• Title, Summary, Keyword: Feed Deprivation

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The Effect of Food Deprivation Length of Pair House Pigs on the Running Speed and Feeding Activity in Solitary and Social Conditions

  • Hsia, L.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.271-277
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this experiment was to study the feeding behavior and running speed under various feed deprivation lengths and social environments. Three trials were conducted. Trial 1: ten pigs were trained individually to run a course and eat their feed at the end of the course. The pigs were deprived feed for 1, 5, 10 or 20 h. Trial 2: 1. Two pigs ran and ate together. Both pigs had 5 h of feed deprivation before the run (D5). 2. Two pigs ran and ate alone, but both pigs had 5 h of feed deprivation before the run (S5). 3. Two pigs ran and ate together. Both had 1 h of feed deprivation before the run (D1). 4. Two pigs ran and ate alone and both pigs had 1 h of feed deprivation before the run (S1). 5. Two pigs ran together, one had 5 h of feed deprivation, and the other had 1 h of feed deprivation before the run (51). Trial 3: 1. On the 1st day 5 pairs of pigs had 5 h feed deprivation and could eat feed together at (B) point (D1). 2. On the 2nd day the pigs ran and ate alone at (B) point after 5 h of feed deprivation. Feed was obtainable (D2). On the 3rd to 6th days, the pigs ran in pairs after 5 h of feed deprivation and only the dominant pig ate feed at point (B). The inferior pig was chased back to room and fed there. This stage was continued for four consecutive days, d 3 to 6. In trial 1, the running speed of pigs increased with the length of feed deprivation until 10 h, then being stable afterwards. Total feeding time increased with the length of feed deprivation (p<0.001). Eating speed did not increase with the length of feed deprivation (p>0.05). In trial 2, nine of ten pigs in treatment D5 ran faster than those in S5. Seven of the ten pigs in treatment S1 ran faster than those in treatment D1. The pigs in treatment D5 had significantly higher feed intake (p<0.001) and eating speed (p<0.05) than the pigs in other treatments. In trial 3, there were significant differences on running speed between D1 and D6 (p<0.01) and between D2 and D1, D3, D4 and D5. The inferior pig ran faster in D2 but from 3 to 6 it was the dominant pig that showed the greatest speed in completing the whole course. The results demonstrated that the pigs with low feeding motivation may cause low running speed to feed and low feed intake of the neighbor when compared with pigs kept individually.

Physiological Relationship Between Thirst Level and Feed Intake in Goats Fed on Alfalfa Hay Cubes

  • Prasetiyono, Bambang W.H.E.;Sunagawa, Katsunori;Shinjo, Akihisa;Shiroma, Sadao
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1536-1541
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    • 2000
  • The present study was carried out to measure changes of feed intake and thirst level caused by water deprivation in goats fed on dry feed and to elucidate the relationship between those two parameters. Water deprivation significantly (p<0.01) decreased cumulative feed intake and rate of eating at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min, respectively, after feed presentation. Cumulative feed intake, after completion of 2 h feeding, was reduced by about 20, 21 and 64 % due to water deprivation during feeding for 2 h (WD2), for 22 h (WD22) and for 46 h (WD46), respectively, compared to free access to water (FAW). Compared to the FAW, WD2, WD22 and WD46 increased thirst level by about 5, 5 and 9 times, respectively. Mean thirst level (X, g/30 min) was negatively correlated with cumulative feed intake (Y, g DM) after completion of 2h feeding (Y=1302-0.2 X, $r^2=0.97$, p<0.05). Water deprivation depressed plasma volume and there was a significant positive regression between plasma volume (X, ml) and cumulative feed intake (Y, g DM) after completion of 2h feeding (Y=-1003+0.6 X, $r^2=0.99$, p<0.01). Mean plasma osmolality (X, mOsmol/l) correlated significantly and negatively with cumulative feed intake (Y, g DM) after completion of 2h feeding (Y=27004-84.9 X, $r^2=0.95$, p<0.05). In conclusion, a decrease of feed intake during water deprivation is mainly due to an increase of thirst level quantitatively, and the act of feeding itself induces thirst more than the length of water-deprivation periods in goats fed on dry feeds. The present findings suggest that plasma osmolality and plasma volume which affect thirst level are involved in the decrease of feed intake in water-deprived goats.

Effects of Food Deprivation and Feeding Ratio on the Growth, Feed Utilization and Body Composition of Juvenile Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

  • Cho, Sung Hwoan
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.449-454
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    • 2014
  • The effects of food deprivation and feeding ratio on the growth, feed utilization and body composition of juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were investigated in 810 juvenile fish averaging 6.4 g in weight randomly distributed in 27 400-L flow-through tanks. A 3 [food deprivation: 8-week feeding without food deprivation (8W), 7-week feeding after 1-week food deprivation (7W) and 6-week feeding after 2-week food deprivation (6W)]${\time}3$ (feeding ratio: 100%, 95% and 90% of satiation, hereafter denoted by 100, 95 and 90, respectively) factorial design was applied. The weight gain of the fish was significantly affected by both food deprivation and feeding ratio. The weight gain of the fish under the 8W-100 treatment was higher than that of those under the 7W-95, 7W-90, 6W-100, 6W-95 and 6W-90 treatments, but did not differ from those of fish under the 8W-95, 8W-90 and 7W-100 treatments. The specific growth rate (SGR) and the feed intake of the fish were affected by both food deprivation and feeding ratio. However, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was unaffected by both food deprivation and feeding ratio. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) was affected by the feeding ratio, but not by food deprivation. The protein retention (PR) was affected by food deprivation, but not by feeding ratio. Juvenile olive flounder subjected to 1-week food deprivation at 100% satiation (7W-100 treatment) achieved full compensatory growth.

Effect of Post Hatch Feed Deprivation on Yolk-sac Utilization and Performance of Young Broiler Chickens

  • Bhanja, S.K.;Anjali Devi, C.;Panda, A.K.;Shyam Sunder, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1174-1179
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    • 2009
  • An experiment was conducted to study the effect of post-hatch feed deprivation on yolk sac utilization andsubsequent performance of young broiler chickens (280) up to 35 days of age. The experimental treatments included access to feed at 8 h intervals after hatch, up to 48 h (0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 or 48 h). Water was offered ad libitum to all the groups immediately after placement. Results indicated that chicks with access to feed immediately after hatch used up the residual yolk more quickly. Access to feed between 8-24 h post-hatch, supported faster utilization of residual yolk compared to those chicks that remained unfed for 40-48 h (p<0.05). Further, deprivation of feed up to 24 h did not alter the lipid and protein contents in residual yolk, but fasting of chicks beyond 24 h (32, 40 and 48 h) led to retention of higher lipid and lower protein content in the yolk sac (p<0.05). At 7 days of age, the weights of proventiculus and gizzard were not affected by feed deprivation up to 48 h. However, the liver, pancreas and jejunum recorded significantly (p<0.05) heavier weights in chicks that were fed during the initial 24 h period compared to delayed feeding (32-48 h). Chicks fed within 24 h after hatch gained significantly (p<0.05) higher weight at 5 weeks of age than those that received feed between 32 and 48 h. Feed deprivation for 48 h was more detrimental to growth than 24-40 h. This study revealed the significance of early posthatch feeding (<24 h) on faster utilization of yolk sac nutrients and optimum development of intestines and organs, culminating in improved weight gain (>10.5%) of broilers at 5 weeks of age.

Effects of Repeated Food Deprivation on Growth and Survival of the Juvenile Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus (넙치 Paralichthys olivaceus 치어의 성장과 생존에 미치는 반복적 절식의 영향)

  • Kim, Hyo-Chan;Kang, Duk-Young;Chang, Young-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.125-133
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    • 2008
  • To investigate the effect of repeated food deprivation and refeeding on the hyperphagia, compensatory growth, feed efficiency, body composition, hepatosomatic index (HSI), and survival rate of the juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, an experiment was conducted for 90 days. Feeding treatments consisted of the following five regimes for 90 days from August to October, 2005: C: daily satiation feeding (control), S1: 1-day satiation feeding after 1-day food deprivation, S2: 1-day satiation feeding after 2-day food deprivation, S3: 1-day satiation feeding after 3-day food deprivation and S4: 1-day satiation feeding after 4-day food deprivation, respectively. Although the monthly feed intake (MFI) of the control was significantly higher than that of all of the starved groups, the daily feed intake (DFI) was more higher in S1, S2, and S3 than that in the control as a result of hyperphagia after starvation. While the feed efficiency in the summer (to day 30) decreased in all of the starved groups with prolongation of the starvation period, the feed efficiency in the autumn (to day 90) was increased with prolongation of the starvation period. The whole body proximate composition and HSI were also affected by starvation. The crude protein, lipid, and HSI decreased with prolongation of the starvation period, whereas the crude ash and moisture increased. The growth rate and condition factor also decreased in proportion to the starvation period. The survival rate was highest in the control and was the lowest in S4. In this study, although hyperphagia occurred in the deprived groups, we knew that the compensatory growth did not always occur.

Compensatory Growth of Grower Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) with Different Feeding Regime at Suboptimal Temperature

  • Cho, S.H.;Kim, K.T.;Choi, I.C.;Jeon, G.H.;Kim, D.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.272-277
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    • 2012
  • Compensatory growth of grower olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was determined at suboptimal temperature ($13.0{\pm}1.9^{\circ}C$). Fifteen fish averaging 201.1 g per tank were distributed into 18 of 300 L flow-through tanks. Six treatments were prepared in triplicate: fish were hand-fed with an extruded pellet to apparent satiation once a day for 16 weeks (16 WF); and the other five groups of fish were hand-fed for 15, 14, 13, 12 and 10 weeks after 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 6-week feed deprivation, referred to as 15 WF, 14 WF, 13 WF, 12 WF and 10 WF, respectively. A linear relationship between body weight of fish and feed deprivation was observed: Y (Body weight of fish) = -1.81X (Weeks of feed deprivation)+201.07, $R^2$ = 0.83. Weight gain of grower olive flounder in 15 WF, 14 WF, 13 WF and 12 WF treatments was comparable to that of fish in 16 WF treatment, but lower than that of fish in 10 WF treatment. Specific growth rate of fish in 15 WF treatment was higher than that of fish in 16 WF, 14 WF and 10 WF treatments. Feed consumption of fish was not affected by feeding regime. Feed and protein efficiency ratios of fish in 15 WF treatment were higher than those of fish in 13 WF, 12 WF and 10 WF treatments. Grower olive flounder could achieve full compensatory growth when fish were daily fed for 12 weeks after 4-week feed deprivation at suboptimal temperature.

The Effects of Water Deprivation on Cerebrospinal Fluid Constituents During Feeding in Sheep

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Weisinger, Richard S.;McKinley, Michael J.;Purcell, Brett S.;Thomson, Craig;Burns, Peta L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.467-473
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    • 2001
  • The internal humoral factors in the central regulation of dry feed intake during water deprivation in sheep were investigated by measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) constituents. Five animals were fed dried alfalfa chaff for 2 hours once a day. Sheep in the water deprivation treatment were deprived of water for 28 hours, while the sheep in the control treatment were given free access to water. During the first hour of the 2 hour feeding period, a rapid reduction in blood volume occured in both treatments (water deprivation and free access to water). The CSF concentrations of Na, Cl and osmolality during the second hour of the 2 hour feeding period in both treatments were greater (p<0.01) than those during the first hour. The drinking behaviors in sheep were concentrated during the second hour of the 2 hour feeding period in periods of free access to water. Water intake during feeding in periods of free access to water was 1110 ml/2 h. The levels of increase in CSF osmolality with feeding during water deprivation were greater (p<0.01) than during periods of free access to water. The changes in CSF osmolality with feeding during water deprivation produced more vigorous thirst sensations in the brain compared to during periods of free access to water. The eating rates for the first hour of the allotted 2 hour feeding period were the same under both treatments. However, the eating rates for the second hour during water deprivation periods decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to those during periods of free access to water. The decreased eating rates for the second hour during water deprivation may be due to the vigorous thirst sensations produced in the brain. The results suggest that the increase in CSF osmolality with feeding during water deprivation acts as a thirst and satiety factor in brain mechanisms controlling feeding to decrease dry feed intake in water-deprived sheep.

Could a Manipulation of Dietary Nutrient Contents Including Phosphorous Affect Compensatory Growth of Juvenile Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus?

  • Cho, Sung Hwoan
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.57-61
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    • 2013
  • I hypothesized that the manipulation of dietary nutrient contents including phosphorous could affect compensatory growth of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Thirty fish averaging 34.8 g per tank were randomly chosen and distributed into 15 flow-through 180-L tanks. Three experimental diets were prepared: the control (C) diet, high protein and lipid (HPL) diet, and HPL diet with supplementation of calcium phosphate-monobasic (HPLP). Five treatments were prepared in triplicate: fish were hand-fed daily with the C diet twice a day for 8 weeks (C-8W); fish were starved for 1 week, and then fed with the HPL or HPLP diets twice a day for 7 weeks, and referred to as HPL-7W and HPLP-7W, respectively; and fish were starved for 2 weeks, and then fed with the HPL or HPLP diets twice a day for 6 weeks, and referred to as HPL-6W and HPLP-6W, respectively. The body weight of fish with C-8W, HPL-7W and HPLP-7W treatments was higher than fish with HPL-6W and HPLP-6W treatments on week 2, 4 and 6 after an initiation of the trial. At the end of the 8-week trial, fish with HPLP-7W and HPL-7W treatments overcompensated, as compared to fish with C-8W treatment. Full compensation was not achieved in fish subjected to the 2-week feed deprivation (HPL-6W and HPLP-6W treatments). Overall feed intake by fish was proportional to weeks of feeding. Feed conversion ratio of fish with HPLP-7W, HPL-6W and HPLP-6W treatments was higher than fish with C-8W treatment. The study showed that dietary supplementation of protein and lipid resulted in overcompensation of juvenile olive flounder subjected to a 1-week feed deprivation, but not a 2-week feed deprivation. Additionally, dietary supplementation of phosphorous did not further improve compensatory growth of fish.

Compensatory Responses of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus under Different Feed-Deprivation Regimes

  • Gao, Yang;Lee, Jeong-Yeol
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.305-311
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    • 2012
  • We investigated compensatory growth of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in structural size and live weight in response to different deprivation periods and refeeding. Four treatments were assigned randomly to fish in 12 glass tanks, with each treatment performed in triplicate. The control group was fed to satiation three times a day throughout the experiment. The other three treatment groups were starved for 1 week (S1), 2 weeks (S2), or 4 weeks (S4) and then fed until the end of the experiment. After the experiment, no significant differences were observed among S1, S2, and the control group in average weight or length, whereas the weight and length of S4 were significantly reduced. Relative condition factors of the three starved groups decreased significantly until the end of the restricted period but recovered rapidly after refeeding. The specific growth rate in weight ($SGR_W$) of the three restricted groups recovered quickly upon refeeding and were significantly higher than the control group, but these differences disappeared gradually until the end of the experiment. No significant difference in specific growth rate in length ($SGR_L$) was noted between the control group and the three restricted groups after refeeding. All three groups showed hyperphagia for a short period upon refeeding, and no statistical differences were observed in feeding efficiency among the four groups.

Probiotics in Drinking Water Alleviate Stress of Induced Molting in Feed-deprived Laying Hens

  • Khajali, Fariborz;Karimi, S.;Qujeq, D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1196-1200
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    • 2008
  • An experiment was conducted to evaluate the physiological changes of laying hens subjected to feed removal during induced molting while received probiotics in the drinking water. Post-molt performance and egg quality criteria were also studied. Ninety 78-week-old Hy-line W36 laying hens were divided into two treatment groups according to equal body weight and subjected to induced molting by continuous feed removal until around 30% BW reduction. The experiment lasted 12 wks consisting of 4-wk molting and 8-wk post-molt periods. Treatment 1 received no probiotics and was considered as the control. Treatment 2 was similar to the control except that hens received probiotics in the drinking water at 400 mg/L during feed deprivation. The results indicated that hens in both groups went out of production by Day 5. However, hens received probiotics reached 5 and 50% egg production sooner than the control (30 and 52 days vs. 31 and 54 days). Starvation during molting increased heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, hematocrit and plasma T4 and $Na^+$ levels while plasma T3 and Cl- levels were decreased. Probiotics had no significant impact on BW reduction during molt. Post-molt egg production and egg mass were higher in hens which previously received probiotics, but these responses were not significant. However, feed conversion ratio was significantly better in hens which received probiotics. Hematocrit, plasma thyroid hormone concentrations (T3 and T4) and plasma $Na^+$, $K^+$ and Cl- levels during molting were not significantly influenced by supplementation of probiotics. However, H/L ratio showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in birds which received probiotics suggesting beneficial effects of this product for feed-deprived laying hens. No significant difference was observed in post-molt egg quality criteria.