• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Type

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Quality characteristics of deep fat fried carrots depend on type of frying oil, frying temperature, and time of frying

  • Park, Hyun Su;Kim, Hyun Jung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.46-53
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    • 2020
  • Carrots were deep fat fried with sunflower oil (SO), palm oil (PO), and a blend of palm and sunflower oils (PSO with PO:SO as 2:8 or 4:6) at different temperatures (180 and 190℃) and lengths of time (0.5 to 2.5 min). The quality of deep fat fried carrots was determined by the moisture and fat content, color, conjugated dienoic acid (CDA), hydroperoxide, p-anisidine value, and fatty acid composition. The moisture content of fried carrots decreased with increasing frying time, while the fat content increased. The CDA and p-anisidine values of carrots fried with SO were higher than those fried with PO because of greater unsaturated fatty acids content in SO. PSO was a better choice than SO or PO for deep fat frying carrots in the aspects of oxidative stability and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids. These results indicate that the quality of deep fat fried carrots depends on the type of oil and frying temperature used, as well as the length of time.

Effects of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated $Receptor-{\gamma}2$ Pro12Ala Polymorphism on Body Fat Distribution in Female Korean Subjects (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated $Receptor-{\gamma}$ 2 $(PPAR{\gamma}2)$ Pro12Ala (P12A) 유전자 다형성이 한국여성의 체지방분포에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kil-Soo;Choi, Sun-Mi;Yang, Hyun-Sung;Yoon, Yoo-Sik;Shin, Seun-Uoo
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2004
  • Objectives: The effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}2\;(PPAR{\gamma}2)$ Pro12Ala (P12A) polymorphism on body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes are well documented; however, until now, only a few studies have evaluated the effects of this polymorphism on body fat distribution. This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of this polymorphism on computed tomography (CT)-measured body fat distribution and other obesity-related parameters in Korean female subjects. Methods & Results: The frequencies of $PPAR{\gamma}2$ genotypes were: PP type, 93.0%; PA type, 6.8%; and AA type, 0.2%. The frequency of the A allele was 0.035. Body weight (P .012), BMI (P .012), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (P .001) were significantly higher in subjects with PA/AA compared with subjects with PP. When body composition was analyzed by bioimpedance analysis, lean body mass and body water content were similar between the 2 groups. However, body fat mass (P .003) and body fat percent (P .025) were significantly higher in subjects with PA/AA compared with subjects with PP. Among overweight subjects with BMI of greater than 25, PA/AA was associated with significantly higher abdominal subcutaneous fat (P .000), abdominal visceral fat (P .031), and subcutaneous upper and lower thigh adipose tissue (P .010 and .013). However, among lean subjects with BMI of less than 25, no significant differences associated with $PPAR{\gamma}2$ genotype were found, suggesting that the fat-accumulating effects of the PA/AA genotype were evident only among overweight subjects, but not among lean subjects. When serum lipid profiles, glucose, and liver function indicators were compared among overweight subjects, no significant difference associated with $PPAR{\gamma}2$ genotype was found. Changes in body weight, BMI, WHR, and body fat mass were measured among overweight subjects who finished a 1-month weight lose program of a hypocaloric diet and exercise; no significant differences associated with $PPAR{\gamma}2$ genotype were found. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the $PPAR{\gamma}2$ PA/AA genotype is associated with increased subcutaneous and visceral fat areas in overweight Korean female subjects, but does not significantly affect serum biochemical parameters and outcomes of weight loss programs.

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The Effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Mouse Model (단삼투여가 고지방식이로 유발된 비만형 당뇨병 동물모델에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Seon-Wook;Kim, Dong-Hoon;Choi, Seung-Bum;Park, Geun-Hee;Kim, Young-Seung
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.429-437
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : Obesity is an important cause of diabetes, and lipotoxicity causes insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza on high fat diet-induced obese type 2 diabetic mouse models. Methods : Diabetes was induced in ICR male mouse (23~25 g) with Surwit's high fat, high sucrose diet. Mice were divided into 4 groups (n=10) of normal, control, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and metformin. After 8 weeks, body weight, OGTT, fructosamine, lipid profile, serum level of adiponectin and leptin, epididymal fat pad, liver weight and epididymal adipocyte size were measured. Results : Salvia miltiorrhiza significantly reduced oral glucose tolerance levels, fructosamine serum level, epididymal fat weight, and epididymal adipocyte size. Salvia miltiorrhiza also increased HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin and leptin serum levels. Conclusions : These results show that Salvia miltiorrhiza improves insulin resistance. Therefore we suggest that Salvia miltiorrhiza would be an effective treatment for obese type 2 diabetic patients.

Effect of Increasing Dietary Fat on Plasma Lipoprotein in Young Korean Women (지방 섭취 증가가 일부 젊은 여성의 혈장 지단백 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 허영란
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.697-705
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing dietary fat on plasma lipoprotein in young Korean women. During the three weeks of experimental periods, 8 healthy college women consumed a regular diet, a medium fat diet and a high fat diet for one week, consecutively. The percentages of fat from energy intake in the subjects on the regular, medium, and high fat diets were 20, 29 and 38%, respectively. Our data showed that the dietary intakes of fat and cholesterol had an influence on the plasma lipoprotein. The medium fat diet enhanced the blood glucose concentration and the plasma HDL, and the high fat diet resulted in increases in the blood glucose concentration and the plasma LDL as well as HDL. Also the type of diets led to changes in the composition of lipoprotein. When on the medium fat diet, HDL and LDL had higher phospholipid content. On the high fat diet, LDL had higher phospholipid, cholesterol and triglyceride contents, and HDL included higher cholesterol content.

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Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplemented to Dietary Fat Has an Antioxidant Activities, but It Depends on the Type of Fat in Diet (쥐에서 식이에 보충한 Conjugated Linoleic Acid가 식이지방 종류에 따라 항산화작용에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤경미;박현서
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.858-864
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    • 2001
  • The study was designed to observe an antioxidant activities of conjugated linoleic acid(CLA) in rat liver by determining the activities of antioxidative enzymes(superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase) and the levels of tocopherol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS). Male Sprague Dawley rats at weeks-old were divided into groups according to the types of dietary fat(beef tallow and fish oil) and then each group was subdivided into groups depending on CLA supplement. All rats were fed experimental diet containing 12% total fat including 1% CLA by weight for 30 weeks. CLA supplemented to beef tallow diet did not have significant effect on the level of TBARS and tocopherol. The level of TBARS was significantly increased in fish oil diet(highly unsaturated fat diet), but its level was significantly reduced by increasing SOD and GSH-Px activities when CLA was supplemented to fish oil diet so that CLA showed a sparing action of tocopherol in tissue. CLA did not have significant effect on peroxisomal catalase activities, but its activity was significantly increased when TBARS production was high in the fish oil diet. CLA could be incorporated into phospholipid of microsomal membrane, and interfered the conversions of C18 : 0 into C18 : 1 and C18 : 2 into C20 : 4 in liver. In conclusion, CLA had an antioxidant activities depending on the type of fat in diet. Therefore, it could be recommended to use CLA when highly unsaturated fat was used in meal preparation.

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Anti-diabetic Effects of Ethanol Extract from Bitter Melon in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet

  • Yoon, Nal Ae;Park, Juyeong;Lee, Jiyeon;Jeong, Joo Yeon;Kim, Hyun-Kyu;Lee, Hak Sung;Hwang, In Guk;Roh, Gu Seob;Kim, Hyun Joon;Cho, Gyeong Jae;Choi, Wan Sung;Lee, Dong Hoon;Kang, Sang Soo
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.259-267
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    • 2017
  • Present study aimed to determine the effect of 'bitter melon', a popularly used fruit in Bangladesh and several other Asian countries, on high-fat-diet-induced type 2 diabetes. To investigate the effect, ethanol extract from bitter melon (BME) as a dietary supplement with mouse chow was used. BME was found to significantly attenuate the high-fat diet (HFD) -induced body weight and total fat mass. BME also effectively reduced the insulin resistance induced by the HFD. Furthermore, dietary supplementation of BME was highly effective in increasing insulin sensitivity and reducing hepatic fat and obesity. These results indicate that BME could be effective in attenuating type 2 diabetes and could therefore be a preventive measure against type 2 diabetes.

Electron Microscopy and MR Imaging Findings in Embolic Effects

  • Park Byung-Rae;Koo Bong-Oh
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.367-373
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    • 2004
  • Evaluated the hyperacute embolic effects of triolein and oleic acid in cat brains by using MR image and electron microscopy. In fat embolism, free fatty acid is more toxic than neutral fat in terms of tissue damage. T2-Weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging were performed in cat brains after the injection of triolein (group 1, n=8) or oleic acid (group 2, n=10) into the internal carotid artery. MR image were quantitatively assessed by comparing the lesions with their counterparts on T2-weighted images, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Electron microscopic findings in group 1 were compared with those in group 2. Qualitatively, MR images revealed two types of lesions. Type 1 lesions were hyperintense on diffusion-weighted images and hypointense of ADC maps. Type 2 lesions were isointense or mildly hyperintense on diffusion-weighted images and isointense on ADC maps. Quantitatively, the signal intensity rations of type 1 lesions in group 2 specimens were significantly higher on T2-weighted images (P=.013)/(P=.027) and lower on ADC maps compared with those of group 1. Electron microscopy of type 1 lesions in both groups revealed more prominent widening of the perivascular space and swelling of the neural cells in groups 1. MR and electron microscopic data on cerebral fat embolism induced by either triolein or oleic acid revealed characteristics suggestive of both vasogenic and cytotoxic edema in the hyperacute stage. Tissue damage appeared more severe in the oleic acid group than in the triolein group.

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Effects of Body Build on Metabolic and Physiological Function in Men and Athletes - 1. Especially on the Metabolic Function -

  • Lee, Ok-Hee;Lim, Soon-Gill;Lee, Jung-Hee
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 1999
  • The aim of this study was to investigate influence of body build on body composition, energy metabolic state and insulin concentration of blood. 29 male athletes and 36 male non-athletic students were recruited for the study. Anthropometry including chest depth and breadth, fat mass, fat fee mass, tricep skinfold thickness were measured. fasting glucose, lactate, triglyceride, fee fatty acid, and insulin concentration in serum were measured . Body build was assessed using metric index, which calculated by regression equations of Mohr and Greil. The athletic and non-athletic students were allocated to 3 body build, that is leptomorph, mesomorph, and pyknomorph. Resting metabolic rate was calculated. Respiratory quotient was determined through ratio of measured VO$_2$, and V$CO_2$. Most non-athletes have a leptomorphic body build, in contrast to athletes mesomorphic type. The body build type influenced body composition differently between non-athletic group and athletic group. Weight, body mass index, body fat mass and fat mass proportion (%), and fat-free mass increased from leptomorph to pyknormorph in non-athletic group. Pyknormorphic athletes have a significant higher body mass index, fat mass, fat free mass than other body build type. Serum glucose, triglyceride, lactate, insulin showed significant differences only in non-athletic group between leptomorph and mesomorph. RMR increased significantly from leptomorph to mesomorph in non-athletes. There was no significant difference of RQ among 3 body build types in both athletes and non-athletes. This study gives a coherent data on body build and body composition for athletes and non-athletes students. The influence of body builds on energy metabolic status of serum was different between athletes and non-athletes.

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Fat intake and breast cancer: a review

  • Cho, Eun-Young
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.101-106
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    • 2003
  • The relationship between fat intake and breast cancer has been debated for a long period of time. Animal, ecological, and case-control studies have supported that dietary fat increases breast cancer risk. However, cohort studies have not support any strong association between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk. It has not been clear whether fat per se or some specific type of fat is responsible for the increased risk. Recently, a few cohort studies have found some positive association between specific types of fat intake, but not overall fat intake and breast cancer risk. In this review, the findings from previous studies will be summarized with advantages and disadvantages of different types of study design and recent findings will be introduced.

The Relationships between Type of Localized Fat and Traditional Diagnostic Method in Korean High-school girls (서울지역 여고생의 국소지방 침착의 양상과 변증과의 연관성)

  • Lee, A-Ra;Chung, Won-Suk;Chung, Suk-Hee;Song, Mi-Yeon
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.45-59
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    • 2007
  • Background : There are many korean women who have localized fat despite of they have normal or slightly over weight. The relationships of traditional diagnostic method with total body fat and body mass index had been reviewed in other study, but there is no study regarding the relationship of traditional diagnostic method and localized fat. So we designed this study to find out the relationships between localized fat and traditional diagnostic method among Korean high-school girls. Methods : This research was performed in 21 high-school girls with localized fat during April 2007. We measured body mass index, percent of body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference and means of both thigh circumference. Phlegm questionnaire, blood stasis questionnaire, cold-heat questionnaire, Korean eating attitude test-26 and questionnaire of Sasang constitution classification Ⅱ+ have been administered. Results : There were significant correlations between body mass index, percent of body fat and body size. Regardless of body mass index, they had high phlegm and heat pattern. Most of them are classified as Tae-um type person. Conclusions : High-school girls with localized fat had pattern of high phlegm, heat and characteristics of Tae-um person.

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