power in a multi-infeed HVDC (MIHVDC) system, in which several converters are connected to the same or nearby separate AC buses. The potential problems concerning a MIHVDC system when feeding a weak AC network are as follows: the need for coordination of the recovery control, the possibility of voltage instability or low quality of the area connected to the MIHVDC system, and the risk of mutual commutation failures. These problems in MIHVDC systems are similar to those in single-infeed HVDC (SIHVDC) systems, but the differences with the phenomenon of the SIHVDC system are the interactions between converters. The main reason for the potential problems of HVDC systems (MIHVDC or SIHVDC) is voltage variation; therefore, to mitigate the voltage variations, the performances of the HVDC system should be enhanced. Consequently, to mitigate the potential problems of MIHVDC systems, several solutions are suggested in this study, including installing STATCOM and installing a line arrester on the tower. The study results will be applied to a multi-infeed HVDC system in Korea.

Foraging Behavior and Preys in Relation to Feeding Site Types of the Eurasian Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus osculans) during the Breeding Season in Yubu Island, Korea (유부도 일대에 서식하는 검은머리물떼새 (Haematopus ostralegus osculans)의 번식기 섭식지 유형에 따른 섭식행동과 먹이원)

  • Lee, Sang-Yeon;Choi, Yu-Seong;Joo, Sungbae;Jeong, Gilsang;You, Young-Han
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.184-191
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    • 2018
  • During the breeding season, some Eurasian Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus osculans) in Yubu Island foraged in the open mudflat area nearby the breeding ground, instead of the tide water line area, main feeding site throughout the year. We found significant differences in foraging behavior and prey species diversity between the two different feeding site types. Even though the birds took more steps for most probably searching preys, their feeding success was much lower in the open mudflat area than the tide water line area. The multiple peck and boring methods were more frequently adopted to catch polychaetes on the open mudflat area, whereas the single peck method was dominant and gastropods and bivalves were main preys in the tide water line area. This study suggests that the bird shows flexible foraging strategy of shifting feeding site, foraging behavior and preys for better reproductive success.

Effects of Low Crude Protein Diets Supplemented with Synthetic Amino Acids on Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs Reared Using a Phase Feeding Regimen

  • Lee, J.H.;Kim, J.H.;Kim, J.D.;Kim, S.W.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.655-667
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding a low CP diet supplemented with synthetic amino acids on performance, nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs fed under a three-phase feeding regimen. Ninety-six finishing pigs (Landrace$\times$Large White$\times$Duroc), $55.75kg{\pm}0.65$ of initial body weight, were blocked by weight and sex and allotted to four dietary treatments in a randomized block design. There were six pens per treatment and four pigs per pen. Pigs were fed a 16%-14%-12% CP (for phase I-II-III, respectively), sequence of diets. Dietary treatments were 1) Control, 2) Con+L (a sequence of diets reduced in CP by l percentage unit with lysine (L) supplementation, 3) Con+LMT (a sequence of diets reduced in CP by 2 percentage unit with LYS, methionine (MET) and threonine (THE) supplementation) and 4) Con+LMTT (a sequence of diets reduced in CP by 3 percentage unit with LYS, MET, THR and tryptophan (TRP) supplementation). The finishing period (55 to 105 kg) was divided into three phases (55 to 72 kg, 72 to 90 kg and 90 to 105 kg). Pigs fed either the control or Con+L diet grew faster (p<0.05) than pigs fed the Con-LMT or Con+LMTT diet. There was no difference in ADFI among dietary treatments. Phosphorus (P) digestibility was lowest in the control group and highest in the Con+LMTT group (p<0.05). Within each phase, no significant differences in dry matter (DM) and CP digestibilities were found. Although some amino acid digestibilities were affected by dietary treatments, digestibilities of essential amino acids (EAA), non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and total amino acid were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments. For the entire experiment periods, Con+L, Con+LMT and Con+LMTT treatments resulted in 13.4, 18.8 and 21.6% lower total N excretion compared with the control. Con+LMT and Con+LMTT treatments showed significantly lower BUN concentration compared with the control and Con+L treatment (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in BUN concentration between pigs fed the control and Con+L treatment or between pigs fed Con+LMT and Con+LMTT treatments (p>0.05). Carcass length, backfat thickness and carcass grade were not significantly affected by dietary treatments (p>0.05). In conclusion, reducing dietary CP level by 1 percentage unit and supplementing only LYS at each phase could be a very beneficial feeding strategy for finishing pigs fed under a three phase feeding regimen in terms of both environmental and economical aspects.

Feeding Habits of Moon Dragonet Repomucenus lunatus in the Coastal Waters off Gori, Korea (동해 남부 고리 주변해역에 출현하는 돛양태(Repomucenus lunatus)의 식성)

  • Huh, Sung Hoi;Kim, Jin Min;Park, Joo Myun;Baeck, Gun Wook
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 2013
  • The feeding habits of Repomucenus lunatus were studied using 232 specimens collected from January to December 2006 in the coastal waters off Gori, Korea. The size of R. lunatus ranged from 4.7 to 14.0 cm in standard length (SL). R. lunatus was a bottom-feeding carnivore which consumed mainly amphipods and polychaetes. Its diet also included small quantities of shrimps, cumaceans, bivalvies, gastropods, crabs, copepods, euphausia, mysids, stomatopods, ostracods and sipunculides. Amphipods were eaten predominantly for the smallest size class. The proportions of polychaetes increased gradually with increasing fish size and large size class of R. lunatus mainly consumed polychaetes. The feeding strategy graphical method revealed that R. lunatus is a specialized feeder. The mean number and weight of preys per stomach of larger size classes were higher than those of smaller size classes. The mean weight of preys per stomach ontogenetically changed with size classes.

Optimization of Staphylokinase Production in Bacillus subtilis Using Inducible and Constitutive Promoters

  • Kim, June-Hyung;Wong, Sui-Lam;Kim, Byung-Gee
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.167-172
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    • 2001
  • Staphylokinase (SAK) was produced in B. subtilis using two different promoter systems, i.e. the P43 and sacB promoters. To maximize SAK expression in B. subtilis, fermentation control strategies for each promoter were examined. SAK, under P43, a vegetative promoter transcribed mainly by $\sigma$(sup)B containing RNA polymerase, was overexpressed at low dissolved oxygen (D.O.) levels, suggesting that the sigB operon is somewhat affected by the energy charge of the cells. The expression of SAK at the 10% D.O. level was three times higher than that at the 50% D.O. level. In the case of sacB, a sucrose-inducible promoter, sucrose feeding was used to control the induction period and induction strength. Since sucrose is hydrolyzed by two sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes in the cell and culture broth, the control strategy was based on replenishing the loss of sucrose in the culture. With continuous feeding of sucrose, WB700 (pSAKBQ), which contains the SAK gene under sacB promoter, yielded ca. 35% more SAK than the batch culture. These results present efficient promoter-dependent control strategies in B. subtilis host system for foreign protein expression.

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Effective Production of N-Acetyl-$\beta$-glucosamine by Serratia marcescens Using Chitinadceous Waste

  • Kim, Kwang;A. Louise Creagh;Charles A. Haynes
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 1998
  • The strain of Serratia marcescens QM B1466 produces selectively large amount of chitinolytic enzymes (about 1mg/L medium). Enzymatic hydrolysis of chitin to N-acetyl-${\beta}$-D-glucosamine (NAG) was performed with a system consisting of two hydrolases (chitinase and chitobiase) produced by optimization of a microbial host consuming chitin particles. For the development of Large-scale biological process for the production of NAG from chitinaceous waste, the selection and optimization of a microbial host, particle size of crab/shrimp chitin sources and initial induction time using chitin as a sole carbon source on chitinase/chitobiase production and NAG production were examined. Crab-shell chitin(1.5%) treated by dilute acid and , ball-milled with a normal diameter less than 250m gave the highest chitinase activity over a 7 days culture. Crude chitinase/ chitobiase solution obtained in a 10 L fed-batch fermentation showed a maximum activities of 23.6 U/mL and 5.1 U/mL, respectively with a feeding time of 3 hrs, near pH 8.5 at 30$^{\circ}C$.

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A Novel IPT System Based on Dual Coupled Primary Tracks for High Power Applications

  • Li, Yong;Mai, Ruikun;Lu, Liwen;He, Zhengyou
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.111-120
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    • 2016
  • Generally, a single phase H-bridge converter feeding a single primary track is employed in conventional inductive power transfer systems. However, these systems may not be suitable for some high power applications due to the constraints of the semiconductor switches and the cost. To resolve this problem, a novel dual coupled primary tracks IPT system consisting of two high frequency resonant inverters feeding the tracks is presented in this paper. The primary tracks are wound around an E-shape ferrite core in parallel which enhances the magnetic flux around the tracks. The mutual inductance of the coupled tracks is utilized to achieve adjustable power sharing between the inverters by configuring the additional resonant capacitors. The total transfer power can be continuously regulated by altering the pulse width of the inverters' output voltage with the phase shift control approach. In addition, the system's efficiency and the control strategy are provided to analyze the characteristic of the proposed IPT system. An experimental setup with total power of 1.4kW is employed to verify the proposed system under power ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 with a transfer efficiency up to 88.7%. The results verify the performance of the proposed system.

Production of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-E2 Specific Human Monoclonal Antibody in Fed-batch Culture Systems with High Cell Density Recombinant Escherichia coli (고농도 재조합 대장균의 Fed-batch 배양 시스템을 이용한 Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-E2 특이성 인간 모노클론 항체의 생산)

  • 이미숙;전주미;차상훈;정연호
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.489-496
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    • 2000
  • Several culture systems including batch, two-stage CSTR, semi-fed batch, and two-stage cyclic fed-batch were investigated for the efficient production of the Fab fraction of PDC-E2 specific human monoclonal antibody using high cell density recombinant E. coli. A two-phase batch system and a two-stage continuous system were examined to overcome plasmid instability problems, by separating the growth and the production stages. The cell density and productivity of the two-stage continuous culture was better than that of the two-phase batch fermentation. In the two-stage continuous culture system with DO-stat, the cell growth and the productivity were superior to those of the system without the DO control. Also, almost total plasmid stability was maintained in the two-stage continuous culture system. Modified M9 medium was selected as an optimum feeding medium for the fed-batch process, and the optimum C/N ratio determined to be 2:3. The optimum feeding rate was $0.6g/\ell/hr$ for a constant feeding strategy in semi-fed batch system. When the feeding medium was fed by pulsing, it was observed that more frequent pulsing resulted in improved cell growth. The linear feeding method was the most efficient of the various feeding methods tested. Finally, high cell density culture using a two-stage cyclic fed batch system with pH-stat was tried because the linear feeding method showed limitations in terms of obtaining high cell densities, and a cell density of $54 g/\ell$ was achieved. It was concluded that the two-stage cyclic fed batch system was the most efficient system for high cell density culture of the systems tested. However, productivity improvements were lower than expected due to the extremely high accumulations of acetate, although the low levels of residual glucose were maintained.

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Isotopic Evidence for Ontogenetic Shift in Food Resource Utilization during the Migration of the Slipmouth Leiognathus nuchalis in Gwangyang Bay, Korea (광양만 주둥치(Leiognathus nuchalis)의 서식처 이동에 의한 먹이원 변동 파악을 위한 안정동위원소 분석기법 적용)

  • Choi, Bohyung;Jo, Hyunbin;Park, Kiyun;Kwak, Ihn-Sil
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.84-90
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    • 2020
  • We investigated carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) of the slipmouth Leiognathus nuchalis to reveal the effects of body size, feeding strategy and spatial distribution on the food resource utilization during the migration in the Seomjin estuary and Gwangyang Bay. The δ13C values of L. nuchalis caught in the Seomjin estuary where the salinity is lower than 30 psu were much lower than those in the deep-bay area of Gwangyang Bay. Such a spatial heterogeneity in δ13C values of the L. nuchalis clearly indicates active feeding within the estuarine habitat. In contrast, the δ15N values of L. nuchalis showed a consistency among sites, indicating that this species occupies identical trophic level across the whole area. The slipmouth distributed throughout the bay area, reflecting its euryhaline characteristics. However, the distribution pattern appeared to be separated according to body size into smaller individuals in the low-saline estuary and larger ones in the deep bay. Overall results support the plastic feeding strategy of the slipmouth from zooplanktonic (estuarine habitat) to epibenthic (deep-bay habitat) feeder during the migration between estuarine to deep-bay habitats.