• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Type

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Ratio of fat to energy intake independently associated with the duration of diabetes and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes

  • Yim, Jung-Eun;Kim, Young-Seol;Cho, Mi-Ran;Choue, Ryo-Won
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.157-162
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    • 2011
  • The importance of dietary intake in the treatment of type 2 diabetes was emphasized. This study was performed to investigate the dietary intakes of Korean type 2 diabetes patients according to the treatment and duration of diabetes and to examine the relationships between their diet and serum lipid profiles. The subjects were 111 type 2 diabetic patients who were treated by medical nutrition therapy only, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), or insulin with medical nutrition therapy. Dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietitian using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires Comparisons according to treatment type were made using covariance analyses. General linear models identified the independent effects of the different treatments after covarying for age, duration of diabetes, and 2-way interactions. There were no significant differences in age and BMI but was in duration of diabetes according to treatment type in these subjects. Carbohydrate to energy ratio was higher in the OHA group (P < 0.05), whereas the fat to energy ratio was higher in the insulin group for males (P < 0.05). Carbohydrate ($R^2$ = 0.24, P = 0.005) and fat ($R^2$ = 0.26, P = 0.02) to energy ratios were independently associated with the duration of diabetes after covarying for age, sex, treatment, and 2-way interactions. The levels of triglyceride (TG; $R^2$ = 0.32, P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (TC) were associated independently with energy intake and the carbohydrate ($R^2$ = 0.15, P = 0.02) and fat ($R^2$ = 0.15, P = 0.01) to energy ratios, respectively. The concern that the independent association of dietary intake with either duration of diabetes or dietary factors affects blood lipid levels could suggest that specific dietary recommendations may work better for identifiable groups of diabetes patients.

The Relationships between Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Intramuscular Fat Content, and Fatty Acid Compositions in M. longissimus lumborum of Hanwoo Steers

  • Joo, Seon-Tea;Joo, Sung-Hyun;Hwang, Young-Hwa
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.780-786
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    • 2017
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle fiber characteristics, intramuscular fat (IMF) content, and fatty acids composition in longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle from Hanwoo steers. The LL muscles were obtained from four quality grades (QG) carcasses and subjected to histochemical analysis. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in fiber number percentage (FNP) and fiber area percentage (FAP) of muscle fiber types among muscles from four QGs. Both FNP and FAP of type I increased while those of type IIB decreased with increasing QG from QG 2 to QG $1^{{+}{+}}$ (p<0.05). Also, with increasing QG, the saturated fatty acid (SFA) proportion decreased while monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) increased significantly (p<0.05). IMF content was positively correlated with both FNP and FAP of type I, but negatively correlated with those of type IIB. The proportions of SFA and MUFA were significantly (p<0.001) correlated with both type I and IIB composition. These results implied that muscle fiber type composition is an important factor influencing fatty acid composition in LL muscle of Hanwoo steer.

Correction of Lower Face Asymmetry using Dermofat Graft (진피-지방 이식술을 이용한 하안면부 비대칭의 교정)

  • Lee, Joo Hong;Lew, Dae Hyun;Tark, Kwan Chul
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.475-480
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: To correct the facial asymmetry and to achieve symmetry and balance, not only the soft tissue restoration of deficits but also creation and facial contour line such as mandible border and angle is important. Micro fat graft has limitation such as high resorption rate and somewhat limited ability to emphasize the rigid bony characteristics of the mandible angle due to its innate soft consistency. We have investigated the advantages of dermal fat graft over micro fat graft to correct asymmetry of the lower face in patients who had undergone mandibular reconstruction or distraction, using comparative analysis. Methods: Total of 12 patients were enrolled in our study: 6 micro fat graft and 6 dermal fat graft. Postoperative results were compared and analyzed at immediate postoperative period and more than 1 year later in each group with photographs, and analysised with image J program. Result: No complications were noted both in the micro fat type and the dermal fat type of procedures such as fat necrosis or micro calcifications. All of the patients who received micro fat graft, however had considerable amount of fat resorption after the procedure which led to two additional fat graft procedures. Although minor contour obliteration due to contracture was seen in patients who had undergone dermal fat graft procedure, no definite resorption was found even after more than one year follow-up. Results of dermal fat graft patients were satisfactory in terms of mandible angle symmetry. Secondary revision was necessary in one case due to overcorrection using dermal fat graft. Conclusion: The dermal fat graft has many advantages over the conventionally more popular micro fat graft to correct asymmetry of the lower face following mandible reconstruction owing to its lower resoption rate, more effective in emphasizing the natural curvilinear anatomical contours of the mandible angle and body and lower complication rates such as fat necrosis or micro calcifications.

Association of the A-G Polymorphism in Porcine Adiponectin Gene with Fat Deposition and Carcass Traits

  • Dai, L.H.;Xiong, Y.Z.;Deng, C.Y.;Jiang, S.W.;Zuo, B.;Zheng, R.;Li, F.E.;Lei, M.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.779-783
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    • 2006
  • The adiponectin gene is known to be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis involving food intake, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Human adiponectin gene polymorphisms have been recently reported to be associated with obesity, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. The present study was carried out to investigate the porcine adiponectin gene as a candidate gene for fat deposition and carcass traits. A mutation of A178G of the porcine adiponectin gene that resulted in substitution of the amino acid Isoleucine to Valine was identified. AcyI PCR-RFLP was used to detect the polymorphism of the genotypes in five different pig populations (Large White, Landrace, Duroc, Chinese breeds Meishan and Qingping). The A allele frequency was significantly higher among subjects from Chinsese lard type breeds, while the G allele was the only one present in those from Western lean type breeds. To determine if there was an association of the polymorphism with phenotypic variation, the mutation was tested in 267 pigs of the "Large $White{\times}Meishan$" F2 resource population. The results of association analyses showed significant associations of the genotypes with fat deposition and carcass traits. Allele G was significantly associated with increase in loin eye height, loin eye area and lean meat percentage and bone percentage, and decrease in fat mean percentage, ratio of lean to fat, shoulder fat thickness, 6-7 rib fat thickness, thorax-waist fat thickness and buttock fat thickness. The substitution of A178G (Ile60Val) happened to be located at amino acid 60 in the collagenous domain of porcine adiponectin which might affect the association into higher-order structures, and accordingly affect the posttranslational modifications and optimal biological activity of the multimeric forms. The identified functional polymorphism provides new evidence of adiponectin as an important candidate gene affecting fat deposition and carcass traits in pigs.

A Study on the Body Types of Korean Female Adults in Japan (재일동포 성인 여성 체형 연구)

  • Chung, Myung-Hee;Im, Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.753-765
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    • 2008
  • In this study, the characteristics of body types of female adults Korean living in Japan were reviewed by analyzing factors and groups in order to provide basic data required to research body types. The subjects were 304 women in their 20's, 40's and 60's born in Japan and living in Osaka at present. The major results of this study are as follows. As a result of factor analysis, there were eight factors for the body types of women in their 20' and 40'. In case of the women in their 60', nine factors were extracted. The results of cluster analysis were as follows: Type one from the women in their 20' was tallest and has long legs. Type two was short and had a small frame with lowest weight. Type three had a thick frame and weighed heavy. It was categorized into a fat body type. Type one from the women in their 40' had medium height but a fat frame. Type two was tallest and had average weight and long legs. Type three was short and had a small frame with lowest weight. Type one from the women in their 60'was tallest and had long legs. Type one was categorized into a slim body type, Type two was categorized into a fat body type, and Type three was categorized into a short and small body type with shortest height and lowest weight.

EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCT DIETS ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR TYPES OF CATTLE IN THE FEEDLOT

  • Dahlan, I.;Rahman-Haron, A.;Sukri, M.H.I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.455-459
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    • 1992
  • Five type of formulated diet from agricultural by-products (ABP) were fed to four breedtype of cattle in feedlot. The ABP used are palm kernel cake (PKC), palm press fibre (PPF), palm oil mill effluent (POME), cocoa pod (COP), coffee pulp (COF) and pineapple waste (PAP). The formulated diets are PS (52% PKC, 15% PPF and 30% POME), PF (57% PKC, 20% PPF and 20% POME), PA (2% PKC and 55% PAP), CO (42% PKC and 55% COP) and CF (67% PKC and 30% COF) with 1% urea, 1% NaCl and 1% vitamins premix. The cattle breedtypes are Kedah-Kelantan (KK), Brahman-KK (BK), Hereford-KK (HK) and Sahiwal-Friesian (SF). The result showed that breedtype significantly affect all the carcass characteristic except dressing percentage. Each breedtype has it's specific carcass characteristics. HK cattle gave high marbling, BK has high % of carcass bone, KK has high % of carcass meat and low % of carcass fat (lean meat type) and SF has high % of carcass fat. Diet-type significantly affect the deposition of fat in the carcass. High moisture diets (PA and CO) produced significantly higher % carcass bone, the lowest % carcass fat and the highest % carcass meat (65.3%). PF, CF, PA and CO diets produced 63.4%, 59.9%, 55.3% and 54.1% carcass meat respectively.

Effect of the Ratio of Raw Material Components on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

  • Jin, Sang-Keun;Ha, So-Ra;Hur, Sun-Jin;Choi, Jung-Seok
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.263-270
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of raw material ratio on the physicochemical characteristics of emulsion-type pork sausages. Experiment design was divided into 12 treatments, based on protein level (P), fat level (3P, 3.5P, and 4P), and water level (4P+10, 4P+15, 4P+20, and 4P+25). The pH and shear force values were significantly higher in T7 (3.5P fat and 4P+20 water) than those of other treatments. The lightness and redness were greatly reduced by increasing the quantity of water. The treatments containing 3P fat and 4P+20 water had the highest values of cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness. On the whole, when the protein (P) and fat (3P, 3.5P, 4P) levels were fixed, an increase over the appropriate moisture level deteriorated many physicochemical characteristics.

Interaction of Beef Growth Type${\times}$Production System for Carcass Traits of Steers

  • Brown , A.H. Jr.;Camfield, P.K.;Johnson, Z.B.;Rakes, L.Y.;Pohlman, F.W.;Brown, C.J.;Sandelin, B.A.;Baublits, R.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.259-266
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    • 2005
  • Steers (n=335) of known genetic backgrounds from four fundamentally different growth types were subjected to two production systems to study differences in carcass traits. Growth types were animals with genetic potential for large mature weight-late maturing, intermediate mature weight-late maturing, intermediate mature weight-early maturing and small mature weight-early maturing. Each year, in a nine-year study, calves of each growth type were weaned and five steers of each growth type were developed on pasture or feedlot and slaughtered at approximately 20 and 14 months of age, respectively. Data collected were pre-slaughter shrunk body weight (SBW); hot carcass weight (HCW); dressing percentage (DRESS); fat thickness at the $12^{th}$ and $13^{th}$ rib interface (FAT); percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH); longissimus muscle area (LMA); marbling score (MARB); quality grade (QG); and yield grade (YG). Year and growth type were significant for all carcass traits. The growth type${\times}$production system interaction was an important source of variation in SBW, HCW; FAT, YG and MARB. The same interaction was non-significant for DRESS, KPH, LMA and QG. Carcass differences in measures of fatness were greater in the feedlot system than in the pasture system. These data could aid producers in matching beef growth type to the production system most suitable for efficient use of resources.

Effect of Dietary Fiber and Fat on Tumor Incidence and Cell Proliferation of Colonic Mucosa in DMH-Treated Rats (Dimethylhydrazine으로 처리한 쥐에서 식이섬유소와 지방종류가 대장의 종양발생율과 세포증식에 미치는 영향)

  • 최주선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.697-707
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    • 1998
  • This study was designed to observe the effect of dietary fiber and fat on colon tumor incidence and cell proliferation. Male Sqraue Dawley rats(n=225) at 7 weeks of age, were divided into 3 groups depending on the type of fat b(beef tallow, corn oil and DHA-rich fish oil) and each group was again divided into 3 groups depending on type of fiber(fiber-free, perctin and cellulose) . The experimental diet containing dietary fat at 15%(w/w) and fiber at 6%(w/w) levels was fed for 25 weeks. At the same time, each rats was intramuscularly injected with DMH two times a week for 6 weeks to geive total dose of 180mg/kg body weight. Cell proliferation was measured by in vivo incroporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into DNA. Fish oil decreased the tumor incidence (9.67%) compared with beef talow (33.39%) and corn oil (21.21%). Tumor incidence was decreased in all groups that fed cellulose (11.67%) compared with those of fiber-free(21.74%) and pectic(19.70%). Most of tumors was distributed at the site of the distal colon. The rats fed both fish oil and cellulose significantly decreased th enumber of tumors and tumor incidence compared to other groups. Fish oil was more effective in preventing cell prolofieration by decreasing crypt length and labeling index(LI) compared with beef tallow(p<0.05). Cell proliferation in distal colon was more developed to the upper part of the crypt compared to proximal colon. Overall tumor incidence and cell proliferation were more affected by dietary fat. But the effect of dietary fiber was different depending on type of fat in the experimental diet. These results suggest that a DHA -rich fish oil may has more decisive effect in inhibiting the cell proliferation in colon.

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The Association of Insulin Resistance with Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Dietary Factors in Korean Type 2 DM Patients (제2형 당뇨병 환자에서 인슐린저항성과 심혈관질환 위험요인 및 식이요인과의 관계)

  • Yu, So-Young;Hong, Hye-Sook;Lee, Hyun-Sook;Choi, Young-Ju;Huh, Kap-Bum;Kim, Wha-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Korean type 2 diabetes patients. The subjects were 429 (male: 218, female: 211) type 2 DM patients visited DM clinic, and they were classified into quartiles based on $K_{ITT}$ index (%/min, Insulin Tolerance Test). Anthropometric and biochemical characteristics, and dietary intakes by Food Frequency Questionnaire were assessed. The means of waist circumference, fat mass, percent body fat and abdominal fat thickness were significantly higher in the lowest quartile (the most insulin resistant group) than in the highest quartile (the least insulin resistant group) of $K_{ITT}$ index (%/min)(p<0.05), For hematological values, the lowest quartile showed significantly higher fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide, insulin, triglyceride, ApoB/apoA-1 ratio and C-reactive protein compared to the highest quartile (p < 0.05). Moreover, $K_{ITT}$ index (%/min) was negatively correlated with waist circumference, fat mass, percent body fat, abdominal fat thickness and fasting blood concentrations of glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, ApoB/apoA-1 ratio and C-reactive protein (p < 0.05). Nutrient intakes were not significantly different among the quartile groups of $K_{ITT}$ index (%/min) and also not correlated with insulin resistance, however, they showed correlation with obesity parameters (BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, vat mass, abdominal fat thickness), which were strongly associated with insulin resistance. In conclusion, cardiovascular disease risk would be higher as the insulin resistance grows in Korean type 2 DM patients, and nutrient intakes would affect to the insulin resistance through the effect on anthropometric parameters.