• Title, Summary, Keyword: Feed conversion

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DIVERGENT SELECTION FOR POSTWEANING FEED CONVERSION IN ANGUS BEEF CATTLE V. PREDICTION OF FEED CONVERSION USING WEIGHTS AND LINEAR BODY MEASUREMENTS

  • Park, N.H.;Bishop, M.D.;Davis, M.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.441-448
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    • 1994
  • Postweaning performance data were obtained on 187 group fed purebred Angus calves from 12 selected sires (six high and six low feed conversion sires) in 1985 and 1986. The objective of this portion of the study was to develop prediction equations for feed conversion from a stepwise regression analysis. Variables measured were on-test weight (ONTSTWT), on-test age (ONTSTAG), five weights by 28-d periods, seven linear body measurements: heart girth (HG), hip height (HH), head width (HDW), head length (HDL), muzzle circumference (MC), length between hooks and pins (HOPIN) and length between shoulder and hooks (SHHO), and backfat thickness (BF). Stepwise regressions for maintenance adjusted feed conversion (ADJFC) and unadjusted feed conversion (UNADFC) over the first 140 d of the test, and total feed conversion (FC) until progeny reached 8.89 mm of back fat were obtained separately by conversion groups and sexes and for combined feed conversion groups and sexes. In general, weights were more important than linear body measurements in prediction of feed utilization. To some extent this was expected as weight is related directly to gain which is a component of feed conversion. Weight at 112 d was the most important variable in prediction of feed conversion when data from both feed conversion groups and sexes were combined. Weights at 84 and 140 d were important variables in prediction of UNADFC and FC, respectively, of bulls. ONTSTWT and weight at 140 d had the highest standardized partial regression coefficients for UNADFC and ADJFC, respectively, of heifers. Results indicated that linear measurements, such as MC, HDL and HOPIN, are useful in prediction of feed conversion when feed in takes are unavailable.

DIVERGENT SELECTION FOR POSTWEANING FEED CONVERSION IN ANGUS BEEF CATTLE VI. REALIZED HERITABILITY ESTIMATES

  • Park, N.H.;Bishop, M.D.;Davis, M.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.475-479
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    • 1994
  • Postweaning performance data were obtained on 401 group fed purebred Angus calves from 24 selected sires (12 high and 12 low feed conversion sires) from 1983 through 1986 at the Northwestern Branch of the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. A single generation divergent selection experiment was replicated four times (1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986) to obtain an realized heritability estimate for postweaning feed conversion. The 140-d postweaning period was divided into five 28-d periods. Realized heritability estimates for feed conversion by 28-d periods fluctuated greatly and demonstrated no particular pattern. Heritability was highest for the fourth period (between d 85 and 112 of postweaning period, 0.61). Thus, beef producers could successfully select for feed conversion.

Comparative Study on 220V AC Feed System and 300V DC Feed System for Internet Data Centers

  • Kim, Hyo-Sung
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.157-163
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    • 2012
  • Internet Data Centers (IDCs), which are essential facilities in the modern IT industry, typically have scores of MW of concentrated electric loads. The provision of an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is necessary for the power feed system of IDCs owing to the need for stable power. Thus, conventional IDC AC power feed systems have three cascaded power conversion stages, (AC-DC), (DC-AC), and (AC-DC), resulting in a very low conversion efficiency. In comparison, DC power feed systems require only a single power conversion stage (AC-DC) to supply AC main power to DC server loads, resulting in comparatively high conversion efficiency and reliability [4-11]. This paper compares the efficiencies of a 220V AC power feed system with those of a 300V DC power feed system under equal load conditions, as established by the Mok-Dong IDC of Korea Telecom Co. Ltd. (KT). Experimental results show that the total operation efficiency of the 300V DC power feed system is approximately 15% higher than that of the 220V AC power feed system.

Effect of Aflatoxin on Feed Conversion Ratio in Broilers: A Meta-analysis

  • Suganthi, R. Umaya;Suresh, K.P.;Parvatham, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1757-1762
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    • 2011
  • Aflatoxins are natural contaminants of poultry feeds and feed ingredients and cause liver damage, immunosuppression, reduction in performance and mortality in broilers. A number of studies have been carried out to study the effects of aflatoxin on feed conversion ratio in broilers. The results on feed conversion ratio of 10 research articles in broilers fed with aflatoxin from first day of age to six weeks of age were compiled and were subjected to meta-analysis. Chi-square test and $Tau^2$ (heterogeneity co-efficient) were applied to test for significance of heterogeneity of studies. To integrate results, fixed effect model by Inverse Variance method (IV method) was used when heterogeneity was insignificant and otherwise random effect model by DerSimonian and Laird Method (DL method) was used. The results of meta-analysis showed that the adverse effect of aflatoxin on feed conversion ratio at the end of first week was negligible, second week was medium and third to six weeks was very large.

DIVERGENT SELECTION FOR POSTWEANING FEED CONVERSION IN ANGUS BEEF CATTLE IV. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BODY MEASUREMENTS AND FEED CONVERSION

  • Park, N.H.;Bishop, M.D.;Davis, M.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.435-440
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    • 1994
  • Postweaning performance data were obtained on 401 group fed purebred Angus calves from 24 selected sires (12 high and 12 low feed conversion sires) from 1983 through 1986 at the Northwestern Branch of the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. The objective of this study was to determine the interrelationships between body measurements and 140-d feed conversion (feed/gain) adjusted for maintenance (ADJFC), 140-d feed conversion unadjusted for maintenance (UNADFC) and feed conversion measured until progeny reached 8.89 mm of backfat (FC). Variables measured at the completion of the 140-d postweaning period included hip peight (HH), chest depth (CD), chest width (CW), head width (HDW), head length (HDL), heart girth (HG), muzzle circumference (MC), backfat thickness (BF), length between hooks aod pins (HOPIN) and length between shoulder and hooks (SHHO). Measurements were taken from progeny born from 1983 through 1986 for HH and BF, while others, except chest measurements (CD and CW), which were available only in 1985, were taken from progeny born in 1985 and 1986. Negative phenotypic correlations were found for UNADFC, ADJFC and FC. respectively, with HG (-0.76, -0.65 and -0.85), HOPIN (-0.05, -0.28 and -0.09), HDL (-0.63, -0.66 and -0.57), MC (-0.12, -0.35 and - 0.25), HH (-0.38, -0.29 and -0.001), BF(-0.29, -0.31 and -0.12) and CW (-0.03, -0.35 and -0.58). In general, fatter animals with larger HG, longer HDL and greater MC had better feed conversion.

Comparative Study on AC and DC Feed System for Internet Data Center (인터넷데이터센터의 교류, 직류급전시스템 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Du-Hwan;Kim, Hyo-Sung
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Power Electronics
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 2012
  • Internet Data Centers (IDC), as essential facilities for modern IT industry, typically have scores of MW of concentrated electric loads. Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) are necessary for the power feed system of IDCs because of stable power requirement. Thus, conventional AC power feed systems of IDCs have three cascaded power conversion stages such as (AC-DC), (DC-AC), and (AC-DC), which results in very low conversion efficiency. On the contrary, DC power feed systems need just a single power conversion stage (AC-DC) supplying AC mains power to DC server loads, which gives comparatively high conversion efficiency and reliability. This paper compares the efficiencies between 220V AC power feed system and 300V DC power feed system on equal load conditions which were established in Mok-Dong IDC of Korea Telecom company (KT). Experimental results show that the total operation efficiency of the 300V DC power feed system is around 15% higher than that of the 220V AC power feed system.

Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi for Swine Feed Additives (양돈사료 첨가용 김치 유산균의 효능)

  • Cho, Mee-Sun;Han, Sun-Kyung;Ryu, Ji-Sook;Choi, Ji-Hyun;Koo, Bon-Chul;Shin, Myeong-Su;Ahn, Jong-Seog;Lee, Wan-Kyu
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Lactobacillus spp. W44 and J124 strain isolated from Kimchi on the growth rate, average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion and change of intestine microflora in the weaning piglets. In the experiment 1, growth rate was significantly increased to $28.5\;{\pm}\;4.3\;kg$ and $27.6\;{\pm}\;3.3\;kg$ after oral administration of W44 and J124 strain as feed additives, respectively (p<0.05). ADG and feed conversion were also significantly improved after administration during 44 experiment days (p<0.05). In the analysis of intestinal microflora, the number of Lactobacillus spp. in the experiment groups was significantly increased 100 to 1,000 times compared to those of control group. In the experiment 2, the efficacy of W44 and J124 strains on the growth rate, ADG, feed conversion and change of intestine microflora were reconfirmed significantly (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences on feed conversion in the W44 bead and J124 bead groups. In summary, our results suggest that W-44 and J-124 stains from Kimchi have a significant effect on the weight gain and feed conversion, and it may be useful probiotic strains for the weaning piglets as feed additives.

Discovery of Performance Traits-Linked Microsatellite Markers in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

  • Kim, Soon-Hag
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.130-132
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    • 2005
  • Genomics research has two ultimate applied goals: to Isolate and clone genes of economic importance for bio-technology and gene-assisted selection (GAS), and to locate and use markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in selective breeding programs. To this end, we have identified linked markers for feed conversion efficiency growth rate, and disease resistance to enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC). Three microsatellite markers Ip266, Ip384, and Ip607 were identified to be linked to feed conversion efficiency. Similarly one marker each was identified to be linked to growth rate (Ip607) and disease resistance to ESC (Ip477). Ip607 marker linked to both growth rate and feed conversion efficiency, indicating that the QTL for both growth rate and feed conversion efficiency may either be the same or located in the same chromosomal region in the catfish genome. On phenotypic evaluation, certain traits such as growth rate can be accurately evaluated by body weight evaluation while other traits such as disease resistance can be quite complex. The linked DNA markers will be highly useful for MAS programs and for directing further efforts of genomic mapping for important quantitative traits.

Genetics of Residual Feed Intake in Cattle and Pigs: A Review

  • Hoque, M.A.;Suzuki, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.747-755
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    • 2009
  • The feed resource for animals is a major cost determinant for profitability in livestock production enterprises, and thus any effort at improving the efficiency of feed use will help to reduce feed cost. Feed conversion ratio, expressed as feed inputs per unit output, is a traditional measure of efficiency that has significant phenotypic and genetic correlations with feed intake and growth traits. The use of ratio traits for genetic selection may cause problems associated with prediction of change in the component traits in future generations. Residual feed intake, a linear index, is a trait derived from the difference between actual feed intake and that predicted on the basis of the requirements for maintenance of body weight and production. Considerable genetic variation exists in residual feed intake for cattle and pigs, which should respond to selection. Phenotypic independence of phenotypic residual feed intake with body weight and weight gain can be obligatory. Genetic residual feed intake is genetically independent of its component traits (body weight and weight gain). Genetic correlations of residual feed intake with daily feed intake and feed conversion efficiency have been strong and positive in both cattle and pigs. Residual feed intake is favorably genetically correlated with eye muscle area and carcass weight in cattle and with eye muscle area and backfat in pigs. Selection to reduce residual feed intake (excessive intake of feed) will improve the efficiency of feed and most of the economically important carcass traits in cattle and pigs. Therefore, residual feed intake can be used to replace traditional feed conversion ratio as a selection criterion of feed efficiency in breeding programs. However, further studies are required on the variation of residual feed intake during different developmental stage of production.

Esterification of High Concentration Free Fatty Acid in Rice Bran Oil (미강유 중 고농도 자유지방산의 에스테르화)

  • Shin, Yong-Seop
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.211-224
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    • 2008
  • Characteristics of the esterification reaction between free fatty acid in rice bran oil and methanol was investigated in the presence of catalysts, such as PTS(p-toluene sulfonic acid), Amberlyst 15 dry and SCX(silica gel based strong cation exchange resin). While reaction temperature was kept constant at $65^{\circ}C$, initial feed content of free fatty acid was varied from 100% to 1% by addition of pure free fatty acid which was previously made from rice bran oil. Also, the effect of mole ratio of methanol to fatty acid on the final conversion was examined. When esterification of pure free fatty acid was catalyzed by several acids, final conversions were increased in order of Amberlyst 15 dry, SCX and PTS. Using PTS catalyst, initially the reaction proceeded in homogeneous 2nd oder reaction mechanism. However, phase of reaction mixture changed from homogeneous to heterogeneous along the reaction time and then reaction rate was retarded by mass transfer resistance of methanol. Final conversion of free fatty acid in reaction mixture was depended on initial feed content of free fatty acid, and had maximum value at 30% of initial feed free fatty acid content for all kinds of catalysts used. And the final conversion was increased with mole ratio of methanol by the improvement of reaction rate. When initial feed free fatty acid content below 10% and the reaction was catalyzed by PTS, concentration of free fatty acid in reaction mixture was increased in the middle of reaction time by hydrolysis of triglyceride in reaction mixture. Also, if silica gel was added into the reaction mixture which had initial feed free fatty acid content below 50%, final conversion was increased by the adsorption of moisture produced. The SCX catalyst made the esterification reaction of free fatty acid to progress like in case of PTS catalyst. However, when initial feed free fatty acid content below 10%, concentration of free fatty acid in. reaction mixture was decreased monotonically and not increased in the middle of reaction time on the contrary to the case of PTS. Thus, SCX catalyst accomplished more high value of final conversion than PTS catalyst for the initial feed fatty acid content range from 50% to 5% In case of initial feed free fatty acid content of 1% and mole ratio of methanol was 2, concentration of free fatty acid in reaction mixture increased over the initial feed free fatty acid content for all kind of catalysts used. Although SCX catalyst was added into reaction mixture which had 1% of initial feed fatty acid content, final conversion was hardly raised by mole ratio of methanol.