• Title, Summary, Keyword: Feed Digestibility

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Relationship between Molecular Structure Characteristics of Feed Proteins and Protein In vitro Digestibility and Solubility

  • Bai, Mingmei;Qin, Guixin;Sun, Zewei;Long, Guohui
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.1159-1165
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    • 2016
  • The nutritional value of feed proteins and their utilization by livestock are related not only to the chemical composition but also to the structure of feed proteins, but few studies thus far have investigated the relationship between the structure of feed proteins and their solubility as well as digestibility in monogastric animals. To address this question we analyzed soybean meal, fish meal, corn distiller's dried grains with solubles, corn gluten meal, and feather meal by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine the protein molecular spectral band characteristics for amides I and II as well as ${\alpha}$-helices and ${\beta}$-sheets and their ratios. Protein solubility and in vitro digestibility were measured with the Kjeldahl method using 0.2% KOH solution and the pepsin-pancreatin two-step enzymatic method, respectively. We found that all measured spectral band intensities (height and area) of feed proteins were correlated with their the in vitro digestibility and solubility ($p{\leq}0.003$); moreover, the relatively quantitative amounts of ${\alpha}$-helices, random coils, and ${\alpha}$-helix to ${\beta}$-sheet ratio in protein secondary structures were positively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility and solubility ($p{\leq}0.004$). On the other hand, the percentage of ${\beta}$-sheet structures was negatively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility (p<0.001) and solubility (p = 0.002). These results demonstrate that the molecular structure characteristics of feed proteins are closely related to their in vitro digestibility at 28 h and solubility. Furthermore, the ${\alpha}$-helix-to-${\beta}$-sheet ratio can be used to predict the nutritional value of feed proteins.

Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions Enhance Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Beef Cattle by Relieving Heat Stress Responses and Increasing Apparent Nutrient Digestibility

  • Song, Xiaozhen;Luo, Junrong;Fu, Daibo;Zhao, Xianghui;Bunlue, Kornmatitsuk;Xu, Zhensong;Qu, Mingren
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1513-1520
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    • 2014
  • The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i) high temperature control (HTC), ii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I) and iii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+high temperature (TCM II) (n = 9 per group). The results showed that the mean body temperature declined in TCM II treatment (p<0.05). Serum $T_3$ and $T_4$ levels with TCM I and TCM II treatments elevated (p<0.05), and serum cortisol levels of TCM I treatments decreased (p<0.05), compared with the HTC group. Total protein, albumin, globulin in TCM II treatments elevated and blood urea nitrogen levels of both TCM treatments increased, but glucose levels of both TCM treatments decreased, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein with TCM I treatment increased, and the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber elevated in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). Average daily feed intake was not different among three groups, however average daily gain increased and the feed:gain ratio decreased with both TCM treatments, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with TCM I or TCM II improves growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing nutrient apparent digestibility.

Effects of exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, and pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets

  • Yang, Y.Y.;Fan, Y.F.;Cao, Y.H.;Guo, P.P.;Dong, B.;Ma, Y. X.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, as well as pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and the performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets. Methods: In Experiment 1, forty-eight barrows with an initial body weight of $35.9{\pm}0.6kg$ were randomly assigned to a $2{\times}4$ factorial experiment with the main effects being feed form (pellet vs meal) and enzyme supplementation (none, 10,000 U/kg phytase, 4,000 U/kg xylanase or 10,000 U/kg phytase plus 4,000 U/kg xylanase). The basal diet contained 97.8% wheat. Pigs were placed in metabolic cages for a 7-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Nutrient digestibility and available energy content were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted to evaluate the effects of pelleting and enzymes on performance of wheat for growing pigs. In this experiment, 180 growing pigs ($35.2{\pm}9.0kg\;BW$) were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments according to a $2{\times}3$ factorial treatment arrangement with the main effects being feed form (meal vs pellet) and enzyme supplementation (0, 2,500 or 5,000 U/kg xylanase). Results: In Experiment 1, there were no interactions between feed form and enzyme supplementation. Pelleting reduced the digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF) by 6.4 percentage units (p<0.01), increased the digestibility of energy by 0.6 percentage units (p<0.05), and tended to improve the digestibility of crude protein by 0.5 percentage units (p = 0.07) compared with diets in mash form. The addition of phytase improved the digestibility of phosphorus (p<0.01) and calcium (p<0.01) by 6.9 and 7.6 percentage units respectively compared with control group. Adding xylanase tended to increase the digestibility of crude protein by 1.0 percentage units (p = 0.09) and increased the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (p<0.01) compared with control group. Supplementation of the xylanase-phytase combination improved the digestibility of phosphorus (p<0.01) but impaired NDF digestibility (p<0.05) compared with adding xylanase alone. In Experiment 2, adding xylanase increased average daily gain (p<0.01) and linearly improved the feed:gain ratio (p<0.01) compared with control group. Conclusion: Pelleting improved energy digestibility but decreased ADF digestibility. Adding xylanase increased crude protein digestibility and pig performance. Phytase increased the apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium. The combination of phytase-xylanase supplementation impaired the effects of xylanase on NDF digestibility.

Effect of Cellulose Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Wild and Domestic Ruminants on In vitro Dry Matter Digestibility of Feed and Enzyme Production

  • Sahu, N.P.;Kamra, D.N.;Paul, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.199-202
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    • 2004
  • Cellulolytic bacterial strains have been isolated from the faeces of wild (blackbuck, Antilope cervicapra; nilgai, Baselophus tragocamelus chinkara, Gazella gazella spotted deer, Axis axis and hog deer, Cervus porcinus) and rumen liquor of domestic (sheep, Ovis aries) ruminants. Five best cellulose degrading bacterial isolates (Ruminococcus sp.) were used as microbial feed additive along with buffalo rumen liquor as inoculum to study their effect on digestibility of feed and enzyme production in in vitro conditions. The bacterial isolate from chinkara (CHI-2) showed the highest per cent apparent dry matter (DM) digestibility ($35.40{\pm}0.60$), true dry matter digestibility ($40.80{\pm}0.69$) and NDF ($26.38{\pm}0.83$) digestibility (p<0.05) compared to control ($32.73{\pm}0.56$, $36.64{\pm}0.71$ and $21.16{\pm}0.89$, respectively) and other isolates at 24 h of incubation with lignocellulosic feeds (wheat straw and wheat bran, 80:20). The same isolate also exhibited the highest activities of fibre degrading enzymes like carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, ${\beta}$-glucosidase and acetyl esterase. The bacterial isolate from chinkara (Gazella gazella) appears to have a potential to be used as feed additive in the diet of ruminants for improving utilization of nutrients from lignocellulosic feeds.

Ruminant Feed Production from Wood by Steaming-Extraction Method (I) -Effect of Solvent Extraction on Asplund Pulp and Steam Exploded Wood- (증기(蒸氣)-추출(抽出) 방법(方法)에 의한 목질계(木質系)로부터의 조사료(粗飼料) 생산(生産) (I) -용매(溶媒) 추출(抽出)이 폭쇄재(爆碎材) 및 열해섬(熱解纖) 펄프에 미치는 영향(影響)-)

  • Paik, Ki-Hyon;Kang, Chin-Ha;Kim, Dong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 1992
  • Steam defiberated pulp and steam exploded wood(birch chip) were extracted with solvents (hot-water, 1% NaOH, MeOH, hot water, 1% NaOH). The properties of residual fiber were examined for the utilization as ruminants feed. The digestibility is 38% in steam defiberated pulp(10kg /$cm^2$-15min) and 62-77% in exploded wood(17-18kg/$cm^2$-2~10min), respectively. The more steam pressure and time increase, the more the digestibility increase. The sugars obtained from extractives is amount from 7% to 13% in asplund pulp and from 7% to 10% in exploded pulp. The sugars was mainly composed of 70-80% xylose. The digestibility of residual fiber which is extracted with solvents is low than these of original fibers. Considering the yield and digestibility as ruminant feed, exploded pulp under 17kg /$cm^2$ for 10min has the best efficiency. The exploded wood gives 75.3% on yield(O. D. chip) and 48% on the digestibility.

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Effects of Coated Compound Proteases on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients and Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids for Pigs

  • Pan, L.;Zhao, P.F.;Yang, Z.Y.;Long, S.F.;Wang, H.L.;Tian, Q.Y.;Xu, Y.T.;Xu, X.;Zhang, Z.H.;Piao, X.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.12
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    • pp.1761-1767
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    • 2016
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of coated compound proteases (CC protease) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nitrogen (N) and energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) and nutrients in diets for pigs. In Exp. 1, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: $20.79{\pm}1.94kg$) were housed in individual metabolism crates and allotted into 2 treatments with 6 piglets per treatment according to weight in a randomized complete block design. The 2 diets were corn-soybean meal basal diets with (0.2 g/kg) or without CC protease supplementation. The CC protease supplementation increased (p<0.05) the digestible and metabolizable N and energy values and the digestibility and retention rate of N in the diet. The ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05) in the diet supplemented with CC protease. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: $20.79{\pm}1.94kg$), fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were blocked by body weight into 2 groups with 6 pigs each. The diets were the same as those in Exp. 1. The CC protease increased (p<0.05) the AID of crude protein and some essential AA including arginine, isoleucine and leucine. The AID and ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05) by supplemental CC protease, but the hindgut digestibility of nutrients was unaffected. Overall, the CC protease improved the ATTD of N and energy and AID of some indispensible AA and nutrients in the corn-soybean meal diet for pigs. Therefore, the CC protease supplement could improve the utilization of protein in the corn-soybean meal diet and thus contribute to lower N excretion to the environment.

Effects of dietary fermented spent coffee ground on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep

  • Choi, Yongjun;Rim, Jong-su;Na, Youngjun;Lee, Sang Rak
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.363-368
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of fermented spent coffee ground (FSCG) on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Methods: Fermentation of spent coffee ground (SCG) was conducted using Lactobacillus plantrum. Fermentation was performed at moisture content of 70% and temperature of $39^{\circ}C$ with anaerobic air tension for 48 h. Four adult rams (initial body weight = $56.8{\pm}0.4kg$) were housed in a respiration-metabolism chamber and the treatments were: i) control (Basal diet; 0% SCG or FSCG), ii) 10% level of SCG, iii) 10% level of FSCG, and iv) 20% level of FSCG in $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. Each dietary experiment period lasted for 18-d with a 14-d of adaptation period and a 4-d of sample collection period. Results: In SCG fermentation experimental result, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) concentration of FSCG (64.5% of total N) was lower than that of non-fermented SCG (78.8% of total N). Digestibility of dry matter and organic matter was similar among treatment groups. Although crude protein (CP) digestibility of the control was greater than FSCG groups (p<0.05), the 10% FSCG group showed greater CP digestibility and nitrogen retention than non-fermented 10% SCG group (p<0.05). Body weight gain and average daily gain were linearly decreased with increasing FSCG feeding level (p<0.05). When the feeding level of FSCG was increased, water intake was linearly increased (p<0.05). With an increasing FSCG level, dry matter intake did not differ among groups, although the gain to feed ratio tended to decrease with increasing level of FSCG (p<0.10). Conclusion: Microbial fermentation of SCG can improve protein digestibility, thereby increasing CP digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Fermentation using microorganisms in feed ingredients with low digestibility could have a positive effect on improving the quality of raw feed.

Response of Feeding Amino Acids Supplemented Cottonseed Meal on Growth Performance and Digestibility of Early Weaned Cow Calves

  • Khan, A.G.;Azim, Atiya;Mirza, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.184-187
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    • 2002
  • This study was designed to examine the response of feeding early weaning diets without and with amino acids supplemented cottonseed meal on growth performance and digestibility of early weaned cow calves. Fifteen 14-21 days old cross bred cow calves were randomly allotted to three experimental diets. Diet A comprised of milk replacer and concentrate feed whereas two isocaloric and iso-nitrogenous early weaning diets viz., B and C were prepared without and with lysine and methionine supplemented cottonseed meal, respectively. These early weaning diets were used as substitute of milk replacer for calves. Calves were placed in individual cages and fed twice daily for a period of 60 days. Daily feed intake, feed refused and weekly weight gain was recorded. Two digestibility trials I and II were performed at 5th and 9th week of the experiment, respectively. During the digestibility trial I, calves were fed on ad libitum basis whereas in trial II, calves were fed at 90% of their voluntary DMI. Feed, orts and feces samples were collected, weighed daily, composited, subsampled and analysed for DM and CP. Results indicated that weight gain of calves was (p<0.05) higher on diets A (0.63 kg/d/calf) and C (0.64 kg/d/calf) compared to calves on diet B (0.57 kg/d/calf). Significantly (p<0.05) less daily DMI was observed on diet A (1.48 kg) compared to early weaning diets B (1.70 kg) and C (1.72 kg). The feed efficiency was (p<0.05) better on diet A (2.33) compared to diets B (2.95) and C (2.65). The economic efficiency was noticed to be better on diets B and C compared to diet A. In trial I, digestibility of DM and CP of diet A was (p<0.05) higher than diets B and C. Whereas in trial II, digestibility of DM and CP of diet A was (p<0.05) less than diets B and C. It was concluded that early weaning diet based on lysine and methionine supplemented cottonseed meal produced better weight gain and feed efficiency compared to non-supplemented cottonseed meal based diet.

The Effects of Enzyme Complex on Performance, Intestinal Health and Nutrient Digestibility of Weaned Pigs

  • Yi, J.Q.;Piao, X.S.;Li, Z.C.;Zhang, H.Y.;Chen, Y.;Li, Q.Y.;Liu, J.D.;Zhang, Q.;Ru, Y.J.;Dong, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.1181-1188
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    • 2013
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing a corn-soybean meal-based diet with an enzyme complex containing amylase, protease and xylanase on the performance, intestinal health, apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 108 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were fed one of three diets containing 0 (control), 100, or 150 ppm enzyme complex for 4 wks, based on a two-phase feeding program namely 1 to 7 d (phase 1) and 8 to 28 d (phase 2). At the end of the experiment, six pigs from the control group and the group supplemented with 150 ppm enzyme complex were chosen to collect digesta samples from intestine to measure viscosity and pH in the stomach, ileum, and cecum, as well as volatile fatty acid concentrations and composition of the microflora in the cecum and colon. There were linear increases (p<0.01) in weight gain, gain: feed ratio and digestibility of gross energy with the increasing dose rate of enzyme supplementation during the whole experiment. Supplementation with enzyme complex increased the digesta viscosity in the stomach (p<0.05) and significantly increased (p<0.01) the concentrations of acetic, propionic and butyric acid in the cecum and colon. Enzyme supplementation also significantly increased the population of Lactobacilli (p<0.01) in the cecum and decreased the population of E. coli (p<0.05) in the colon. In Exp. 2, six crossbred barrows (initial body weight: $18.26{\pm}1.21$ kg), fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum, were assigned to three dietary treatments according to a replicated $3{\times}3$ Latin Square design. The experimental diets were the same as the diets used in phase 2 in Exp. 1. Apparent ileal digestibility of isoleucine (p<0.01), valine (p<0.05) and aspartic acid (p<0.05) linearly increased with the increasing dose rate of enzyme supplementation. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet with an enzyme complex containing amylase, protease and xylanase improved piglet performance. This is likely a result of improvement in nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acid concentrations and bacteria ratio in the large intestine.

Determination and Prediction of the Amino Acid Digestibility of Sunflower Seed Meals in Growing Pigs

  • Liu, J.D.;Li, Q.Y.;Zeng, Z.K.;Li, P.;Xu, X.;Wang, H.L.;Zhang, S.;Piao, X.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.86-94
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    • 2015
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and amino acid (AA) digestibility of sunflower seed meal (SFSM) and to use this data to develop prediction equations for estimating AA digestibility for growing pigs. Ten SFSM were collected from five provinces in China. Twelve barrows ($38.8{\pm}4.6kg$), fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into two $6{\times}6$ Latin square designs. Each of six experimental periods comprised a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The ten test diets contained 50% SFSM as the sole source of AA. Another nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of crude protein (CP) and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an inert marker in each diet. There was considerable variation (CV>10%) among the ten SFSM in chemical composition (dry matter [DM]). The concentration of CP and ether extract (EE) ranged from 29.33% to 39.09% and 0.88% to 11.33%, respectively. Crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre ranged from 21.46% to 36.42%, 38.15% to 55.40%, and 24.59% to 37.34%, respectively. There was variation among the ten SFSM in apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) for lysine and threonine, which ranged from 63.16 to 79.21 and 55.19% to 72.04% for AID and 67.03% to 82.07% and 61.97% to 77.01% for SID, respectively. The variation in CP and methionine ranged from 60.13% to 74.72% and 74.79% to 88.60% for AID and 66.70% to 79.31% and 77.16% to 90.27% for SID, respectively. Methionine was a good indicator to predict AA digestibility. These results indicate that conventional chemical composition of SFSM was variable (CV>10%) among the ten SFSM (DM). The results of AID, SID and prediction equations could be used to evaluate the digestibility of SFSM in growing pigs.