• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Type

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Effects of Body Fat Distribution on Percentage of Body Fat, Serum Insulin, Lipids and Energy Intake in Adult Female (체지방의 분포형태의 차이가 체지방 함량, 혈청 인슐린과 지질농도, 식사행동, 섭취열량에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤진숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.617-627
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    • 1992
  • This study was attempted to observe the possibility of body fat distribution and fasting serum insulin as potential predictive factors for obesity and energy intake. Subjects participated in this study were seventeen pairs of upper body type women and lower body type women whose age weight BMI daily energy expenditure per body weight were equally matched, Waist to hip girth ratio(WHR) was measured as a criteria of body fat distribution. Comparison of eating behavior between upper body type and lower body type women did not show any significant differences in meal size meal duration and energy intake per minute While serum free fatty acid level was lower in upper body type women percentage of body fat and fasting serum insulin triglycerde level of upper body type women were statistically higher than those of lower body type women(p<0.05) Our data may indicate the possibility that sympathetic nervous system activity was suppressed in upper body type women which needs ti be examined in future studies. In addition since the upper body type women were dieting over the period of survey with the intention of weigh loss we can conclude that upper body type women had larger variabilities than lower body type women in terms of daily energy intake level.

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A Study on Ease for the Skirt of Stretch Fabric according to the Fat Body Types (비만체형을 위한 신축성 직물 스커트의 여유분에 관한 연구)

  • 설경희;서미아
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.392-403
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to make clear reduction ratio due to the stretch ratio and to find out the ease for the patterns of stretch skirt according to fat body type to improve the aesthetics and wearing satisfaction. For this study, three college students were selected according to the fat body types; According to fat body types, 15 experimental skirt which were different each other in terms of the amount of ease on wait and hip, were made for the appearance test and wearing satisfaction test. The results from the study were as follows: 1. The results from the appearance test were as follows. For the ease on waist, W+2cm and W+0cm for fat body type were suggested for the best fit. For the ease on hip, H+2cm and H+0cm for fat body type were suggested for the best fit. 2. The results from wearing satisfaction test were as follows. W+2cm, H+2cm for fat body type were suggested for the best wearing satisfaction. 3. Based on the results from the above tests, the pattern reduction ratios for stretch skirt were as follows. pattern reduction ratio 0∼2.4% of waist, 1.9∼3.8% of hip for fat body type, were suggested for the appropriate reduction ratio for stretch skirt. 4. The result from this study for stretch skirt was as follows. For fat body type, W+2cm, W+0cm for waist and H+2cm, H+0cm for hip were appropriate for stretch skirt pattern. Therefore, different ease has to be applied to stretch skirt pattern according to the body parts, to make the skirt looks good, is appropriate for fat body type, and is satisfied with appearance and wearing satisfaction test.

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Effects of the Fat Contents & Distribution on the Disease Status of Young Adults Male (젊은 성인 남자의 체지방량 및 분포가 성인병 발생 위험 요인에 미치는 영향)

  • 조은희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.451-459
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    • 1995
  • This study was intended to figure out the effects of the amount and the distribution of body fat on the risk fators of adult disease. Sixty-four male college students paticipatied in this study, whose to find out body fat distributions were classified on the basis of Waist/hip ratio(WHR) into three groups-upper body type(UBTM), intermediate body type (IBTM) and lower body type(LBTM). Various risk factors such as adiposity, body fat ammount, serum lipid amount and blood pressure and their intercorrelations were analyzed. The three bodys type groups showed significant differences each other in weight(P<0.001), WHR showed considerable correlations with BMI and the percentage of body fat. The frequency of obesity assessed by BMI$\geq$25 and body fat percentage were the highest in the UBTM of the three groups. Thus, we could conclude that the closer the body fat distribution is to the upper body type, the higher the BMI and body fat percentage. Waist/girth ratio(WTR, P<0.01) and BMI(P<0.05) were positively correlated with serum triglyceride levels, and % of body fat was positively correlated with both serum triglyceride (P<0.01) and serum total cholesterol(P<0.05) levels. WHR (P<0.05), BMI(P<0.01) and % of body fat(P<0.01) also showed positive correlations with systolic blood pressure. From the above results, we could conclude that body fat distribution was a good index reflecting adiposity and body fat amount and that blood and serum amount of triglyceride was highest in the upper body type group showing the highest frequency of obesity.

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Relationship Among Body Fat Distribution, Adiposity, Fasting Serum Insulin and Lipids in Adult Female (성인 여성의 체지방의 분포형태와 비만도 혈청 인슐린, 지질농도간의 관련성)

  • 김석영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.221-232
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    • 1992
  • This study was intended to figure out the interrelationship among body fat distribution serum insulin and lipids levels. One hundred forty four adult female from Chinju area were participated in this study. The survey was conducted between December 17, 1990-February 27, 1991, . The results are as follows : Wiast/hip girth ratio(WHR) and waist/thigh girth ratio(WTR) were increased with age and positively correlated with body mass index(BMI). It appeared that the prevalence of obesity in terms of BMI was higher in upper body type than intermediate or lower body type women. Correlation analyese indicated that serum triglyceride level seemed to be more closely associated with BMI and other body fat distribution indices. Analyses of the anthropometric data serum lipids and insulin were carried out by dividing the sample into three body type groups-upper body type women(WHR$\geq$0, .87) intermediate body type women(0.82$\leq$WHR$\leq$0.86) and low body type women(WHR$\leq$0.81) Age weight BMI RBW percentage of body fat serum insulin triglyceride cholesterol level of upper body type women were significnatly higher than that of intermediate or lower body type women(p<0.05) HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in upper body type women. These results suggested that body fat distribution would be relevant to chronic metabolic diseases.

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Evaluation of Nutritional Content in Convenience Store Lunchboxes by Meal Type, Price, and Store Brand (편의점 도시락의 식단형태별, 가격대별, 편의점 브랜드별 영양성분 함량 평가)

  • Park, Jin-Seon;Han, Young-Hee;Hyun, Taisun
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.280-290
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: This study investigated the menu and nutritional contents of convenience store lunchboxes, and evaluated the nutritional content by meal type, price, and store brand. Methods: In September 2019, 93 convenience store lunchboxes from the top five franchise stores were purchased. Relevant information on price, food weight, food ingredients, cooking methods, and nutrition labeling were subsequently collected. Nutritional content was evaluated based on the daily value (DV) and Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ), and energy contribution of carbohydrate, protein, fat, saturated fat and sugar was compared with the recommended range. Results: Most lunchboxes included the food groups; grains/starches, meats/fish/eggs/legumes, and vegetables. However, none provided fruits, and only a few lunchboxes provided milk/milk products. Stir-frying, deep-frying, and pan-frying were the most frequent methods of cooking. The average energy content of the lunchboxes was 736.6 kcal, whereas the average contents of protein, fat and saturated fat were higher than 40% of the DV, and sodium content was 66.8% of the DV. The contents of most nutrients in traditional type lunchboxes were higher, as compared to nutrients in onedish type lunchboxes. Considering pricing of lunchboxes, protein and sodium contents were higher in the higher-priced lunchboxes as compared to lower-priced lunchboxes, but there were no differences in the INQs. The contents of energy, protein, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol significantly differed by brand. Conclusions: Our results indicate that convenience store lunchboxes contain high levels of protein, fat, saturated fat, and sodium. The nutritional contents differed by meal type, price, and store brand, and higher price did not imply higher nutritional quality. We propose the need to educate consumers to check nutrition labels and purchase appropriate lunchboxes. Manufacturers also need to make efforts to reduce the amounts of fat, saturated fat, and sodium, and not provide protein in excess.

Images of Jeans According to Body Types and Gender 1 (신체유형과 성별에 따른 청바지 이미지 1)

  • Lee Young-Mi;Lee In-Ja
    • Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.85-99
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    • 2005
  • This study is to know the blue jean image according to type and its constituting element. and also to analyze image according to the sex of wearers and recognizers, the existence and nonexistence of blue jean affect the wearer's body type. Thirty-six photo stimulus material attached to men and women wearers selected as people of skinny types, average types and fat types, were seen to 1,354 men and women university students and had them measure blue jean image and element of twenty one items. 1, The blue jean image was different according to design type. The broad blue jean was active but it looked fat. The bleached blue jean matched with any clothing. The legs looked long. Painting blue jean seemed o be new, colorful, splendid, The torn blue jean appeared to match with any clothing. And lap seam blue jean was active but the waist seemed as thick image. 2, In the wearer's body type, the jeans image strengthen the wearer's body image. The legs looked long. The fat type appeared high in the item like this; they looked fat. The waist looked thick. It was courageous and casual. It appeared that the fat element appeared as blue jean image of fat type. 3, In the relation of wearer's sex and blue jean image, when the wearers were men, the image was passable. It matched with anyone. It was splendid and refined. The legs appeared long. When the wearers were women, the blue jean image was economic. It had no relation with a fashion. It was active, comfortable, free, casual and fat. The waist looked thick. In image element, activity and fat element appeared as a main element of the blue jean image.

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The Effect of A-3826G Polymorphism of Uncoupling Protein-Ion Visceral Fat Area in Overweight Korean Women

  • Kim, Kil-Soo;Cha, Min-Ho;Kim, Jong-Yeol;Shin, Seung-Uoo;Yoon, Yoo-Sik
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.279-284
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    • 2005
  • Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) plays a major role in thermogenesis, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of A-3826G polymorphism of UCP-1 gene on body fat distribution. Two hundred forty eight Korean female overweight subjects with BMI more than 25 kgfm2 participated in this study. The areas of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat of all subjects were measured from computed tomography cross sectional pictures of the umbilical region. Subcutaneous fat areas of upper and lower thigh were also measured. Body composition was measured by bio-impedance analysis, and serum concentrations of biochemical parameters, such as glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol etc, were also measured. Genotype of UCP-1 was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. The frequencies of UCP-1 genotypes were AA type; $27.8\%,\;AG\;type;\;51.2\%\;and\;GG\;type;\;21.0\%,$ and the frequency of G allele was 0.47. Body weight, BMI, WHR, SBP, DBP and body compositions were not significantly different by UCP-1 genotype. Abdominal visceral fat area was significantly higher in AG and GG type compared with AA type (p=0.009), but subcutaneous fat areas were not significantly different by UCP-1 genotype. Among biochemical parameters, LDL cholesterol level was significantly higher in GG type compared with AA and AG types (p=0.033). Among all subjects, 121 subjects finished 1 month weight loss program containing hypocaloric diet and exercise. The reduction of body weight and BMI were lower in GG type compared with AA/AG type even though statistical significances were not found (p > 0.05). These results suggest that UCP-1 genotype has a significant effect on visceral fat accumulation among Korean female overweight subjects with BMI more than $25\;kg/m^2$.

Comparison of the Blood Lipid , Insulin and Nutrients Intake by Fat Distribution of Obese Male in Korea (비만 남자 대학생의 비만 유형에 따른 혈중 지질, 인슐린 농도 및 영양소섭취량 비교 연구)

  • 김순경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.72-79
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    • 1998
  • This study was intended to figure out the difference of the blood lipids, insulin and nutrients intake by fat distribution among the obese young male in Korean. Twenty-eight male college students participated in this study, whose to find out body fat distributions were classified on the basis of Waist /hip ratio (WHR) into three groups-upper body type (UBTM), intermediate body type(IBTM) and lower body type (LBTM). To conduct this study, anthropometric measurements , blood pressure, serum lipids and insulin levels, and daily nutrients intake were analized . The results are as follows : The three body type groups showed significant differences each other in waist circumference(p<0.05), WTR(p<0.001) and body fat percentage (p<0.05). Also they showed significant difference each other in the daily construction in the daily energy intake. But they did not show significant differences in the blood pressure, serum lipids and insulin levels. From the above results, we could concluded that the body fat distribution in obese the young men could affect nutrients intake pattern.

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Properties of Frankfurter-type Sausages with Pork Back-fat Replaced with Bovine Heart Surimi-like Materials

  • Seo, Jin-Kyu;Yum, Hyeon-Woong;Kim, Gap-Don;Jeong, Jin-Yeon;Yang, Han-Sul
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.523-530
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    • 2016
  • This study investigates the effect of bovine heart surimi-like material (BHSM) used as a back fat replacer, on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages. Frankfurter-type sausage with added BHSM had a higher moisture content and lower fat content than the control. In addition, the samples with added BHSM had higher pH, cooking loss and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value and lower water exudation than the control. The sausage formulation with 40% BHSM was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation without affecting cooking loss compared to the 60% BHSM treatment sample. Results showed that hardness values increased upon replacement with BHSM, and sausages manufactured with 40% BHSM had higher lightness and lower redness values. Panelists found there were no differences in color, odor, and tenderness scores and the overall acceptability score found that treatment samples containing 20% and 40% BHSM were preferable to the control after storage for 14 d. These results indicate that fat replacement with BHSM was beneficial to the quality of frankfurter-type sausages, and acceptable reduced-fat products can be produced when back fat is replaced with up to 40% BHSM.

Effects of konjac gel with vegetable powders as fat replacers in frankfurter-type sausage

  • Kim, Dong Hyun;Shin, Dong Min;Seo, Han Geuk;Han, Sung Gu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1195-1204
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether addition of konjac gel with three different vegetable powders can increase quality of low-fat frankfurter-type sausage. Methods: Low-fat frankfurter-type sausages were manufactured with formulations containing konjac gel and three vegetable powders (aloe vera, cactus pear, or wheat sprout) as pork fat replacers. The formulations of frankfurters were as follows: NF (normal-fat; 20% pork fat), LF (low-fat; 10% pork fat), KG (low-fat; 10% pork fat+10% konjac gel), and konjac gel with three vegetable powders (KV), such as KV-AV (10% pork fat+10% konjac gel with aloe vera), KV-CP (10% pork fat+10% konjac gel with cactus pear), and KV-WS (10% pork fat+10% konjac gel with wheat sprout). Proximate analysis, pH value, color evaluation, cooking loss, water-holding capacity, emulsion stability, apparent viscosity, texture profile analysis, and sensory evaluation were determined. Results: The konjac gel containing groups showed lower fat content (p<0.05) and higher moisture content than NF group (p<0.05). The pH value of frankfurters was decreased in three KV groups (p<0.05). The three KV groups had increased dark color (p<0.05) compared with KG, and KV-CP had the highest redness (p<0.05). The water-holding capacity and emulsion stability were higher in the three KV groups than KG and LF (p<0.05). Cooking loss was generally decreased in the three KV groups, compared with KG (p<0.05). The apparent viscosity of KV groups was similar with NF group and overall texture properties were improved in KV-CP. In the sensory evaluation, the highest overall acceptability was found in KV-CP groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The four fat replacers improved physicochemical properties of low-fat frankfurters. Particularly, konjac gel with cactus pear powder seems more acceptable as a pork fat replacer.