• Title, Summary, Keyword: Feed Selection

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Genetics of Residual Feed Intake in Cattle and Pigs: A Review

  • Hoque, M.A.;Suzuki, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.747-755
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    • 2009
  • The feed resource for animals is a major cost determinant for profitability in livestock production enterprises, and thus any effort at improving the efficiency of feed use will help to reduce feed cost. Feed conversion ratio, expressed as feed inputs per unit output, is a traditional measure of efficiency that has significant phenotypic and genetic correlations with feed intake and growth traits. The use of ratio traits for genetic selection may cause problems associated with prediction of change in the component traits in future generations. Residual feed intake, a linear index, is a trait derived from the difference between actual feed intake and that predicted on the basis of the requirements for maintenance of body weight and production. Considerable genetic variation exists in residual feed intake for cattle and pigs, which should respond to selection. Phenotypic independence of phenotypic residual feed intake with body weight and weight gain can be obligatory. Genetic residual feed intake is genetically independent of its component traits (body weight and weight gain). Genetic correlations of residual feed intake with daily feed intake and feed conversion efficiency have been strong and positive in both cattle and pigs. Residual feed intake is favorably genetically correlated with eye muscle area and carcass weight in cattle and with eye muscle area and backfat in pigs. Selection to reduce residual feed intake (excessive intake of feed) will improve the efficiency of feed and most of the economically important carcass traits in cattle and pigs. Therefore, residual feed intake can be used to replace traditional feed conversion ratio as a selection criterion of feed efficiency in breeding programs. However, further studies are required on the variation of residual feed intake during different developmental stage of production.

Discovery of Performance Traits-Linked Microsatellite Markers in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

  • Kim, Soon-Hag
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.130-132
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    • 2005
  • Genomics research has two ultimate applied goals: to Isolate and clone genes of economic importance for bio-technology and gene-assisted selection (GAS), and to locate and use markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in selective breeding programs. To this end, we have identified linked markers for feed conversion efficiency growth rate, and disease resistance to enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC). Three microsatellite markers Ip266, Ip384, and Ip607 were identified to be linked to feed conversion efficiency. Similarly one marker each was identified to be linked to growth rate (Ip607) and disease resistance to ESC (Ip477). Ip607 marker linked to both growth rate and feed conversion efficiency, indicating that the QTL for both growth rate and feed conversion efficiency may either be the same or located in the same chromosomal region in the catfish genome. On phenotypic evaluation, certain traits such as growth rate can be accurately evaluated by body weight evaluation while other traits such as disease resistance can be quite complex. The linked DNA markers will be highly useful for MAS programs and for directing further efforts of genomic mapping for important quantitative traits.

DIVERGENT SELECTION FOR POSTWEANING FEED CONVERSION IN ANGUS BEEF CATTLE VI. REALIZED HERITABILITY ESTIMATES

  • Park, N.H.;Bishop, M.D.;Davis, M.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.475-479
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    • 1994
  • Postweaning performance data were obtained on 401 group fed purebred Angus calves from 24 selected sires (12 high and 12 low feed conversion sires) from 1983 through 1986 at the Northwestern Branch of the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. A single generation divergent selection experiment was replicated four times (1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986) to obtain an realized heritability estimate for postweaning feed conversion. The 140-d postweaning period was divided into five 28-d periods. Realized heritability estimates for feed conversion by 28-d periods fluctuated greatly and demonstrated no particular pattern. Heritability was highest for the fourth period (between d 85 and 112 of postweaning period, 0.61). Thus, beef producers could successfully select for feed conversion.

Longitudinal Analysis of Body Weight and Feed Intake in Selection Lines for Residual Feed Intake in Pigs

  • Cai, W.;Wu, H.;Dekkers, J.C.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2011
  • A selection experiment for reduced residual feed intake (RFI) in Yorkshire pigs consisted of a line selected for lower RFI (LRFI) and a random control line (CTRL). Longitudinal measurements of daily feed intake (DFI) and body weight (BW) from generation 5 of this experiment were used. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of random regression (RR) and nonlinear mixed models to predict DFI and BW for individual pigs, accounting for the substantial missing information that characterizes these data, and to evaluate the effect of selection for RFI on BW and DFI curves. Forty RR models with different-order polynomials of age as fixed and random effects, and with homogeneous or heterogeneous residual variance by month of age, were fitted for both DFI and BW. Based on predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS) and residual diagnostics, the quadratic polynomial RR model was identified to be best, but with heterogeneous residual variance for DFI and homogeneous residual variance for BW. Compared to the simple quadratic and linear regression models for individual pigs, these RR models decreased PRESS by 1% and 2% for DFI and by 42% and 36% for BW on boars and gilts, respectively. Given the same number of random effects as the polynomial RR models, i.e., two for BW and one for DFI, the non-linear Gompertz model predicted better than the polynomial RR models but not as good as higher order polynomial RR models. After five generations of selection for reduced RFI, the LRFI line had a lower population curve for DFI and BW than the CTRL line, especially towards the end of the growth period.

Expert System for optimal cutting speed and feed rate selection (최적 절삭속도및 피이드 선정 전문가 시스템)

  • Lee, Keon-Buem;Kim, Yearn-Min
    • IE interfaces
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 1996
  • In this study, expert system for the selection of the optimal cutting speed and feed rate was developed using NEXPERT system shell. The NC system has been usually used inefficiently because the input command, which contains cutting speed, feed-rate and the depth of cut, is fixed value which depends on principally operator's experience and machining handbooks providing a guideline for applicable ranges. On the other hand, the optimal cutting conditions vary with time, and depend on tool and machine characteristics, work materials, and cost factor and so on. In this study, if cutting factors, such as, cutting method, material type, cutting depth, and tool nose radius are specified, our expert system gets the information about the standard cutting speed form the cutting speed database, and provides optimum feed rate for these cutting conditions. This cutting speed database can be updated by inputting valid cutting speed which is obtained form the practices.

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Dietary Self-selection and Nutrient Feeding Systems for Egg-type Growing Pullets and Layers (난용계의 선택채식과 영양소 공급체계)

  • 이규호
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.101-111
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    • 1994
  • From the observations of dietary self-selection by growing pullets, step-up protein or reverse protein and single-stage low protein pullet feeding systems were developed. They offered another pullet feeding concept that appears to control the body weight effectively and to reduce the consumption of feed and nutrients without impairment of subsequent laying performance. It is obvious from the feed and nutrient consumption pattern of layers fed diets for self-selection of energy, protein and calcium that they have a daily cyclic requirement rather than a constant requirement for nutrients. It seems that a practical self-selective feeding system is needed to meet the daily cyclic requirement for nutrients without consuming an excess of energy and protein at certain times of the day as compared to the complete or single diet where layers have to consume extra energy and protein in the afternoon when they have a specific appetite mainly for calcium.

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Genetic parameters for residual feed intake in a random population of Pekin duck

  • Zhang, Yunsheng;Guo, Zhan Bao;Xie, Ming;Zhang, Zhiying;Hou, Shuisheng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.167-170
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The feed intake (FI) and feed efficiency are economically important traits in ducks. To obtain insight into this economically important trait, we designed an experiment based on the residual feed intake (RFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of a random population Pekin duck. Methods: Two thousand and twenty pedigreed random population Pekin ducks were established from 90 males mated to 450 females in two hatches. Traits analyzed in the study were body weight at the 42th day (BW42), 15 to 42 days average daily gain (ADG), 15 to 42 days FI, 15 to 42 days FCR, and 15 to 42 days RFI to assess their genetic interrelationships. The genetic parameters for feed efficiency traits were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methodology applied to a sire-dam model for all traits using the ASREML software. Results: Estimates heritability of BW42, ADG, FI, FCR, and RFI were 0.39, 0.38, 0.33, 0.38, and 0.41, respectively. The genetic correlation was high between RFI and FI (0.77) and moderate between RFI and FCR (0.54). The genetic correlation was high and moderate between FCR and ADG (-0.80), and between FCR and BW42 (-0.64), and between FCR and FI (0.49), respectively. Conclusion: Thus, selection on RFI was expected to improve feed efficiency, and reduce FI. Selection on RFI thus improves the feed efficiency of animals without impairing their FI and increase growth rate.

Effect of Production Phase on Growth, Enzyme Activities and Feed Selection of Broilers Raised on Vegetable Protein Diet

  • Hossain, M.A.;Islam, A.F.;Iji, P.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1593-1599
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    • 2014
  • This study consisted of two experiments, conducted to assess the impact of phase at which vegetable protein (VP) diets are introduced to broiler chicks, and preference of birds for diets based on soybean or canola meal (CM). Two hundred and ten day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into five dietary groups in the main experiment. One group was fed on animal protein (AP) diet all through to 21 days of age; two other groups were started on AP diet for 7 days and then switched to diets containing soybean meal (AP-SBM) or AP-CM, while two other diets (SBM-AP and CM-AP) were started on one of the VP diets for 7 days and then switched to AP diet. A sub-experiment on thirty birds raised on a commercial diet to 7 days was used in a feed selection test to quantify the preference of birds for the diets containing mainly CM or SBM. Chicks were reared under similar care and management conditions and the diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Results of the main experiment showed that chicks on CM-AP diet ate more (p<0.05) than those on the other diets up to day 7. Body weight gain was highest (p<0.001) on the AP-SBM diet while birds on the CM-AP diet weighed the least at 7 d. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, mortality, bone growth, visceral organ development, and activities of digestive enzymes were similar between the groups from hatch to 21 days of age. Results of the second sub-experiment showed that chicks preferred the CM-based diets to the SBM-based diets at 8 to 14 d (p<0.001) and 15 to 21 d (p<0.01) when given a choice. Overall, the birds were not affected by the nature of the starter diet although they tended to prefer the canola to soybean diets.

An Unmanned Turning Process Technique Based on Spindle Motor Power Characteristics (주축 모터 출력 특성에 근거한 무인 선삭 가공 기술)

  • 박장호;허건수
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers Conference
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    • pp.8-13
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    • 2001
  • In the turning process, the feed is usually selected by a machining operator considering workpiece, cutting tool and depth of cut. Even if this selection can avoid power saturation or tool breakage, it is usually conservative compared to the capacity of the machine tools and can reduce the productivity significantly. This paper proposes a selection method of the feed and the reference cutting force based on MRR(material removal rate), maximum spindle power and specific energy. In order to estimate and control cutting force accurately in transient and steady state, this study utilizes a synthesized cutting force estimation method and a Fuzzy controller. The experimental results present that these systems can be useful for the FMS(flexible manufacturing system) and unmanned automation system.

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Unmanned Turning Process Control Based on Spindle-Motor Power Characteristics (주축 모터 출력 특성에 근거한 무인 선삭 제어)

  • Pak, Chang-Ho;Hong, Sung-Hahm;Lee, Byeong-Huee;Huh, Kun-Soo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.1446-1452
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    • 2002
  • In the turning process, the feed is usually selected by a machining operator considering workpiece, cutting tool and depth of cut. Even if this selection can avoid power saturation or tool breakage, it is usually conservative compared to the capacity of the machine tools and can reduce the productivity significantly. This paper proposes a selection method of the feed and the reference cutting force based on MRR(material removal rate), maximum spindle power and specific energy. In order to estimate and control cutting force accurately in transient and steady state, this study utilizes a synthesized cutting force estimation method and a Fuzzy controller. The experimental results show that these systems can be useful for the unmanned turning process.