• Title/Summary/Keyword: Feed Processing

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Grain Processing on Feed Efficiency for Beef Production (비육용 곡물사료의 가공방법과 증체효율)

  • 김영길
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.126-136
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    • 1995
  • The studies had been conducted to evaluate the grain processing effects for ruminants on starch digestion, body weight gain and feed efficiency since 1970. This research deals with experimental results on chemical structure, gelatinization, microbial starch digestion in rumen, intestinal starch digestion in rumen, roles of protozoa, intestinal starch digestion of bypass starch, limits to starch digestion in small intestine. The grain processing has different effects on digestion, weight gain and feed efficiency when different grain sources and contents is used, and the quality and quantity of roughage is different. The economical and efficient method of grain processing should be selected considering weight gain and feed efficiency enhancement than digestibility.

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Crumbled or mashed feed had no significant effect on the performance of lactating sows or their offspring

  • Kim, S.C.;Li, H.L.;Park, J.H.;Kim, I.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.57 no.12
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    • pp.45.1-45.5
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    • 2015
  • Background: Physical and chemical properties of feedstuffs can be changed by feed processing. Moreover, through various mechanisms, feed processing can affect growth performance and feed efficiency of swine, nutrition value of the feed. Weaning-to service-intervals (WSI), subsequent farrowing rates, and total-born litter sizes were determined by feed intake and metabolic state during lactation. Methods: A total of 20 sows (Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire) with an average body weight (BW) of 266.1 kg 4 d before farrowing were used to determine the effect of feed processing on the performance of lactating sows and their offspring. The following two dietary treatments were used: 1) Crumble diet (C); and 2) Mash diet (M). Ten replications were used for each treatment. Back fat thickness of sows was measured 6 cm off the midline at the 10th rib using a real-time ultrasound instrument at 4 d before farrowing, 1 d after farrowing, and during weaning. Sow BW were also checked at 4 d before farrowing, 1 d after farrowing, and during weaning. Fecal score of sows were assessed on d 14. Fecal score of piglets were observed on d 7, 15, and 24. Data were analyzed using t-test procedure of SAS (2014) with sow as experimental unit. Results: No significant (p > 0.05) difference was observed in the reproduction performance of sows between the two treatments. In addition, there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in the growth performance of piglets between the two treatments. Fecal score of sows or piglets showed no significant (p > 0.05) difference either. Conclusions: In conclusion, different feed processing (mash or crumble) did not make any significant difference on the performance of lactation sow or their piglets.

Evaluation of the effects of seasonal raw materials and processing stages in feed mills implementing the HACCP system on mycotoxin content in feed

  • Baek, Seung Hee;Nam, Insik
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.61 no.1
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    • pp.7.1-7.7
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    • 2021
  • The levels of aflatoxin (AFT) and ochratoxin (OCT) were assessed at different seasons in raw materials, different feed manufacture processing stages, and animal feeds in feed mills in Korea implementing the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. Two hundred samples were collected in all four seasons from five feed mills implementing the HACCP system and examined for AFT and OCT contents. The AFT and OCT levels were analysed by using HPLC method to provide information on raw material and product stage. The AFT content of raw ingredients in the spring season was highest in corn gluten (3.84 ppb) and lowest in corn (1.82 ppb) The AFT content of corn was highest in the winter season (2.17 ppb). The content of OCT in wheat was highest in the winter season. The amounts of AFT and OCT at processing stages were higher than in the raw materials or feed. In particular, AFT content was higher in the transfer stage (3.88 ppb) than in the mixing (2.86 ppb) or filling stages (3.45 ppb) in the summer season. The means of AFT and OCT level in laying hen feed was 3.41 ppb and 1.14 ppb for broiler feed, respectively. The means of AFT and OCT level in and broiler feeds was 3.44 ppb and 1.17 ppb for broiler feed, respectively.

Feed forward Differential Architecture of Analog Parallel Processing Circuits for Analog PRML Decoder (아날로그 PRML 디코더를 위한 아날로그 병렬처리 회로의 전향 차동 구조)

  • Sah, Maheshwar Pd.;Yang, Chang-Ju;Kim, Hyong-Suk
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.59 no.8
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    • pp.1489-1496
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    • 2010
  • A feed forward differential architecture of analog PRML decoder is investigated to implement on analog parallel processing circuits. The conventional PRML decoder performs the trellis processing with the implementation of single stage in digital and its repeated use. The analog parallel processing-based PRML comes from the idea that the decoding of PRML is done mainly with the information of the first several number of stages. Shortening the trellis processing stages but implementing it with analog parallel circuits, several benefits including higher speed, no memory requirement and no A/D converter requirement are obtained. Most of the conventional analog parallel processing-based PRML decoders are differential architecture with the feedback of the previous decoded data. The architecture used in this paper is without feedback, where error metric accumulation is allowed to start from all the states of the decoding stage, which enables to be decoded without feedback. The circuit of the proposed architecture is simpler than that of the conventional analog parallel processing structure with the similar decoding performance. Characteristics of the feed forward differential architecture are investigated through various simulation studies.

Physiochemical Treatment of Feed and Utilization of Feed Additives to Control Salmonella in Poultry (가금의 살모넬라 제어를 위한 사료의 이화학적 처리와 사료첨가제의 활용)

  • Kim, Ji-Hyuk;Kim, Hack-Youn;Kim, Bong-Ki;Kim, Gye-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2018
  • Salmonella infections in livestock industry cause various problems such as worsening animal welfare and productivity, damaging consumer confidence in the food safety of animal products. Chicken meat and eggs are known as major source of pathogen causing human foodborne infections. Therefore food safety concerns have prompted the poultry producers and governments to introduce the strategy and regulation to control these pathogens. Salmonella can persist for long periods of time in a wide range of spaces including feed bin, feed processing facilities, poultry farm, slaughterhouse, processing plants, etc. For the effective and constant Salmonella control, combination of pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest measures should be considered comprehensively. The control measures would be most effective at farm level where the contamination initiates. Transmission of pathogen from feed origin to the live poultry and finally to the products was proven already. To control bacteria in the feed ingredients and formula feed, thermal processing, irradiation or chemical treatment may be applied. Chemical treatments to inhibit Salmonella in the feed involve the use of products containing organic acids, formaldehyde, or a combination of such compounds. However, recontamination which might occur during storage and transport process and/or by other various factors should always be under control and eliminated. Feed additives used to control Salmonella in birds' gastrointestinal track can be of various types, including prebiotics, probiotics, organic acids and bacteriophages. Although their mode of action varies, they ultimately inhibit the colonization of Salmonella in the gut and improve the performance of birds. This review describes the strategies that could be adapted to the management of feedstuffs and the use of feed additives in pre-harvest stage to control Salmonella contamination in poultry farming.

Effects of processing, particle size and moisturizing of sorghum-based feeds on pellet quality and broiler production

  • da Silva, Patricia Garcia;Oliveira, Luana Martins Schaly;de Oliveira, Nayanne Rodrigues;de Moura, Fabio Ataides Junior;Silva, Maura Regina Sousa;Cordeiro, Deibity Alves;Minafra, Cibele Silva;dos Santo, Fabiana Ramos
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study aimed to assess the effect of pelleted and expanded sorghum-based feeds prepared with different moisture levels and particle size of ingredients on metabolizable energy, ileal digestibility of amino acids and broiler performance. Methods: The experiment was performed with 720 male broiler chicks of the Cobb strain, with treatments of six replications, with 15 birds each; they were arranged in a completely randomized design and $2{\times}2{\times}2$ factorial scheme (pelleted or expanded feed processing, 0.8% or 1.6% moisture addition in the mixer, and particle size of 650 or 850 microns). Results: Higher pellet quality (pellets, % and pellet durability index [PDI]) was obtained in expanded diets and inclusion of 1.6% moisture. The particle size of 850 microns increased the PDI of final diet. All studied treatments had no significant effect on weight gain and broiler carcass and cut yields. Lower feed conversion occurred for birds fed pelleted feed at 42 d. The highest apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen balance (AMEn) values of feed in the initial rearing phase (10 to 13 days) were observed in birds fed pelleted feed or for feed prepared with 1.6% moisture. The highest ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids were obtained with the consumption of pelleted feed prepared with a particle size of 650 microns and 1.6% moisture. Conclusion: Pelleted feed prepared with a milling particle size of 650 microns and 1.6% moisture provided increased ileal digestibility of amino acids and AMEn in the starter period. However, the expanded feed improved pellet quality and feed conversion of broilers at 42 days of age. We conclude that factors such as moisture, particle size and processing affect the pellet quality, and therefore should be considered when attempting to optimize broiler performance.

Milling Characteristics of Vertical Small Scale Milling Machine for the Rough Rice -Optimum design conditions of main spindle speed, ceramic coating length of roller and feed screw pitch- (수직형 소형정미기의 벼 도정 특성 -주축회전수, 롤러의 세라믹코팅길이, 이송스크루 피치의 최적 설계조건에 대하여-)

  • 연광석;한충수;조성찬
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.177-188
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    • 2001
  • This research was carried out to examine the optimum design conditions of a vertical small-scale milling machine where the rough rice is processed directly into the white rice in one pass. Effects of the main spindle speed, feed screw pitch and ceramic coating length of the roller on various milling characteristics such as white rice processing capacity, electric energy consumption, rice temperature increase, broken rice ratio, moisture reduction, outlet force and crack ratio increase were studied. The results are as follows. 1. The maximum white rice processing capacity and the lowest crack ratio increase, were obtained from a machine with specification: main spindle speed of 970rpm having a feed screw pitch of 19㎜. 2. The minimum electric energy consumption was obtained with the main spindle speeds of 900 and 970rpm respectively having a feed screw pitch of 19㎜. 3. The rice temperature was increased as the feed screw pitch decreased and the main spindle speed increased. 4. Broken rice ratio was relatively low with the range of 0.8∼1.3%. 5. Moisture content loss was with the range of 0.05∼0.4%. 6. The highest outlet force was 0.72kg$\_$f/ with 900rpm of the main spindle speed and 19㎜ of the feed screw pitch and the lowest outlet force was 0.18∼0.34kg$\_$f/ with 970rpm of the main spindle speed and 16㎜ of the feed screw pitch. 7. The optimum design conditions for the vertical small-scale milling machine were obtained at 970rpm of the main spindle speed, 19㎜ of the feed screw pitch and 20㎜ of the ceramics coating length.

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Improving Feed Value of Agricultural By-Products (농산부산물(農産副産物)의 사료화(飼料化))

  • Kang, Tae-Hong
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.27
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    • pp.18-28
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    • 1984
  • In order to improve feed values of Korean agricultural by-products, various treatments including physical, chemical, physicochemical and fermentation were suggested in th is review article. Physical treatments such as chopping, grinding and pelleting reduce partiole size of agricultural by-products, and increase passage rate from the rumen, thus may increase voluntary feed intake and weight gain. Digestibility and voluntary feed intake of straw, rice hull and sawdust, also, may be increased by chemical treatment using sodium hydroxide or ammonia. Especially, because nitrogen content of by-products increase and toxic problem is not posed by ammonia treatment, it's practical usage is recommended in Korea. Silage or fermentation treatment using principles of microbial fermentation may improve palatability of low quality by-products. As mentioned above, it is concluded that various treatments suggested are desirable and improve feed value but may raise several problems. Unfortunately, because cost for installation and products is great and processing work is complicate, farmers are not using well these processing methods until now. Therefore, in order to increase the practical usage at farm level, it is thought that many research works be achieved for efficient process which have simple operation and low installation cost.

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A Study on the High Speed of Cutting Tool Feed System for the Noncircular Machining (비진원 가공용 공구 이송장치의 고속화 성능에 관한 연구)

  • 김성식
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Technology Engineers
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.96-103
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    • 1998
  • With the advance of processing technology , so as to spare fuel, piston heads used in automobile reciprocating engine have complex 3-dimension, with respect to shape such as ovality, profile, eccentricity, offset, recess. Therefore, coming out of the existing process work used master cam. the process work is performed using a CNC lathe. For a precision processing, the processing work is need to make study of high speed feed gear synchronized with the rotative speed of main spindle. And then the high speed feeding system must maintain high dynamic stiffness, high speed and high positioning accuracy . In this paper, in order to achieve high speed cutting tool feeding. The linear brushless DC motor is used for satisfying this process work. The ball bush and turicite is used as the guidance of the feed gear system. Also linear encoders, digital servo amplifiers and controller are used for controlling driving motor. This paper presents the design and simulation of the new tool feed system for noncircular machining.

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