• Title, Summary, Keyword: Feed Additives

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Herbs and Botanicals as Feed Additives in Monogastric Animals

  • Wenk, Caspar
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.282-289
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    • 2003
  • Animal feed additives are used worldwide for many different reasons. Some help to cover the needs of essential nutrients and others to increase growth performance, feed intake and therefore optimize feed utilization. The health status of animals with a high growth performance is a predominant argument in the choice of feed additives. The use of feed additives is more and more questioned by the consumers. Therefore, the feed industry is highly interested in valuable alternatives which could be accepted by the consumers. Probiotics, prebiotics, enzymes and highly available minerals as well as herbs can be seen as alternatives. Herbs, spices and their extracts (botanicals) have a wide range of activities. They can stimulate feed intake and endogenous secretions or have antimicrobial, coccidiostatic or anthelmintic activity. A major field of application of herbs is the protection of animals and their products against oxidation.

Recent Advances in Animal Feed Additives such as Metabolic Modifiers, Antimicrobial Agents, Probiotics, Enzymes and Highly Available Minerals - Review -

  • Wenk, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.86-95
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    • 2000
  • Animal feed additives are used worldwide for many different reasons. Some help to cover the needs of essential nutrients and others to increase growth performance, feed intake and therefore optimize feed utilization. They can positively effect technological properties and product quality. The health status of animals with a high growth performance is a predominant argument in the choice of feed additives. In many countries the use of feed additives is more and more questioned by the consumers: substances such as antibiotics and $\beta$-agonists with expected high risks are banned in animal diets. Therefore, the feed industry is highly interested in valuable alternatives which could be accepted by the consumers. Probiotics, prebiotics, enzymes and highly available minerals as well as herbs can be seen as alternatives to metabolic modifiers and antibiotics.

THE OVERVIEW OF FEED ADDITIVES AND VETERINARY DRUGS USED IN JAPAN AND THEIR RESIDUAL ANALYSIS IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS

  • Nakaza, Hiroyuki
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.144-156
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    • 1992
  • The residue of drug in foods of animal origin has increasingly become of interest to the entire livestock industry as growing consumer health concerns. The current overvie of feed additives and veterinary drugs used in Japan and their residual analysis has been reviewed. High performance liquid chromatographic technique(HPLC) with various detectors can be expected to be successfully applied for the routine analysis of residual feed additives and veterinary drugs including anabolic agents in livestock products.

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Effect of Spirulina platensis and Probiotics as Feed Additives on Growth of Shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

  • Kim Choong-Jae;Yoon Sook-Kyung;Kim Hong-Ik;Park Yong-Ha;Oh Hee-Mock
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.1248-1254
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    • 2006
  • The effect of Spirulina platens is and probiotics as feed additives on the growth of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis was investigated in comparison with a control. The shrimp were cultured in rearing tanks in a seawater pond for 35 days from September 1, 2004. As regards the water quality, the probiotic treatment (T2, commercial diet and 3% probiotics) produced a lower TDN (total dissolved nitrogen) and TDP (total dissolved phosphorus), making it effective in water quality improvement. Nonetheless, the phytoplankton flora succeeded from diatoms to cyanobacteria, regardless of the feed additives. Treatment T3, including 3% S. platensis, produced the highest mean body weight, which was 39% higher than that for all the other treatments (P<0.05). Accordingly, it was found that the use of Spirulina and probiotics as feed additives increased the shrimp body weight and improved the water quality, respectively.

Comparative Studies on Microbioassay and Chemical Procedure for Quantitative Determination of Niacin in Feed Additives (사료첨가제중(飼料添加劑中) Niacin의 미생물학적정량법(微生物學的定量法)과 화학적정량법(化學的定量法)의 비교시험(比較試驗))

  • Cho, Jong-Hoo;Hwang, Dae-Woo;Han, Suu-Nam
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.49-53
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    • 1974
  • Mohan's aniline procedure for the quantitative determination of niacin in feed additives containing various vitamines and minerals was compared with microbiological procedure utilizing growth rate of Lactobacillus arabinosus 17-5. Microbioassay was more sensitive than chemical procedure to the detection of standard niacin and was applicable to the determination of minute amounts of niacin. while both microbioassay and chemical proce dure were discovered to be unsatisfactory by the recovery test for the determination of niacin in feed additives containing much interfering substances. But the possibility of the determination of niacin in feed additives on chemical prccedure together with microbioassay was proved.

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Physiochemical Treatment of Feed and Utilization of Feed Additives to Control Salmonella in Poultry (가금의 살모넬라 제어를 위한 사료의 이화학적 처리와 사료첨가제의 활용)

  • Kim, Ji-Hyuk;Kim, Hack-Youn;Kim, Bong-Ki;Kim, Gye-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2018
  • Salmonella infections in livestock industry cause various problems such as worsening animal welfare and productivity, damaging consumer confidence in the food safety of animal products. Chicken meat and eggs are known as major source of pathogen causing human foodborne infections. Therefore food safety concerns have prompted the poultry producers and governments to introduce the strategy and regulation to control these pathogens. Salmonella can persist for long periods of time in a wide range of spaces including feed bin, feed processing facilities, poultry farm, slaughterhouse, processing plants, etc. For the effective and constant Salmonella control, combination of pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest measures should be considered comprehensively. The control measures would be most effective at farm level where the contamination initiates. Transmission of pathogen from feed origin to the live poultry and finally to the products was proven already. To control bacteria in the feed ingredients and formula feed, thermal processing, irradiation or chemical treatment may be applied. Chemical treatments to inhibit Salmonella in the feed involve the use of products containing organic acids, formaldehyde, or a combination of such compounds. However, recontamination which might occur during storage and transport process and/or by other various factors should always be under control and eliminated. Feed additives used to control Salmonella in birds' gastrointestinal track can be of various types, including prebiotics, probiotics, organic acids and bacteriophages. Although their mode of action varies, they ultimately inhibit the colonization of Salmonella in the gut and improve the performance of birds. This review describes the strategies that could be adapted to the management of feedstuffs and the use of feed additives in pre-harvest stage to control Salmonella contamination in poultry farming.

Gut Health of Pigs: Challenge Models and Response Criteria with a Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Selected Feed Additives - A Review

  • Adewole, D.I.;Kim, I.H.;Nyachoti, C.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.909-924
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    • 2016
  • The gut is the largest organ that helps with the immune function. Gut health, especially in young pigs has a significant benefit to health and performance. In an attempt to maintain and enhance intestinal health in pigs and improve productivity in the absence of in-feed antibiotics, researchers have evaluated a wide range of feed additives. Some of these additives such as zinc oxide, copper sulphate, egg yolk antibodies, mannan-oligosaccharides and spray dried porcine plasma and their effectiveness are discussed in this review. One approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these additives in vivo is to use an appropriate disease challenge model. Over the years, researchers have used a number of challenge models which include the use of specific strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, bacteria lipopolysaccharide challenge, oral challenge with Salmonella enteric serotype Typhimurium, sanitation challenge, and Lawsonia intercellularis challenge. These challenge models together with the criteria used to evaluate the responses of the animals to them are also discussed in this review.

Effect of Different Feed Additives on Growth Performance and Blood Profiles of Korean Hanwoo Calves

  • Sarker, M.S.K.;Ko, S.Y.;Lee, S.M.;Kim, G.M.;Choi, J.K.;Yang, C.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.52-60
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    • 2010
  • This experiment was conducted on 60 Hanwoo calves comprising five feed additive groups, with 12 calves in each group, to determine the effects of additives at pre- and post-weaning on growth performance and blood profile. The groups were control, antibiotic (Neomycin 110 ppm), illite (2%), fermented green tea probiotics (FGTP, 0.5%), and mixed additives (FGTP 0.25%, illite 1% and licorice 0.1%). The calves were offered experimental pellet feeds ad libitum and after one month were supplied with imported timothy hay. They moved freely within the group and suckled their mother' milk during the pre-weaning stage (birth to 3 months) and were separated from their dam during the post-weaning stage (4-5 months). During the pre-weaning stage, the highest average daily gain (ADG) was recorded in the antibiotic- and mixed additive-fed groups followed by FGTP, control and illite groups. In the post-weaning stage, significantly higher total weight gain and ADG were recorded in both the FGTP and mixed additive groups compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Feed efficiency of mixed additive- and illite-fed calves were almost similar with antibiotic-fed calves compared to the other two groups, but the ADG was lowest in illite-fed calves during the pre-weaning stage. In contrast, post-weaning calves fed FGTP and mixed additives showed better feed efficiency. The values of hematological indices, differential leukocyte count, blood proteins and immunoglobulin among the additive-fed calves were not significantly different (p>0.05), although hemoglobin and hematocrit values were lower in FGTP compared to control, but similar in mixed additive and antibiotic groups. These results indicate no detrimental effects of feed additives on the blood profile of calves at both pre- and post-weaning age. Serum albumin in post-weaning calves of all feed additive groups were similar but significantly lower (p<0.05) than in the control group. Post-weaning, IgM was significantly lower (p<0.05) in illite-fed calves compared to other treatment groups, but there was no difference at pre-weaning. Considering all factors, the mixed feed additives and FGTP can be the replacement feed formula for antibiotic for Hanwoo beef calf production, especially when used post- weaning.

Effects of Supplementary Threonine, Canola Oil or Enzyme on Nutrient Digestibility, Performance and Carcass Traits of Growing-finishing Pigs Fed Diets Containing Wheat Distillers Grains with Solubles

  • Thacker, P.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.1676-1685
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    • 2009
  • This trial was conducted to determine the effects of various feed additives on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass traits of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing wheat distiller' grains with solubles (WDGS). Seventy-two, individually fed pigs (19.7${\pm}$2.6 kg), were assigned to one of six dietary treatments in a 6${\times}$2 (treatment${\times}$sex) factorial design (N = 12). The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal while the five experimental diets contained 20% WDGS during the growing period and 12% WDGS during the finishing period. One 20% WDGS diet was unsupplemented while the remaining diets were supplemented with either 0.1% threonine, 5% canola oil, 0.2% enzyme (0.1% Endofeed W containing 1,250 units/g of xylanase and 385 units/g of $\beta$-glucanase and 0.1% Vegpro containing 7,700 HUT/g protease and 75 CMC/g cellulase), or a combination of the three additives at the same levels as those fed separately. The digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and energy were all significantly higher in the control diet than the unsupplemented diet containing 20% WDGS. None of the feed additives improved nutrient digestibility. In addition, none of the additives had any significant effect on gain or feed intake during the growing (19.7 to 43.6) or finishing (43.6 to 114.3 kg) periods or overall (19.7 to 114.3 kg). During the growing period, feed conversion was significantly improved for pigs fed the combination of additives compared with the unsupplemented WDGS diet. During the finishing period and overall, feed conversion was significantly improved for pigs fed 5% canola oil alone or in combination with the other additives. None of the supplements had any effect on carcass traits. These results indicate that WDGS can be successfully used as a partial replacement for soybean meal in diets fed to growingfinishing pigs. However, due to its low energy content, there may be some merit in including high energy ingredients such as canola oil when diets containing WDGS are fed.

Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase: Potential Roles in Promoting Gut Health in Weanling Piglets and Its Modulation by Feed Additives - A Review

  • Melo, A.D.B.;Silveira, H.;Luciano, F.B.;Andrade, C.;Costa, L.B.;Rostagno, M.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 2016
  • The intestinal environment plays a critical role in maintaining swine health. Many factors such as diet, microbiota, and host intestinal immune response influence the intestinal environment. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is an important apical brush border enzyme that is influenced by these factors. IAP dephosphorylates bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), unmethylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides, and flagellin, reducing bacterial toxicity and consequently regulating toll-like receptors (TLRs) activation and inflammation. It also desphosphorylates extracellular nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate, consequently reducing inflammation, modulating, and preserving the homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota. The apical localization of IAP on the epithelial surface reveals its role on LPS (from luminal bacteria) detoxification. As the expression of IAP is reported to be downregulated in piglets at weaning, LPS from commensal and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria could increase inflammatory processes by TLR-4 activation, increasing diarrhea events during this phase. Although some studies had reported potential IAP roles to promote gut health, investigations about exogenous IAP effects or feed additives modulating IAP expression and activity yet are necessary. However, we discussed in this paper that the critical assessment reported can suggest that exogenous IAP or feed additives that could increase its expression could show beneficial effects to reduce diarrhea events during the post weaning phase. Therefore, the main goals of this review are to discuss IAP's role in intestinal inflammatory processes and present feed additives used as growth promoters that may modulate IAP expression and activity to promote gut health in piglets.