• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Metabolism

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Shifts in Protein Metabolism in Hemolymph and Fat Body of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. in Response to Fluoride Toxicity

  • Ramakrishna, S.;Jayaprakash, Jayaprakash
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2007
  • Changes in protein metabolism were studied in hemolymph and fat body on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 of the fifth-instar silkworm, Bombyx mori, exposed to lethal, sublethal doses and prevailing levels of fluoride in groundwater in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh States of India. The total protein content indicated a depletion followed by a concomitant increase in accumulation of free amino acids. Concurrently, the activity of protease in both of the tissues was also increased. A steady enhancement in the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase paralleled the elevation of glutamate dehydrogenase activity in the tissues studied. It is presumed, on the basis of these results, that the fluoride toxicity causes major changes in protein metabolism of the silkworms.

Growth Associated Hormones Response and Fat Metabolism Change in Finishing Pigs Fed with n-Methyl-d, L-Aspartate

  • Xi, Gang;Xu, Zirong;Xiao, Ping
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.1026-1030
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    • 2002
  • A trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary NMA on several growth associated hormones and fat metabolism in finishing pigs. A total of 84 crossbred finishing pigs (average initial BW of $56{\pm}$0.37kg) were divided into 6 pens, 14 pigs per pen (7 gilts and 7 barrows per pen). 3 pens of pigs were fed with control diet (corn-soybean meal) and the others were fed control diet addition with 50 mg/kg NMA. During the trial, all pigs were given free access to feed and water. After 44 days trial, 8 pigs from each treatment (4 gilts and 4 barrows, weight similar to average group weight, $86.94{\pm}0.71kg$ for control group, and $90.55{\pm}1.51kg$ for NMA treated group) were sacrificed to collect the sample of the liver, longissimus muscle, subcutaneous fat (10th rib). The addition of NMA in diet increased the IGF-I, Insulin, T3, T4 levels in serum by 50.68% (p<0.05), 38.36% (p<0.05), 123.33% (p<0.01), 60.58% (p<0.03), respectively. Meanwhile, IGF-I level in the liver and the muscle were increased with 17.83% (p<0.03) and 26.00% (p<0.03) with addition of NMA. The data from subcutaneous fat (10th rib) analysis showed that supplement of 50 mg/kg NMA decreased the total activities of malic dehydrogenase (MDH) by 20.54% (p<0.05), glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-DPH) by 16.97% (p<0.05), and decreased the specific activities of MDH and G-6-DPH by 37.46% (p<0.01) and 35.06% (p<0.01), respectively. The hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) total activity was increased by 25.00% (p<0.05) in NMA treated pigs. These results indicated that addition of 50 mg/kg NMA to diet can induce the endocrine great change in finishing pigs, furthermore, inhibit the fat synthesis through suppressing lipogenic enzymes and promote the fat degradation by elevating HSL activity in finishing pigs.

Effect of Source and Level of Dietary Fats on Growth and Metabolism of Rats fed on Low Protein Diet (섭취지방(攝取脂肪)의 종류(種類) 및 그 양(量)이 저단백식(低蛋白食)으로 사육(詞育)하는 백서(白鼠)의 성장(成長) 및 대사(代謝)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Yu, Jong-Yull
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 1968
  • In order to study the effect of source and level of the commonly used dietary fats on growth and metabolism of rats fed on low protein diet (rice diet) the weaning white rats were fed on various different experimental diets (see tables 1 and 2) during 11 weeks. The observations were made as follows : 1. Growth: (see table 3 and figures 1-9) In all dietary fats, among the 3 levels, 5% fat level is the best. Especially, the perilla oil group was remarkably good. 10% and 20% fat levels impaired the growth, consequently the growth rates of both 10% and 20% fat level groups were worse than those of Basal group (no fat added). However, 10% and 20% fat levels did not impaired the growth of VII group (10% soy flour added) In 5% fat level, the growth was good in sequence of perilla oil, tallow, sesame oil, soy oil and lard. 2. Feed consumption: (see table 3) In 20% fat level, the feed consumption was lowered. Generally, the feed consumption rate was proportional to the growth rate. In feed efficiency, 5% fat level was the best. 3. Liver weight: (see table 4) In liver weight per 100 G body weight, 20% fat level was the largest. This may be due to the poor body growth and liver fat accumulation. 4. Liver nitrogen: (see table 4) Generally, lower fat level groups showed liver nitrogen. Liver nitrogen is low in the groups of 20% fat level. 5. Liver fat: (see table 4) Generally, higher fat level groups showed higher liver fat. 6. Serum cholesterol: (see table 5) Generally, higher fat level groups showed higher serum cholesterol. Lard, sesame oil, and tallow groups showed higher level and soy oil and perilla oil groups showed lower level. Especially, perilla oil group showed remarkably lower level and VII group (10% soy flour added) showed lower level than VI group (same fat but no soy flour added).

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Effects of Dietary Fat Level on the Lipid Metabolism in Rats of Different Stapes of Aging (나이가 다른 단계에서 식이지방 수준이 흰쥐의 체내 지방대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 조미숙
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 1996
  • Male rats of 2 months-old(young), 6 months-old(adult) and 30 months-old(old)were fed 8 or 16 weeks to investigate the e(feats of dietary fat level on the lipid metabolism in the different stages of aging. The response of 30 month old rats to dietary fat level differed from either 2 or 6-months old rats. In 30-months old rats, dietary fat level had a little effect on weight gains, lipid content of serum as compared with other two age groups. Young rats showed higher body weight gain, F.S.R, and PER compared with aged rat. The younger and the more high fat fed the rats were, the more body weight gains, FER and PER showed. Weight of liver and kidney was increased in aged rats but ratio per unit weight of liver and kidney was not affected by age. Serum lipid content was higher in aged rat compared with the young and liver lipid content was higher in high fat diet fed rats. But TG of liver and serum was not changed with aging process. Intake, excretion and absorption of lipid was not changed by age of animals. but absorption was decreased as experimental period was increased.

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Effect of Red Pepper Seeds Powder on Lipid Composition in Rats Fed High-Fat.High-Cholesterol Diets

  • Song, Won-Young;Chun, Sung-Sik;Ku, Kyung-Hyung;Choi, Jeong-Hwa
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.184-188
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of red pepper seeds powder on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat high cholesterol diet. Rats were divided into five experimental groups: normal diet group, high fat high cholesterol diet group, high fat high cholesterol diet with 5% red pepper seeds powder supplemented group (SA group), high fat high cholesterol diet with 10% red pepper seeds powder supplemented group (SB group) and high fat high cholesterol diet with 15% red peeper seeds powder supplemented group (SC group). The serum triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol contents, and LDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index (AI) of the red pepper seed powder supplemented groups were significantly decreased compared to the HF group. The serum HDL-cholesterol contents of the red pepper seed powder supplemented groups were increased compared to the HF group. However, there was no significant difference in the serum HDL-cholesterol among all experimental groups. The hepatic TG and cholesterol contents of the red pepper seed powder supplemented groups were significantly decreased compared to the HF group. The fecal total cholesterol and triglyceride contents of the red pepper seeds powder supplemented groups were significantly increased compared to the HF group. These results suggest that supplementation of red pepper seed powder may have a pronounced impact on markers of lipid metabolism in serum and liver of rats fed high fat high cholesterol diets.

Grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) partially reverses high fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice

  • Park, Su-Hui;Park, Tae-Sun;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2008
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplement in C57BL/6J mice. Thirty mice were divided into three groups; normal diet control group (ND), high fat diet control group (HD) and high fat diet plus grape seed extract supplemented group (HD+GSE). Results were as follows: 1. GSE supplement reduced the weight gain in mice fed high fat diets; epididymal and back fat weights, were lower compared to non-supplemented HD group. 2. Blood lipid concentrations were lower in the HD+GSE group than in the HD group. Serum HDL-C concentrations were higher in the HD+GSE group compared with the other groups. 3. The concentrations of acid-insoluble acylcarnitines, (AIAC) in serum and liver were higher in the HD+GSE group than in the HD group. 4. GSE supplementation increased mRNA levels of lipolytic genes such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-l (CPT-1) and decreased mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). These findings suggest that grape seed extract supplements in high fat diet might normalize body weight, epididymal and back fat weights, lipid concentrations, and carnitine levels through controlling lipid metabolism.

Vegetarian Diets and Estrogen Metabolism in Korean Premenopausal Women

  • Kim Kyung Mi;Sung Mi Kyung
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2005
  • It has been suggested that dietary fat increases the risk of breast cancer by elevating serum estrogen concentrations. However, studies on a relationship between fat intake and breast cancer risk have shown contradictory results, possibly because the levels of fat intake in study populations were too high to observe differences. Also, the effect of other dietary factors may present. The present study was performed to investigate the relationship between diet and estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women whose usual fat intake is relatively low compared to their western counterparts. Twenty lacto-ovo vegetarians (LOV) and twenty omnivores participated in the study. Three day food records including a Saturday or a Sunday were used to estimate nutrient intake. Serum lipids, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, and urinary estradiol were measured. Study results showed $24.8\%$ and $20.9\%$ of energy intake were provided from fat in omnivorous and LOV subjects, respectively. Serum and urinary levels of estradiol were two times higher in omnivores. Fat intake was not related to either serum estradiol nor urinary estradiol when the Spearman correlation coefficient analysis was performed. Carbohydrate, total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber intakes were negatively related to serum estradiol concentration. Legumes, vegetables and fruit consumption showed significantly negative relationships with both serum and urinary estradiol concentrations. These results indicate lower estrogen availability may be associated with plant food­based diets in premenopausal women whose usual diets contain less than $25\%$ of energy as fat.

Fermented Kochujang Supplement Shows Anti-obesity Effects by Controlling Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6J Mice Fed High Fat Diet

  • Koo, Bon-Sun;Seong, So-Hui;Kown, Dae-Young;Sohn, Hee-Sook;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.336-342
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    • 2008
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of fermented kochujang supplement in C57BL/6J mice. Thirty mice were divided into 3 groups; normal diet control group (ND), high fat diet control group (HD), and high fat diet plus kochujang supplemented group (HDK). Results were as follows: 1. Fennented kochujang supplement in high fat diet decreased body weight and epidydimal and back fat weight compared to non-supplement in HD group. 2. Lipid content and blood glucose level were lower in HDK group than HD group. 3. Fermented kochujang supplement increased mRNA level of lipolytic genes such as acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), and uncoupling proteins-1 (UCP-1) expression, whereas decreased mRNA level of adipogenic genes such as acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) expression. These findings suggest that fermented kochujang supplement in high fat diet normalized body weight, epididymal and back fat weight, lipid content, and blood glucose levels through controlling lipid metabolism and provides basic information on the control of obesity.

Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Functional Rice Goami and Nokwon in High Fat-Fed Mice

  • Kang, Mi Young;Son, Jayeon;Lee, Sang Chul
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.443-450
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    • 2013
  • Effects of newly developed functional rice grains Goami (high-amylose rice) and Nokwon (green-kerneled rice) on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in C57BL/6N mice under high fat diet condition were investigated. Animals were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) and given experimental diets for eight weeks: normal control diet (NC), high fat diet (HF), and high fat diet supplemented with white rice (HF-WR), Goami rice (HF-GR), and Nokwon rice (HF-NR). At the end of the experimental period, the HF group exhibited markedly higher blood glucose level, insulin concentration, plasma lipid peroxidation and lower hepatic glycogen concentration than that exhibited by NC group. However, diet supplementation of Goami and Nokwon suppressed the high fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress through inhibition of the glucose-regulating enzymes and enhancement of the antioxidant enzymes activities. The results illustrate that the new functional rice Goami and Nokwon may be useful in the development of functional foods with preventive effect against high fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.

Bile Acids and the Metabolic Disorders (담즙산과 대사질환)

  • Roh, Ji Hye;Yoon, Jeong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.273-278
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    • 2018
  • Bile acids are major constituents of bile and known to help absorb dietary fat and fat-soluble vitamins in the gastrointestinal tract. In the past few decades, many studies have shown that bile acids not only play a role in fat digestion but also function as broad range of signal transduction hormones by binding to various receptors present in cell membranes or nuclei. Bile acid receptors are distributed in a wide range of organs and tissues in the human body. They perform multitudes of physiological functions with complex mechanisms. When bile acids bind to their receptors, they regulate fat and glucose metabolism in a tissue-specific way. In addition, bile acids are shown to inhibit inflammation and fibrosis in the liver. Considering the roles of bile acids as metabolic regulators, bile acids and their receptors can be very attractive targets in treating metabolic disorders. In the future, if roles of bile acids and their receptors are further clarified, they will be the novel target of drugs in the treatment of various metabolic diseases.