• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Type

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Early Diet Dilution with 40% Rice Hull Induces Lower Body Fat and Lipid Metabolic Programming in Peking Ducks

  • Guo, Xiao Yang;Fang, Yong Jun;Wu, Ling Ying
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.341-347
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of early diet dilution with 40% rice hull on growth performance, carcass characteristic and composition of meat-type ducks, and to reveal the possible mechanism for decreased body fat deposition. 160 1-day-old White Peking ducks with initial body weight of $44.5{\pm}1.0$ g were allotted to two treatments with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 10 ducks per pen (5 male and 5 female). Ducks were fed with the experimental starter diets diluted with 0% (control, RH0), 40% rice hull (RH40) during 8 to 14 d of age, respectively. Thereafter, all ducks were fed with grower diet. Ducks fed with RH40 diet from 8 to 14 d of age increased (p<0.05) feed intake, decreased (p<0.05) body weight, body weight gain and adjusted feed intake (excluded rice hull), abdominal fat, skin with fat, and fat content in carcass, and reduced (p<0.05) activities of hepatic malic dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthetase. When diet dilution was withdrawn in the re-fed period from 15 to 42 d of age, full compensatory growth of body weight, breast meat and leg meat weight were attained. However, ducks were still less (p<0.05) carcass fat content and showed continually lower (p<0.05) hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities at the market age in RH40 ducks than the control. These results indicated that diluting diet with 40% rice hull during 8 to 14 d of age might be a suitable method to improve feed efficiency, and to reduce carcass fat deposition in the production of meat-type ducks.

Possibility of Making Low-fat Sausages from Duck Meat with Addition of Rice Flour

  • Ali, M.S.;Kim, G.D.;Seo, H.W.;Jung, E.Y.;Kim, B.W.;Yang, H.S.;Joo, S.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.421-428
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    • 2011
  • Low-fat sausages with or without 10% hydrated rice flour were made from duck, chicken and pork and their physical and sensory properties were compared. Results showed that moisture content did not differ significantly among the sausage batters. However, crude protein, crude fat and total ash content were significantly lower in the group with added rice flour compared with the no flour group. Crude protein and crude fat were the highest in pork sausages without rice flour (p<0.05). Adding 10% rice flour reduced total expressible fluid in all meat type sausages. Cooking loss was also decreased when 10% rice flour was used in making sausages from chicken and pork. However, no changes in cooking loss were found in duck meat by adding rice flour. Again, the highest cooking loss was in pork sausages without rice flour and lowest in chicken sausages with 10% rice flour. The pH of the meat from different animal species differs significantly, although no significant difference was found within meat types with or without rice flour. Lightness ($L^*$) increased, while redness ($a^*$) decreased with adding rice flour in all meat type sausages. Results showed that hardness was significantly reduced when 10% rice flour was added to pork, chicken and duck meat (p<0.05). This may be due to increased water retention of rice flour after cooking. Sensory evaluation indicated that the overall acceptability of pork and chicken sausages with or without rice flour was the same, but duck sausages without rice flour had the highest off-flavor score among the sausages. Addition of rice flour increased the overall acceptability of duck sausage to that of pork and chicken sausages.

A Study on Relations between Obesity and Skeletal Maturity (비만과 골성숙도의 상관성에 대한 연구)

  • Seo, Hui-Yeon;Han, Jae-Kyung;Kim, Yun-Hee
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.19-35
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : As obese children have been increased, the interest in the impact of obesity on growth also have been increased. This study is to examine relations between obesity and skeletal maturity by analyzing body compositions and bone age. Methods : Subjects were composed of 233 children from 6 years to 17 years of age, without any other diseases related to growth, who visited the department of pediatrics, OO oriental medicine hospital and measured their body composition (body mass index, body fat ratio, fitness score) and bone age. Results : 1. As body mass index was increased, the skeletal maturity significantly was also increased. 2. As the mean of bone maturity was increased, the BMI was increased from the underweight type to the normal type to the overweight type; the bone maturity was increased as the fat ratio was increased from the normal type to the obese type to the excessively obese type; and the bone maturity was higher in the weak, obese type than the normal type when classified according to the Fitness Score. 3. The bone maturity of the overweight group in the BMI classification and excessively obese group in the fat ratio classification significantly were increased. 4. Skeletal maturity significantly was increased in children who developed secondary sexual character. 5. The significance of obesity causing increase of the skeletal maturity was higher in boys than in girls. 6. Only in the case of children without development of secondary sexual character, obesity caused an significant increases in the skeletal maturity. Conclusions : Obesity could cause the increase of skeletal maturity, and the obesity could affect more to the boys than girls and more to the children than teenagers.

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Effects of High Frequency Therapy on Localized Obesity (고주파요법이 부분비만치료에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Seung-Uoo;Choi, Young-Min;Shim, Woo-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.75-83
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : This study was performed to identify the effects of high frequency therapy on localized obesity. Methods : This trial was carried out in 12 volunteers. Volunteers were divided into 3 groups; upper arm group (n=4), thigh group (n=4) and abdomen group (n=4) according to local obesity type. Body weight and body fat were measured by Inbody 720 and CT (Computed Tomography) immediately before and following high frequency therapy. Diathermy was performed twice a week for 4 weeks for a total of 8 treatments. Results : In the upper arm group, body weight, body fat mass, fat area by CT scan and circumference were increased after treatment but not significantly (p>0.05). In the thigh group, body weight, body fat mass and circumference were decreased and fat area by CT scan was increased but both not significantly (p>0.05). In the abdomen group, significant differences were not found despite decreases in body weight, body fat mass, visceral fat and subcutaneous fat after diathermy (p>0.05). Conclusions : There was no significant effects of high frequency therapy on localized obesity.

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Maturation of the Granulosis Virus of Common Cabbage Worm, Pieris rapae (배추흰나비 과립병(顆粒病)바이러스 감염조직(感染組職)에서의 바이러스 성숙(成熟))

  • Ryu, Kang-Sun;Kang, Seok-Kwon
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 1991
  • The virus maturation in fat body cells infected with P. rapae granulosis virus were also examined to have the following results. Thin section of P. rapae GV granules showed a regular lattice of the granule enclosing virus particles. Virus particles were observed to penetrate the fat body cells by fusion or viropexis type. The blood and fat body cells uptaked the granulosis viruses a phagosome, in which they were digested by lysosomal enzymes.

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A Study on the Somato type of Middle-aged Women -House wives between 40s and 55s- (중년 여성의 체형에 관한 연구 -40~55세 주부를 중심으로-)

  • 심정희;성옥상
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.128-141
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    • 1996
  • The pourpose of this study is to determine the exact size which can be the basic elements of the fashion design with the measurement of middle-aged women's body, and to grasp the peculiar tomato type of the middle-aged women by compacting each measurement and examing the change of body shape. Making 215 house wives about 40 to 55 years old the subject of this research, we measured the body size from June to August, 1994. After analyzing the data through the 43 item.; of the body measurement, grasping the characteristics of the tomato type, we classified three types of physical standard and looked into the element of body structure. The results were as follows; 1. The average Rohrer index of middle-aged women in Tas-gu is about 1.5 and they usually seem to be fat compared with other groups. 2. Age has much influence on the body change of middle-aged women. Especially around 45 years old, the body change showed remarkable. 3. When analyzing the elements of the body measurement, the biggest elements of middle -aged women's body structure are in the items of width, thickness and girth related to the expansion of body line. Therefore in the middle age, the thickness and the girth have more influence on the human body than the height and the length, so the items of thickness and girth is the most important factor in the somato type. 4. In the slim body and standard body, the thirst factor is the items of height and length related to vertical size and the second is the items of width and thickness and girth. In ice fat body the first factor is the items of width, thickness, girth and the second is those of height, length. Unlike other body shapes, the fat body has many factors, which shows that the fat body has much variation in each part in proportion to fatness.

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Pumpkin Seed Oil as a Partial Animal Fat Replacer in Bologna-type Sausages

  • Uzlasir, Turkan;Aktas, Nesimi;Gercekaslan, Kamil Emre
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.551-562
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    • 2020
  • Beef fat was replaced with cold press pumpkin seed oil (PSO; 0%, 5%, 15%, and 20%) in the production of bologna-type sausages. A value of pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), jelly-fat separation, emulsion stability and viscosity values were determined in meat batters. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), color, and textural characteristics (TPA, shear test, penetration test) were determined in end-product at 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage at 4℃. The pH values were varied between 6.06 and 6.08. With the increase in the level of PSO in meat batters, there was a significant increase in WHC, jelly-fat separation and viscosity values (p<0.05) while a significant decrease in emulsion stability (p<0.05). TBARS values of sausages were found to be significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.05), and this trend continued during storage. Increasing of PSO level were caused a significant increase in L* and b* values while a decrease in a* value (p<0.05). Hardness, adhesiveness and chewiness values were significantly reduced whereas cohesiveness and resilience values increased (p<0.05). Maximum shear force and work of shear was significantly decreased as the level of PSO increased (p<0.05). Hardness, work of penetration and the resistance during the withdrawal of the probe values (penetration tests) increased significantly with the increase in the level of PSO (p<0.05). These results indicate that PSO has potential to be use as a replacement of animal-based fats in the production of bologna-type sausages.

Loss of FAT Atypical Cadherin 4 Expression Is Associated with High Pathologic T Stage in Radically Resected Gastric Cancer

  • Jung, Hae Yoen;Cho, Hyundeuk;Oh, Mee-Hye;Lee, Ji-Hye;Lee, Hyun Ju;Jang, Si-Hyong;Lee, Moon Soo
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Recent studies have revealed recurrent alterations in the cell adhesion gene FAT4, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, in cancer. FAT atypical cadherin 4 (FAT4) is a transmembrane receptor involved in the Hippo signaling pathway, which is involved in the control of organ size. Here, we investigated the loss of FAT4 expression and its association with clinicopathological risk factors in gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: We assessed the expression of FAT4 by using immunohistochemistry on three tissue microarrays containing samples from 136 gastric cancer cases, radically resected in the Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital between July 2006 and June 2008. Cytoplasmic immunoexpression of FAT4 was semi-quantitatively scored using the H-score system. An H-score of ${\geq}10$ was considered positive for FAT4 expression. Results: Variable cytoplasmic expressions of FAT4 were observed in gastric cancers, with 33 cases (24.3%) showing loss of expression (H-score <10). Loss of FAT4 expression was associated with an increased rate of perineural invasion (H-score <10 vs. ${\geq}10$, 36.4% vs. 16.5%, P=0.015), high pathologic T stage (P=0.015), high tumor-node-metastasis stage (P=0.017), and reduced disease-free survival time (H-score <10 vs. ${\geq}10$, mean survival $62.7{\pm}7.3$ months vs. $79.1{\pm}3.1$ months, P=0.025). However, no association was found between the loss of FAT4 expression and tumor size, gross type, histologic subtype, Lauren classification, lymphovascular invasion, or overall survival. Conclusions: Loss of FAT4 expression appears to be associated with invasiveness in gastric cancer.

Fat Cell Formation and Obesity-Related Diseases

  • Kawada, Teruo
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2003
  • Animals possess a highly sophisticated mechanism of storing energy in adipose tissue inside their bodies. However, in humans it has been clarified that adipocyte (fat cell), which composes the body fat (adipose) tissues, development and the extent of subsequent fat accumulation are closely associated with the occurrence and advancement of various common diseases (e.g., type-2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension) resulting from obesity. Recent exciting progress in clinical and biochemical studies of adipocytes has rapidly clarified the functions of adipocytes and adipose tissue. Interesting findings are the function of white adipocytes as "secreting cells" and the molecular mechanism undelying adipocyte differentiation at the transcriptional level in relation to nuclear receptors. Consequently, the adipose tissue is being targeted for the prevention or treatment of many common diseases. In this review, I will focus on recent information on characteristics of adipocytes and the relationship between obesity and common obesity-related diseases. diseases.

Dietary Fats and Cancer (식이 지방과 암)

  • Choe, Myeon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.513-518
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    • 1991
  • Evidence from recent studies in several laboratories indicates a relationship between type or level of fat in the diet and occurance of tumor at specific sites. The essential fatty acids in fat and degree of their unsaturation are important to determine the influence of a dietary fats on carcinogenesis. Alteration of dietary fat can also change carcinogenesis of cell in several tissues. Dietary fats appear to be important in both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis. Several possible mechanisms have been investigated how dietary fat could affect to carcinogenesis at cellular level. One potential mechanism of dietary fat on carcinogenesis is through modulation of protein kinase C activity in the cell.

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