• Title, Summary, Keyword: Feeding Strategy

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Bioreactor Operating Strategy in Scultellaria baicalensis G. Plant Cell Culture for the Production of Flavone Glycosides (Flavonoid 배당체 생산을 위한 Scutellaria baicalensis G. 식물 세포 배양에서 생물반응기 운전전략)

  • 최정우;조진만;이정건;이원홍;김익환;박영훈
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.259-267
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    • 1998
  • Optimal feeding strategies in bioreactor operation of Scutellaria baicalensis G. plant cell culture were investigated to maximize the production of flavone glycosides by using a structured kinetic model which can predict culture growth and flavone glycosides synthesis in a rigorous, quantitative manner. For the production of baicalin and wogonin-7-0-GA, the strategies for glucose feeding into Scutellaria baicalensis G. plant cell culture were proposed based on the model, which are a periodic fed-batch operation with maintenance of cell viability and of specific production rate respectively, and a perfusion operation with maintenance of specific production rate for baicalin and wogonin-7-0-GA. Simulation results showed that the highest volumetric concentration of flavone glycosides was obtained in a periodic fed-batch operation with maintenance of cell viability among all the suggested strategies. In the periodic fed-batch operations, the higher volumetric production of flavone glycosides was achieved compared with that in the perfusion operation. It can be concluded that a periodic fed-batch operation with maintenance of cell viability would be the optimal and practical operating strategy of Scutellaris baicalensis G. plant cell culture for the production of flavone glycosides.

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Breast Feeding Attitudes and Correlates of Intention of Breast Feeding of Mothers (모유수유 결정 관련요인에 관한 연구)

  • Shin Hee Sun;Jeon Mi Yang
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge and attitude of breast feeding and to explore the predictive variables for the intention of breast feeding of mothers. One hundred and thirty-five mothers who delivered at the D University hospital during the period of May to June in 1996 comprised the sample. Data were collected by questionnaire methods before discharge at the hospital. Data were analyzed using percent, 1-test, and logistic regression. The results were as follows : 1. During their pregnancy, majority of mothers (74.8%) got the breast feeding information. Information sources were book (34.5%), family and relatives(32.4%), mass media(24.3%), and professionals such as nurses and doctors (8.8% ). The frequently reported sources of most encouragement for breast feeding were mother in law(20.7%) and baby's father (11.1% ). 2. The mean score of the items of Knowledge and Attitude toward Breast Feeding Scale were 42.56 (SD=5.47) and 39.07(SD=5.15) , representing positive attitude toward breast feeding. The correlation between knowledge and attitude score was significant(r 〓.54, p<.001). Knowledge of breast feeding were significantly different between breast feeding intention group (including partial breast feeding) and artificial feeding intention group(t=2.79, p<.01) 3. Logistic regression analysis revealed that feeding method in the hospital, delivery type, knowledge toward breast feeding, disease related to pregnancy, complication related to delivery, and educational level of mother were predictives of the intention of breast feeding. 4. The most frequently rated reasons for the plan for mixed feeding were concern about insufficient milk (37.9%) and work(27.6%), The major reasons for plan for artificial milk feeding were having premature baby(25.9%) and maternal health problems including infection(14.8% ) and drug use due to chronic illness (14.8%). From the result of the study, it is recommended to develop supportive nursing intervention strategy to promote breast-feeding intention and practice. The intervention could be more effective to begin early in pregnancy and include teaching for breast feeding skills as well as information provision for positive attitude formation.

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Feeding Dry Sows Ad libitum with High Fibre Diets

  • Ru, Y.J.;Bao, Y.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.283-300
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    • 2004
  • Currently commercial dry sows are housed in individual stalls and subject to restricted feeding. These sows often show stereotypic behaviours which increase their maintenance energy requirement. Group housing is desirable to improve animal welfare and public perception. However, under restricted feeding systems, group-housed dry sows are also aggressive. The feed intake of these sows is variable, depending on their social rank, which results in different milk production and variable piglet performance. These problems can be solved by ad libitum feeding systems, but the large capacity of intake by dry sows will not allow this feeding system to be practical as high feeding level during pregnancy can reduce reproduction performance of sows. Current research indicates that feeding high fibre diets to dry sows enables sows to be fed ad libitum, but the effect of dietary fibre on feed intake and nutrient utilisation is dependent on the quality of fibre sources. Most research has focused on sugar beet pulp, straw, lucerne meal and by-products, but there is a need to identify and evaluate some widely available and cheap fibre materials and feed grains for developing the best strategy to control nutrient intake of dry sows while feeding ad libitum.

A Preliminary Study on the Growth and Feeding of Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli, in Illuminated Sea Cages

  • Park, Chul-Won;Kim, Min-Suk;Park, Yong-Joo;Kim, Jong-Man
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.279-284
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    • 2001
  • The natural high productivity of temperate coastal waters in Korea can be used in advantage to reduce the feed costs for the cage-cultured marine carnivorous fish species. By using the night-lights methods an alternative of supplementary feeding strategy can be offered to the cage farmers and maintain sound environmental conditions that could enhance maximum sustainable yields. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of night-lights which shown positive results on feeding and growth in sea cage cultured rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli. The study showed that for the water around overhead illuminated sea cage, higher zooplankton density was observed at night than during the daytime. Increased amounts of for-age, evidenced by stomach content analyses were observed in the early evening, but decreased amounts were observed in the morning and afternoon. That is, feeding activities of the fish were most intensive from midnight to dawn. In a three month feeding experiment, the results showed that night-lighted groups were superior to groups with the highest feeding efficient. This study suggested that the evidence that night-lights superimposed on only day-lights enhance growth of rockfish in sea cages during summer and winter, with timing of exposure affecting growth of juvenile fish. The capability to control the feeding behavior of marine life via manipulation and external stimuli could considerably benefit the advancement of sea cage aquaculture in coastal areas.

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An Optical-Density-Based Feedback Feeding Method for Ammonium Concentration Control in Spirulina platensis Cultivation

  • Bao, Yilu;Wen, Shumei;Cong, Wei;Wu, Xia;Ning, Zhengxiang
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.967-974
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    • 2012
  • Cultivation of Spirulina platensis using ammonium salts or wastewater containing ammonium as alternative nitrogen sources is considered as a commercial way to reduce the production cost. In this research, by analyzing the relationship between biomass production and ammonium-N consumption in the fed-batch culture of Spirulina platensis using ammonium bicarbonate as a nitrogen nutrient source, an online adaptive control strategy based on optical density (OD) measurements for controlling ammonium feeding was presented. The ammonium concentration was successfully controlled between the cell growth inhibitory and limiting concentrations using this OD-based feedback feeding method. As a result, the maximum biomass concentration (2.98 g/l), productivity (0.237 g/l d), nitrogen-to-cell conversion factor (7.32 gX/gN), and contents of protein (64.1%) and chlorophyll (13.4mg/g) obtained by using the OD-based feedback feeding method were higher than those using the constant and variable feeding methods. The OD-based feedback feeding method could be recognized as an applicable way to control ammonium feeding and a benefit for Spirulina platensis cultivations.

Development of the Slurry Type Diet for the Growing Leptocephalus, Eel Larvae (Anguilla japonica) (뱀장어 자어용 액상사료 개발)

  • Kim, Shin-Kwon;Lee, Bae-Ik;Kim, Dae-Jung;Lee, Nam-Sil
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.1209-1216
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    • 2014
  • This feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of slurry type diet on growth performance and survival rate of growing leptocephalus, eel larva. We need to find new materials of diets for rearing eel larvae. Test diets were formulated with the eggs of the shark, fish soluble concentrate, soybean peptide and fish protein hydrolysate. Fish (average length 6 mm) were fed 3 slurry type diet(A, B and C) based on shark egg for 5 times per day. During feeding experiment, survival rates were significantly different among 3 slurry type diets. Total protein, lipid, moisture, ash and free amino acids contents were analyzed for slurry type diets. Leptocephalus fed the C slurry type diet was grown up to $38.0{\pm}9mm$ at 150 days. But all leptocephalus fed B slurry type diet were died at 100 days, reaching $16.4{\pm}8mm$. This results suggest that basic information for diet development of eel leptocephalus.

Breast-feeding & Breast-feeding Health Behavior among first-time mothers (초산모 영아의 월령별 모유수유양상 및 모유수유건강행위실천에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Eun-Ok;Lee, Kun-Sei;Jang, In-Soon;June, Kyung-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.382-392
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate breast-feeding and breast-feeding health behavior among korean first-time mothers and to provide basic data for promoting breast- feeding. Data were collected by interview or self report from 444 first-time mothers who visited health clinic center in the area of metropolitan, medium or small city, countryside. and whose infants were under 12 months old from January 2001 to February 2001. The results show that breast-feeding was 31.5% in a week after childbirth, 25.8% in 4 weeks after childbirth, 22.7% in 2 months, 17.8% in 3 months, 14.3% in 6 months, 2.5% in 12 months after childbirth. Breast-feeding rate was very low in Korea and the duration of breast-feeding was very short. Breast-feeding health behavior did not show significant differences by general characteristics of the subjects except area. The subjects in the health clinic center with MCN project did better breast feeding health behavior than the subject in the health clinic center without MCN project. To raise breast-feeding rate, several strategy could be suggested. Systemic education about importance and advantages of breast-feeding and desirable breast-feeding method should be provided to pregnant women and postpartum women. Childbirth leave in the work should be prolonged, and supportive facility such as nursery room should be installed for working mothers. Hospitals should follow the guideline of 'Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative' which was provided by UNISEF and WHO, including rooming-in after delivery.

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Effect of Galactose Feeding Strategy on Heterologous Human Lipocortin-I Production in the Fed-Batch Culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Controlled by the GAL10 Promoter

  • Chung, Bong-Hyun;Kim, Byung-Moon;Rhee, Sang-Ki;Park, Young-Hoon;Nam, Soo-Wan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.224-228
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    • 1995
  • Fed-batch fermentations were conducted to produce human lipocortin-I (LC1), a potential anti-inflammatory agent, from recombinant Sacchromyces cerevisiae carrying a galactose-inducible expression system. The cell growth, expression level of LC1, and the plasmid stability were investigated under various LC1 induction modes performed by three different galactose feeding strategies. Galactoe was fed to induce the expression of LCl from the beginning (initial induction) of culture or when the cell concentration reached 120 OD (mid-phase induction) or 300 OD (late induction). Among the three galactose-induction modes tested, the initial induction mode yielded the best result with respect to a final expression level of LC1. Fedbatch fermentation with initial induction mode produced LC1 at a conentration of 220 mg/l, which corresponded to 1.38- and 1.53-fold increases over those produced by mid-phase and late induction modes.

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An Experimental Study to Reduce the Noise Level of Sheet Feeding Apparatus for Digital MFP(Multi-Functional Product) (디지털 복합기용 용지이송기구의 소음저감을 위한 실험적 연구)

  • Cho, Mun-Son
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.579-583
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    • 2001
  • Cause of noise/vibration for the sheet feeding apparatus of digital MFP is investigated by analyzing the measured sound pressure and the strategy for reducing the noise level is suggested. Factors related to the noise/vibration are found by loading test and the measurement of the noise by assembling the components. By checking the center distance between gears and the boss height, precision of assembly is identified as a main factor of noise. From the result of analysis, it can be concluded that the noise level of sheet feeding apparatus can be reduced by maintaining the distance between gears and the precision of assembly adequately.

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Short Review of Global Methane Situation and of Facilities to Reduce in Ruminants in Third Wol1d Countries

  • Islam, M.R.;Begum, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.157-163
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    • 1997
  • This paper analyses a number of important areas relating to methane production in ruminants, consequent hazards and different methods of reducing this gas. Clearly methane not only affects on the environment but also on the economy of animal production. Several factors including feed, species, microbes, rumen environment, etc. are responsible for methane production in animals. Although methane production can be reduced by chemical manipulation, defaunation and strategic feeding, the latter was found to be effective because the method is easier to follow than the others. Furthermore, feeding technology could play an important role in reducing methane production particularly in developing countries because of its relative cost effectiveness. however, it needs to compare to what extent it could reduce methane production as well as cost of animal production. Therefore, research program needs to be concentrated on the appropriate feeding system to reduce methane production, consequently pollution and cost of production particularly in developing countries.