• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Metabolism

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Effects of Samjunghwan on Obesity and Lipid Metabolism in High Fat Diet Rats (고지방 식이 흰쥐의 비만에 미치는 삼정환(三精丸)의 영향)

  • Jeong, Hae-Ju;Kim, Se-Yoon;Jeong, Ji-Cheon
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.14-25
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    • 2006
  • Objectives: Samjunghwan has been known to be effective for the treatment of obesity. To show the effectiveness of Samjunghwan in a more scientific way, Samjunghwan extract was prepared and evaluated in high-fat diet rats by measuring the changes of body weight and lipid metabolism as described below. Methods: 245 g of crushed Samjunghwan was extracted with methyl alcohol. The extract was evaporated under reduced pressure to give 21.8 g. For 30 days, the control group rats were given a high fat diet, while the test group rats were given a high fat diet plus Samjunghwan extract. The normal group rats were given a normal diet. 50 mg of Samjunghwan extract per 1 kg of body weight was added to the diet for the test group rats. Results: The control group rats on a high fat diet gained weight by about 27-28% as compared to the normal group, whereas the test group rats on a high fat diet plus Samjunghwan extract lost weight about 6-8% as compared to the control group. A significant increase of liver weight caused by a high fat diet was also inhibited by the same Samjunghwan extract administration. Similar inhibitory effects on the food intake and on the epididymal adipose tissue weight were observed in the high fat diet rats by the administration of Samjunghwan extract. Serum and liver total lipid levels in the control group on a high fat diet increased significantly as compared to the normal group, whereas their serum and liver levels increased less on a high fat diet plus Samjunghwan extract administered test group than the control group. Impressively, serum leptin levels in the test group decreased almost to the level of the normal group, which was well in accordance with the decreased fat contents in the test group rats. Furthermore, the activities of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase were increased in the control group, while their activities in the test group on a high fat diet plus Samjunghwan extract decreased nearly to the levels of normal group rats on a normal diet. Conclusions: These results showed that the obesity caused by a high fat diet was effectively inhibited the administration of Samjunghwan extract. Our results also showed that the abnormal lipid metabolism caused by a high fat diet was effectively cured by the administration of Samjunghwan extract.

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Effects of Dietary Fat Sources and Levels on Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Growth in Early Weaned Rats (식이 지방의 수준과 종류가 조기이유한 흰쥐의 체내 지질대사와 세포성장에 미치는 영향)

  • 김지연;박양자;이연숙
    • Korean Journal of Rural Living Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.125-134
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    • 1994
  • This study was performed to observe the effects of dietary fat levels and sources on lipids contents and cellularities of liver, brain, and adipose tissue of early weaned rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were prematurely weaned from postnatal 17th day with the experimental diets differ in fat levels : low(5%), medium(10%), high(20%) and fat sources : butter, soybean oil, butter+ soybean oil. On the postnatal 29th day, contents of total lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol and phospholipid of serum, liver, brain and adipose tissue were determined, and DNA was determined to assess the cell growth. Rats early weaned fed high fat diet showed lower total lipid and triglyceride levels in serum and liver than those fed medium or low fat diet Rats early weaned fed high fat diet had adipocytes of fewer number, but larger size than those of rats fed low or medium fat diets. Rats early weaned fed soybean oil diet had more adipocytes thu those fed butter diet. Rats normally weaned to commercial chow diet showed lower total lipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels in serum and liver, had fewer adipocytes than all early weaned rats except for rats fed high fat-butter diet. These results suggest that high fat-butter diet is ideal weaning diet at early weaning.

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The Effects of Dietary Shellfish on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed High-Fat Supplement (고지방식이를 급여한 흰쥐의 패류식이 급여 효과)

  • 김은미
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.1217-1225
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shellfish on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat supplements. Male sprague-dawley rats weighting approximately 165g were fed a basal diet, a high fat diet, or a high fat diet plus shellfish for 4 weeks. The shellfishes on the were oyster, hard-shelled mussel, little neck clam, and march clam. Alfter 4 weeks high fat diet, supplementation of 20% lard significantly increased plasma. GOT, GPT, ${\gamma}$-GTP , and liver triglyceride (TG). Plasma GOT, GPT, ${\gamma}$-GTP , triglyceride, and total cholestrerol levels were significantly lower in shellfish groups than in basal and high-fat groups regardless of high-fat supplementation (p<0.05). The total lipid and cholesterol content in liver showed similar results(p<0.05). There were no differences in glucose, HDL-cholesterol in plasma and total cholesterol and total lipid in liver between basal and high-fat supplemented diets. Liong chain fatty acids, specific components of shellfishes group, were exclusively higher than in basal and high-fat diets, and were most well-reflected in liver and plasma. From the above results, the hypolipidemic effects of shellfish were detected in the process of inducing hyperlipidemia by high-fat supplement.

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Effects of fermented ginseng root and ginseng berry on obesity and lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet

  • Li, Zhipeng;Kim, Hee Jung;Park, Myeong Soo;Ji, Geun Eog
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.312-319
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    • 2018
  • Background: Previous studies have shown that both ginseng root and ginseng berry exhibit antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. However, a direct comparison of the efficacy and mechanisms between the root and the berry after oral administration remains to be illuminated. Methods: In this study, we observed the effects of fermented ginseng root (FGR) and fermented ginseng berry (FGB) on obesity and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet induced obese mice. Results: FGR and FGB significantly inhibited the activity of pancreatic lipase in vitro. Both FGR and FGB significantly suppressed weight gain and excess food intake and improved hypercholesterolemia and fatty liver, while only FGR significantly attenuated hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Both FGR and FGB significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of Ldlr and Acsl1 while FGR also significantly inhibited expression of Cebpa and Dgat2 in liver. FGR significantly decreased the epididymal fat weight of mice while FGB significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of genes Cebpa, Fas, Hsl, Il1b, and Il6 in adipose tissue. Conclusion: Saponin from both FGR and FGB had a beneficial effect on high-fat diet-induced obesity. Compared to FGB, FGR exhibited more potent antihyperglycemic and antiobesity effect. However, only FGB significantly inhibited mRNA expression of inflammatory markers such as interleukins $1{\beta}$ and 6 in adipose tissue.

Troglitazone Regulates white Adipose Tissue Metabolism by Activating Genes Involved in Fatty Acid ${\beta}$-Oxidation in High Fat Diet-fed C57BL/6J Mice

  • Jeong, Sun-Hyo;Yoon, Mi-Chung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.319-327
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    • 2006
  • This study aimed to determine whether troglitazone stimulates genes related to fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation, leading to modulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism in high fat diet-fed mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups (n=10/group). After they received either a high fat diet or the same high fat diet supplemented with troglitazone for 4 weeks, the effects of troglitazone on gene expression and physiology of WAT were measured using Northern, histological and serological analyses. Administration of troglitazone induced the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation in mesenteric WAT. Troglitazone also significantly increased uncoupling protein 2 mRNA levels. The changes in WAT gene expression were accompanied by reductions in circulating levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides as well as glucose and insulin. Histological studies showed that troglitazone treatment decreased the average size of adipocytes in mesenteric WAT. These results suggest that troglitazone-stimulated WAT expression of genes associated with fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation regulates WAT metabolism of high fat diet-fed mice, contributing to improvement of insulin sensitivity.

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Anti-obesity Effect of Steamed Soybean and Fermented Steamed Soybean in High-fat Diet-induced Obese ICR Mice

  • Seo, Hye Rin;Lee, Ah Young;Cho, Kye Man;Cho, Eun Ju;Kim, Hyun Young
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2017
  • This study was performed to investigate the ameliorating effects of steamed soybeans (SS) and fermented SS (FSS) on lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. ICR mice were divided into four groups and given the following different diets: normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD with 1% SS (HFD + SS), and HFD with 1% FSS (HFD + FSS). After 14 weeks, the body weight gain was higher in the HFD group compared with the ND group but lower in the HFD + FSS group compared with the HFD group. Plasma levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly higher in the HFD group compared to the ND group, but lower in the HFD + SS and HFD + FSS groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, leptin concentration in plasma was lower in the groups fed HFD + SS and HFD + FSS compared with the HFD group. The accumulation of hepatic TG and TC was significantly inhibited in the HFD + SS and HFD + FSS groups. Furthermore, SS and FSS attenuated lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide formation in the liver induced by the high-fat diet. These results suggest that soybeans, especially FSS, may be useful in preventing obesity-induced abnormalities in lipid metabolism.

Corn silk extract improves cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets

  • Cha, Jae Hoon;Kim, Sun Rim;Kang, Hyun Joong;Kim, Myung Hwan;Ha, Ae Wha;Kim, Woo Kyoung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.501-506
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUNG/OBJECTIVES: Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS: Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily. Serum and hepatic levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol as well as serum free fatty acid, glucose, and insulin levels were determined. The mRNA expression levels of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hyroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor ${\alpha}$ were determined. RESULTS: Oral administration of CS extract with HF improved serum glucose and insulin levels as well as attenuated HF-induced fatty liver. CS extracts significantly elevated mRNA expression levels of adipocytokines and reduced mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and LCAT between the HF group and HFCS group were not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS: CS extract supplementation with a high-fat diet improves levels of adipocytokine secretion and glucose homeostasis. CS extract is also effective in decreasing the regulatory pool of hepatic cholesterol, in line with decreased blood and hepatic levels of cholesterol though modulation of mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR.

Influence of fat levels and types of dietary fiber on lipid metabolism of rats (식이중 지방 수준과 Fiber 종류가 흰쥐의 지방대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤홍재
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 1985
  • The influence of fat level and dietary fiber on serum and liver lipid concentration of the rat was investigated. Groups of rats were fed respectively 3%, 5%, 20% fat containing and free fiber diet until 5th week. From 5th week to 9th week high fat diet groups of rates were devided high fat diet group, high fat pectin supplemented diet group and high fat celulose supplemented diet group. Pectin and cellulose at 10% was supplemented to high fat diets. After rats were fed for 9 weeks, all rats were sacrificed to collect the liver and blood samples by heart puncture. Serum and liver lipids were determined on all rats and compared the histochemical lipid staining method with the biochemical analysis of serum and liver lipids. A high fat diet caused increased level of the total lipids, total cholesterol and free cholesterol contents in the liver and the serum. Rats fed pectin reduced body weight, werum lipid and liver lipid but cellulose had no effect to reduce serum and liver lipid concentration. These results indicate that dietary fat level led to changes in the lipid metabolism of rats and that pectin was more effective in lowering serum and liver lipid than cellulose.

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Effect of Glutinous Barley Intake on Lipid Metabolism in Middle-Aged Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

  • Sohn, Jung-Sook;Hong, So-Young;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.1023-1028
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    • 2007
  • This study was designed to determine whether dietary glutinous barley (GB) affects lipid metabolism in middle-aged rats previously fed a high-fat diet. To induce obesity, 20 male 9-month-old Sprague Dawley rats were raised for 1 month on a diet containing 20%(w/w) lipid. The rats were allocated to 1 of 2 groups of 10 rats each and for the subsequent 2 months were fed an 8%(w/w) lipid diet containing well-milled rice (WMR) or GB powder. Rats fed the GB diet had significantly lower concentrations of plasma triglyceride, plasma total cholesterol, and liver cholesterol than rats fed the WMR diet. Fecal excretions of triglyceride and bile acids were significantly greater for the GB group than for the WMR group. In conclusion, dietary GB has positive effects on lipid metabolism: it decreases plasma cholesterol concentration by increasing fecal excretion of bile acids.

The Effects of Shellfish Hydrolysates on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed High-Fat Diet (고지방식이를 급여한 흰쥐의 패류가수분해물 급여 효과)

  • 김은미
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.386-394
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shellfish hydrolysate on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rate weighting approximately 110g were fed basal control diet, high fat diet and high fat diet plus 4 different shellfish hydrolyates for 4 weeks. The shellfish hydrolysates from the different sources, were oyster, hard-shelled mussel, little neck clam and march clam. After 4 weeks, serum GOT, GPT, ${\gamma}$-GTP, triglyceride and total cholesterol was significantly decreased in shellfish hydrolysates supplementation with high fat diet compared to basal control and high-fat group(p<0.05). The total lipid and cholesterol content in liver showed significant decrease(p, 0.05). There were no different in serum GPT, HDL-cholesterol, liver total cholesterol and lipid of rats between basal control diet and high-fat diet. The unsaturated fatty acids, specific components of shellfishes were a little components in shellfish hydrolysate as they were a low and not different among the groups and were most well reflected in liver and plasma. Considering digestive and absorptive process of in human body, it was assumed that the hypolipidemic effect of shellfish was not under the influence of unsaturated fatty acids but the other components, peptides, taurine and betaine and so on was detected in the process of hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet.

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