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Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

  • Lee, Hyun-Jin;Jung, Eun-Hee;Lee, Sang-Hwa;Kim, Jong-Hee;Lee, Jae-Joon;Choi, Yang-Il
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.130-136
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers.

Effects of High-fat Diet on Type-I Muscle Loss in Rats (고지방식이가 쥐의 Type-I 근육손실에 미치는 영향)

  • Baek, Kyung-Wan;Cha, Hee-Jae;Park, Jung-Jun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.1509-1515
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    • 2013
  • The term lipotoxicity has been used to describe how excess lipid accumulation leads to cellular dysfunction and death in non-adipose tissues, including skeletal muscle. While lipotoxicity has been found in cultured skeletal muscle cells with high-fat feeding, the consequences of lipotoxicity in vivo are still unknown, particularly in Type-I muscle, which is metabolically affected by lipotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-fat diet on changes in the morphology and apoptotic protein expression of Type-I muscle loss in rats. The rats were fed either a high-fat diet or a normal diet for six weeks, and then lipid accumulation, inflammation response, and nucleus infiltration were measured, and PARP protein expression was cleaved by Oil Red O staining, H & E staining, and Western blot, respectively. Lipid accumulation, inflammation response, nucleus infiltration, and cleaved PARP protein expression were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the high-fat diet group than they were in the normal diet group. The weight of Type-I muscle tended to be lower in the high-fat diet group compared to the normal diet group, but the difference was not statistically significant. These results indicate that a high-fat diet triggers cell death in Type-I muscle via lipotoxicity, which suggests that a high-fat diet may be associated with sarcopenia.

Reduced-Fat Frankfurters with Varying Types of Meat and Fat

  • Rhee, Ki-Soon;Susan U. Bohanan
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to determine sensory and chemical traits of reduced-fat frankfurters made with lean lamb or lean lamb/pork (50%/50%), fat from three different sources(pork fat, lamb fat or high-oleic sunflower oil) and added water products designated as L-P-15, LP-L-15, LP-So-15 and LP-P-15, according to lean meat type, source of added fat and target fat content and to compare such products with a similar reduced-fat product made with lean beef/pork (50%/50%) with pork fat(product designated as BP-P-15) and high-fat products made with lean beef/pork (50%/50%) or lamb/pork (50%/50%) with pork fat (BP-P-30 and LP-P-30). Actual fat contents of reduced-fat and high-fat products formulated for 15% and 30% fat were 17~18% and 28~31%, respectively, after processing. Processing yields were lower for all reduced-fat products than for the high-fat products. Trained sensory panelists rated LP-P-15 less intense in lamb flavor as compared to LP-L-15 and LP-So-15. Off-flavor intensity was positively correlated with lamb-flavor intensity (r=0.80), whereas frankfurter-flavor intensity was negatively correlated with lamb-flavor intensity (-0.88) and off-flavor intensity (r=-0.90). According to consumer panelists, LP-P-15 was as desirable in flavor as BP-P-15 or the two high-fat products (BP-P-30 and LP-P-30), while LP-So-15 and LP-L-15 were not. LP-P-15 and BP-P-15 were not notably different from their high-fat counterparts in juiciness and texture desirability and overall palatability. Regardless of fat content, meat type and fat source, there was little lipid oxidation when vacuum-packaged products were refrigerated for 12 weeks.

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The Effects of Platycodi Radix on Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mouse Model Induced by High Fat, High Carbohydrate Diet (길경 투여가 고지방, 고탄수화물 식이로 유발된 비만형 제2형 당뇨병 동물모델에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Oh-Jun;Lee, Seung-Wook;Paik, Sun-Ho;Han, Su-Ryun;Ahn, Young-Min;Ahn, Se-Young;Lee, Byung-Cheol
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the anti-obesity, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects of Platycodi radix on obese type 2 diabetes mouse model. Methods: Obese type 2 diabetes mouse model was induced by Surwit's high fat, high sucrose diet for 8 weeks. Models were divided into 4 groups of normal diet (ND, n=10), high fat and high sucrose diet (HFD, n=10), high fat and high sucrose diet with Platycodi radix (PR, n=10), and high fat and high sucrose diet with Metformin (Met, n=10). Body weights were measured every week. After 7 weeks fasting, blood sugar and oral glucose tolerance tests were conducted. After 8 weeks blood samples were taken from mouse hearts and analyzed biochemically. Lipid profile, fructosamine, leptin and weight of epididymal fat pad and liver were measured. Adipose tissue macrophage percentage was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Results: Compared with the HFD group, body weight, glucose level, fructosamine, weight of epididymal fat pad and adipose tissue macrophage percentage decreased in the PR group. Conclusions: These results suggest that Platycodi Radix has anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects on obese type 2 diabetes mouse model.

The Effects in Metabolism and Adipose Tissue Inflammation Induced by the Massa Medicata Fermentata on Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mouse Model (신국(神麯) 투여가 비만형 제 2형 당뇨병 동물모델의 대사인자와 지방조직 염증반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Paik, Sun-Ho;Han, Su-Ryun;Kwon, Oh-Jun;Ahn, Young-Min;Ahn, Se-Young;Lee, Byung-Cheol
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.33-45
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: Recent data have revealed that the plasma concentration of inflammatory mediators is increased in the insulin-resistant states of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic and anti-obesity effect of Massa Medicata Fermentata on obese type 2 diabetes mice. Methods: In order to examine the effects of Massa Medicata Fermentata, obese type 2 diabetes mice induced by Surwit's high fat, high sucrose diet. Mice were divided into 4 groups of ND (normal diet), HFD (high fat and high sucrose diet), Met (high fat and high sucrose diet with metformin) and MMF (high fat and high sucrose diet with Massa Medicata Fermentata) and investigated over 8 weeks. Diabetic and obese clinical markers, including body weight, glucose level, lipid level, leptin concentration, epididymal fat pad and liver weights and adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) were determined. Results: Compared with the HFD group, body weight, fructosamine, triglyceride, epididymal fat pad weight and ATM were significantly reduced in the MMF group. Conclusions: From the above results, the intake of Massa Medicata Fermentata may be effective in anti-hyperglycemia and anti-obesity by the attenuation of glucose and lipid levels and also inflammation state. Massa Medicata Fermentata may be beneficial for controlling diabetes mellitus type 2 in humans.

The Study of the Relationship with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Obese Patients Identified as Phlegm Type (비만환자의 담음변증(痰飮辨證)과 복부내장지방과의 연관성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hyung-Chul;Choi, Young-Min;Sim, Woo-Jin;Kim, Kil-Soo;Choi, Sun-Mi;Kang, Byeong-Kab;Shin, Seung-Uoo
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : This study was designed to evaluate the relationship with abdominal visceral fat area in obese patients identified as phlegm type. Methods : This research were performed in 201 cases, visited Kirin Oriental Hospital from March 2005 to February 2006 for weight loss. We measured body mass index(BMI), abdominal CT, and classified all patients into two groups, normal and obesity group. And then we differentiated patients with phlegm-retention symptom from patients without it through questionnaire made by Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine. Results and Conclusions : Phlegm type was significantly higher than them of no symptom of phlegm in the abdominal visceral areas(P=0.036) and ratio(P=0.007), in obesity group$(BMI{\geq}25)$. On the other hand, there is little difference between abdominal visceral fat areas of phlegm type and no symptom of phlegm in normal group. According to the above results, if obese patients are diagnosed as identification of phlegm type there is good chance of abdominal visceral obesity.

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Amounts and Food Sources of Nutrients of Elementary School Lunch Menus by the Type of Foodservice and the Percent Energy from Fat (초등학교 급식의 유형(도시형/농촌형)및 식단의 지방 에너지 비율에 따른 주요 영양소의 공급량 및 급원식품 평가)

  • Youn, Hye-Jeong;Han, Young-Hee;Hyun, Tai-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.90-105
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to assess macro- and micronutrient compositions in school lunch menus based on the 'Dietary Guideline' for School Lunches. Ninety-five dieticians in elementary school in Chungbuk were asked to complete a questionnaire on characteristics of the school lunch program(such as type of foodservice, food production system), the information about dietitians(such as age, education, and job history), and the extent of the use of processed foods and frozen foods. Dey were asked to return the questionnaire with the menus including the name and the quantity of every food ingredient offered during a week. A total of 554 lunch menus provided for a week of June 2004 were analyzed. Average nutrient content per meal was as follows; 660kcal, energy; 92.9g, carbohydrate; 26.7g, protein; 21.1g, fat; 287 ${\mu}gRE$, vitamin A: 0.5mg, thiamin; 0.5mg, riboflavin; 29.3mg, vitamin C: 338.2mg, calcium; 3.9mg, iron; and 97mg, cholesterol. Average percentages of energy from carbohydrate, protein and fat was 56.2%, 16.2%, and 29.0%, respectively. The mean nutrient content per meal was higher in rural-type than in urban-type schools. The weekly menu of 40% of the schools provided <55% of energy from carbohydrate, and 39% of the schools offered lunch that provided ${\geq}30%$ of energy from fat. The micronutrient content was generally high when the percent energy from fat was less than 25%. Our results showed that only 52.6% of the schools provided lunches with the energy composition as in the 'Dietary Guideline' of School Lunches. Whole Milk was the major contributor to fat, saturated fatty acid and cholesterol. We suggest that school foodservices start to provide low fat milk instead of whole milk to reduce fat, saturated fatty acid and cholesterol. If low fat milk is served instead of whole milk, percentage of energy from fat and saturated fat can be reduced from 29% to 25%, and ken 10.2% to 9.1%, respectively, and cholesterol could be reduced from 97mg to 79mg. Efforts to meet 'Dietary Guideline' for School Lunches should be made, especially to reduce fat intake, while maintaining essential nutrient intake at sufficient levels for childen.

Effect of Substituted Conjugated Linoleic Acid for Fat on Meat Qualities, Lipid Oxidation and Residual Nitrite Content in Emulsion-type Sausage

  • Hah, K.H.;Yang, H.S.;Hur, S.J.;Moon, S.S.;Ha, Y.L.;Park, G.B.;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.744-750
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    • 2006
  • An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of substituted conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for fat on qualities, lipid oxidation and residual nitrite contents in emulsion-type sausage (ETS) after different periods of storage. The control sausage contained 20% fat, however, the substituted CLA for fat sausages contained 17.5% fat+2.5% CLA, 15% fat+5% CLA, 12.5% fat+7.5% CLA and 10% fat+10% CLA, respectively. CLA concentration was significantly increased (p<0.05) by substitution of CLA sources for fat, and storage did not affect the CLA concentration. TBARS were significantly increased with the increasing of storage time in all treatments (p<0.05). Significantly higher $L^*$ values were observed in the 10% CLA treatment compared to other treatments during storage. Moreover, $a^*$ values in CLA treatments significantly (p<0.05) increased compared to the control. Again, $b^*$ values were significantly (p<0.05) higher in CLA treatments than those of the control during storage. The concentration of residual nitrite in ETS was significantly (p<0.05) different between the treatments during storage and the results were in the following order: control >2.5% CLA>5% CLA and 7.5% CLA>10% CLA. Overall acceptability of CLA treatments was significantly (p<0.05) lower than the control during storage, whereas no significant differences were found in overall acceptability between the treatments after 28 days of storage.

The Effects of Supungsunki-hwan Partitioned Prescriptions on Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mouse Model Induced by High Fat, High Carbohydrate Diet (수풍순기환 분할처방 투여가 고지방, 고탄수화물 식이로 유발된 비만형 제2형 당뇨병 동물모델에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Eun-Young;Ahn, Se-Young;Ahn, Young-Min;Um, Jae-Young;Jang, Hyeung-Jin;Lee, Byung-Cheol
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.387-396
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : Recently a lot of research is being done for find antidiabetic medicine which has no side effects. This study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic and antiobesity effects of Supungsunki-hwan partitioned prescriptions on obese type 2 diabetes mouse. Methods : Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity were induced by Surwit's high fat, high sucrose diet for 8 weeks. Mice were divided into 3 groups of ND (normal diet, n=10) HFD (high fat and high sucrose diet, n=10) and SPP (high fat and high sucrose diet with Supungsunki-hwan partitioned prescriptions, n=10) groups. Body weights were measured every week. After 7 weeks, fasting blood sugar and oral glucose tolerance tests were conducted. After 8 weeks, blood samples of all mice were taken from their heart and analyzed biochemically. At the same time, epididymal fat pad and liver weights were measured. Histological size of white adipocyte were measured as well. Results : Compared with a HFD group, body weight, fructosamine, epididymal fat pad weight and white adipocyte size decreased. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased in the SPP group. Conclusions : These results suggest that SPP has antidiabetic and antiobesity effects in high fat, high sucrose diet induced obese mice.

Proximate Composition and Calorie of Korean Instant Noodles (라면의 일반성분과 열량)

  • Kim, Min-Ji;Shin, Soong-Nyong;Kim, Sung-Kon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.1043-1050
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    • 2000
  • The nutritional value of commercial instant noodles produced in summer and winter seasons were investigated. Only the noodle itself was used for the analysis. The content of carbohydrate was calculated by difference. The calorie was estimated by using a conversion factor of 4.32 for protein, 9.21 for fat and 4.20 for carbohydrate. Bag-type instant noodles had higher moisture, but lower content of fat and calorie compared with bowl-type products. No seasonal variations on composition and calorie were found. The calorie was negatively correlated with moisture or carbohydrate content, and positively correlated with fat content. The calorie estimated from linear regression equation of calorie vs. moisture was similar to the value calculated using a conversion factor, which implies that the calorie of the instant noodle can be simply estimated from the moisture content. The intakes of calorie from fat accounted for 30.8% and 34.1% from bag-type and bowl-type noodles, respectively. The content of ash and fat, and calorie were significantly decreased upon cooking, which were more pronounced in the bowl-type products. At the same moisture contents the loss of calorie for bag-type products was 3.5% and for bowl-type ones was 7.7%.

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