• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Metabolism

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Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Tartary Buckwheat (F. tataricum Gaertn.) Extract from High Fat Diet Mice

  • Lee, Sung-Gyu;Lee, Dongsup;Kang, Hyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.34-38
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    • 2017
  • To investigate the efficacy of extract of Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum Gaertn.) in high fat diet (HFD) in mice, the F. tataricum Gaertn. extract (FTE) was orally administered to mice with a HFD at 300 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Our results show that FTE significantly inhibited fat accumulation. Moreover, FTE markedly reduced the final body weight with a decrease in epididymal adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size compared with the untreated HFD-induced group. Additionally, FTE ameliorated serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The results show that Tartary buckwheat possesses hypocholesterolemic effect through downregulating lipid metabolism. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of FTE with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract.

Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Seeds Extract from High Fat Diet Mice

  • Kang, Hyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.138-143
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    • 2017
  • To investigate the efficacy of extract of Ginkgo Biloba seeds in high fat diet (HFD) in mice, the Ginkgo Biloba seeds extract (GSE) was orally administered to mice with a HFD at 300 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Our results show that GSE significantly inhibited fat accumulation. Moreover, GSE markedly reduced the final body weight with a decrease in epididymal adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size compared with the untreated HFD-induced group. Additionally, GSE ameliorated serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The results show that Ginkgo Biloba seeds possesses hypocholesterolemic effect through down regulating lipid metabolism. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of GSE with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract.

Improvement of Lipid Metabolism and Antihyperglycemic by Lentinus edodes in High Fat-fed and Streptozotocin-treated Rats (고지방과 streptozotocin으로 유도한 제 2형 당뇨에서 표고버섯이 지질대사와 항당뇨 효능에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Gye Yeop;Yoon, Young Jeoi;Kim, Eun Jung
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.196-201
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    • 2013
  • Abnormal regulation of glucose and impaired lipid metabolism that result from a defective or deficient insulin are the key etiological factor in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The our study evaluated the beneficial effect of diet supplementation with Lentinus edodes on hyperglycemia and lipid metabolism in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: group I(control) rats were fed standard diet (12% of calories as fat); group II (T2DM) rats were fed HFD (40% of calories as fat) for 2 weeks and then injected with STZ (50 mg/kg); group III and group IV rats were continually fed a diet containing 1% and 10% Lentinus edodes for 4 weeks after T2DM induction, respectively. After 4 weeks we determined biochemical parameters such as glucose, insulin concentration, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration were also measured. There was a significant reduction in serum TC and TG in the Lentinus edodes supplement groups. The Lentinus edodes diet supplementation were found to have a potent lipid metabolism improvement as well as LDL concentration decreased and HDL concentration was increased. Concentrations of blood glucose and HbA1c in the experimental groups II were significantly decreased after 4 weeks compared with the control group. The Lentinus edodes diet supplementation is useful in regulating the glucose level, improves the insulin, HbA1c, serum lipid metabolism in experimental diabetic rats. We suggest that Lentinus edodes supplementation may have the control effects of diabetes mellitus by improving blood glucose control and lipid metabolism.

Effects of Samjung-hwan($S{\={a}}nj{\={i}}ngw{\'{a}}n$) on Obesity and Lipid Metabolism In Rats with High Fat Diet (삼정환(三精丸)이 고지방(高脂肪) 식이(食餌) 흰 쥐의 비만에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ji-Hyung;Kim, Geun-Woo;Koo, Byung-Soo
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : This study was performed to show the effects of Samjung-hwan ($S{\={a}}nj{\={i}}ngw{\'{a}}n$) extract on obesity and lipid metabolism of rats fed high fat diet. Methods : Crushed Samjung-hwan($S{\={a}}nj{\={i}}ngw{\'{a}}n$) 245 g was extracted with methyl alcohol. The extract was evaporated under reduced pressure to give 21.8 g. 20 rats were divided into normal, control, and two test groups. For 6 weeks, The normal group rats were supplied with a normal diet. The control group rats were supplied with a high fat diet. The test group 1 rats were supplied with a high fat diet and Samjung-hwan($S{\={a}}nj{\={i}}ngw{\'{a}}n$) extract 250 rug/kg and the test group 2 rats were supplied witha high fat diet and Samjunghwan($S{\={a}}nj{\={i}}ngw{\'{a}}n$) extract 500 mg/kg. Results : 1) The control group rats showed significantly increased weight of peritoneal fat than the nornal group rats. The test group 1 rats did not show significant difference compare to the control group rats, and the test group 2 rats showed significantly decreased weight of peritoneal fat than the control group rats. 2) The control group rats showed significantly increased triglyceride than the nornal group rats. The test group 1 rats showed significantly decreased triglyceride than the control group rats, and the test group 2 rats showed significantly decreased triglyceride than the control group rats. 3) The control group rats showed significantly increased LDL-cholesterol than the nornal group rats. The test group 1 rats showed significantly decreased LDL-cholesterol than the control group rats, and the test group 2 rats did not show significant difference compare to the control group rats. Conclusions : These results suggest that effectiveness of Samjung-hwan($S{\={a}}nj{\={i}}ngw{\'{a}}n$) extract to control the obesity and abnormal lipid metabolism caused by a high fat diet.

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The Effects of Short Term Comprehensive Life Style Modification Program on Glycemic Metabolism, Lipid Metabolism and Body Composition in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (단기간의 포괄적인 생활습관개선 프로그램이 제2형 당뇨병환자의 당대사 및 지질대사와 체구성에 미치는 효과)

  • Yoo Ji Soo;Lee Suk Jeong;Lee Hyun Chul;Kang Eun Seok;Kim So Hun;Park Eun Jeong
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.1277-1287
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: This study was to evaluate the effects of a short term comprehensive life style modification program on glycemic metabolism, lipid metabolism and body composition in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Method: A nonequivalent control group with a pre post test was designed. Data collection was done from October 2003 to June, 2004 at a hospital. Glycemic metabolism was measured by a.c., p.c. and $HbA_{1}c$, and lipid metabolism was measured by cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Body Composition was measured by body weight, body mass index, waist, measurement waist per hip ratio, body fat, muscle weight and abdominal fat tissue(intra abdominal distance). The Experimental group, which was composed of 29 participants, was educated based on a life style modification protocol at a weekly meeting for 12 weeks and carried out exercise, diet along individual parameters and self monitoring, while 24 participants in the control group received only diet education. Result: 1. The experimental group showed a significant lower a.c.(t=2.11, p=.04) and $HbA_{1}c$(t=2.65, p=.01) compared to those of the control group. 2. The experimental group showed a significant lower LDL than the results of the control group(t=2.42, p=.02). 3. The experimental group showed a significant lower weight(t=3.09, p=.00), BMI(t=3.01, p=.00), body fat(t=2.94, p=.01) and abdominal fat tissue(t=3.05, p=.01) than those of the control group. Conclusion: The results provided evidence for the effectiveness of a short term comprehensive life style modification program composed of exercise, diet, support, self efficacy elevation and self monitoring in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Effects of Gamimahaenggamseok-tang and Typhae Pollen on Body Weight and Lipid Metabolism of Rats with Obesity induced by High Fat Diets (가미마행감석탕 및 포황이 비만유도백서의 체중 및 지질대사에 미치는 영향 억제)

  • Jang Jin Taek;Seo IL bok;Kim Jeung Beum
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.190-202
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Gamimahaenggamseok-tang and Typhae Pollen on Body Weight and Lipid Metabolism of Rats with Obesity induced by high fat diet. Sixty four male Sprague-Dawley rats, around 250g of B.W., were divided into normal, control, sample A and sample B groups. Normal groups were orally administrated with saline and normal animal feed, and control groups with saline and high fat diet, sample A with liquid extract of Gamimahaenggamseok-tang and high fat diet, and sample B with liquid extract of Typhae Pollen and high fat diet. After 4 and 8 weeks administration, body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, weight of liverㆍspleenㆍkidney, abdominal skin fold thickness, feed intake, and lipid level in liver tissue on morphological examination; total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, and phospholipid on serum examination were measured in all of the groups.

Nucleolar GTPase NOG-1 Regulates Development, Fat Storage, and Longevity through Insulin/IGF Signaling in C. elegans

  • Kim, Young-Il;Bandyopadhyay, Jaya;Cho, Injeong;Lee, Juyeon;Park, Dae Ho;Cho, Jeong Hoon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 2014
  • NOG1 is a nucleolar GTPase that is critical for 60S ribosome biogenesis. Recently, NOG1 was identified as one of the downstream regulators of target of rapamycin (TOR) in yeast. It is reported that TOR is involved in regulating lifespan and fat storage in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we show that the nog1 ortholog (T07A9.9: nog-1) in C. elegans regulates growth, development, lifespan, and fat metabolism. A green fluorescence protein (GFP) promoter assay revealed ubiquitous expression of C. elegans nog-1 from the early embryonic to the adult stage. Furthermore, the GFP-tagged NOG-1 protein is localized to the nucleus, whereas the aberrant NOG-1 protein is concentrated in the nucleolus. Functional studies of NOG-1 in C. elegans further revealed that nog-1 knockdown resulted in smaller broodsize, slower growth, increased life span, and more fat storage. Moreover, nog-1 over-expression resulted in decreased life span. Taken together, our data suggest that nog-1 in C. elegans may be an important player in regulating life span and fat storage via the insulin/IGF pathway.

Metabolic Activity of Desalted Ground Seawater of Jeju in Rat Muscle and Human Liver Cells

  • Kim, Bo-Youn;Lee, Young-Ki;Park, Deok-Bae
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2012
  • Ground seawater in the east area of the volcanic Jeju Island contains abundant minerals. We investigated the metabolic activity of electrodialyzed, desalted ground seawater (EDSW) from Jeju in both cultured cells and animals. The addition of EDSW to the culture medium (up to 20%, v/v) reduced the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and increased MTT activity in CHO-IR cells. EDSW (10%) promoted insulin-induced glucose consumption in L6 muscle cells as well as the activities of the liver ethanol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Moreover, EDSW suppressed palmitate-induced intracellular fat accumulation in human hepatoma $HepG_2$ cells. Activities of AMP-stimulated protein kinase and acetyl CoA carboxylase, enzymes that modulate fat metabolism, were altered by EDSW in $HepG_2$ cells toward the suppression of intracellular lipid accumulation. EDSW also suppressed hepatic fat accumulation induced by a high-fat diet in mice. Taken together, EDSW showed beneficial metabolic effects, including the enhancement of ethanol metabolism and insulin-induced glucose consumption, and the suppression of intrahepatic fat accumulation.

Gene Expression Profile in the Liver Tissue of High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

  • Minho Cha;Bongjoo Kang;Kim, Kyungseon;Woongseop Sim;Hyunhee Oh;Yoosik Yoon
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.8-16
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the gene profiles that were up- or down-regulated in the livers of high-fat diet-induced obese mice and $db_-/db_-$ mice with deficient leptin receptor. C57/BL6 normal mice and $db_-/db_-$ mice, respectively, were divided into two groups and fed a standard or high-fat diet for four weeks. Liver weight was unchanged in the normal mice but the high-fat diet led to a 10% weight increase in the $db_-/db_-$mice. Adipose tissue mass increased by about 88% in the normal mice that were fed a high-fat diet and by about 17% in the $db_-/db_-$mice on the high-fat diet. In terms of serum lipids, total cholesterol significantly increased in mice on the high-fat diet. Microarray analysis was carried out using total RNA isolated from the livers of standard or high-fat diet-fed mice of the normal and $db_-/db_-$ strains. The change of gene expression was confirmed by RT-PCR. About 1.6% and 6.8% of total genes, respectively, showed different expression patterns in the normal mice fed the high-fat diet and $db_-/db_-$ mice. As a result of microarray, many genes involved in metabolism and signal pathways were shown to have different expression patterns. Expression of Mgst3 gene increased in the livers of normal and $db_-/db_-$ mice that were fed a high-fat diet. Wnt7b and Ptk9l were down-regulated in the livers of the normal mice and $db_-/db_-$ mice that were fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, a high-fat diet induced obesity and affected gene expression involved in metabolism and signal pathway.

Swim Training Improves Fitness in High Fat Diet-fed Female Mice

  • Jun, Jong-Kui;Lee, Wang-Lok;Lee, Young-Ran;Jeong, Sun-Hyo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.151-159
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    • 2010
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor $\alpha$ (PPAR$\alpha$) is a nuclear transcription factor that plays a central role in lipid metabolism and obesity. Exercise also is a powerful modifier of the manifestations of the lipid metabolism and obesity in animal models and humans with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, effects of exercise on lipid metabolism and obesity in normal-weight younger female subjects, having functional ovaries and not metabolic disease, remain unexplained. To explore the effects of exercise on the development of obesity and its molecular mechanism in high fat diet-fed female C57BL/6J mice, we experimented the effects of swim training on body weight, adipose tissue mass, serum lipid levels, morphological changes of adipocytes and the expression of PPAR$\alpha$ target genes involved in fat oxidation in skeletal muscle tissue of female C57BL/6J mice. Swim-trained mice had significantly decreased body weight, adipose tissue mass, serum triglycerides compared with female control mice. Histological studies showed that swim training significantly decreased the average size of adipoctyes in parametrial adipose tissue. Swim training did not affect the expression of PPAR$\alpha$ mRNA in skeletal muscle. Concomitantly, swim training did not increase mRNA levels of PPAR$\alpha$ target genes responsible for fatty acid $\beta$-oxidation, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and thiolase in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, these results indicate that swim training regulates lipid metabolism and obesity in high fat diet fed-female mice although swim training did not increase mRNA levels of PPAR$\alpha$ target genes involved in fatty acid $\beta$-oxidation in skeletal muscle, suggesting that swim training may prevent obesity and improve fitness through other mechanisms in female with ovaries, not through the activation of skeletal muscle PPAR$\alpha$.