• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Metabolism

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Caloric Restriction vs Testosterone Treatment ; The Effect on Body Fat Distribution and Serum Lipid Levels in Overweight Male Patients with Coronary Artery Disease (관상동맥경화증인 과체중 남성에서 열량제한과 Testosterone 투여가 체지방 분포 및 혈청 지질 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • 이종호;채지숙;고수정;강석민;최동훈;장양수
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.36 no.9
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    • pp.924-932
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    • 2003
  • In middle-aged men, abdominal obesity has been an important risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as a predictor of hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Particularly, risks from abdominal obesity increase when adipose tissue accumulates in visceral compartment. Many studies showed that weight reduction by caloric restriction improves abdominal obesity and reduces lots of cardiovascular risk factors. Testosterone treatment also results in a significant decrease in visceral fat area and normalizes endocrine metabolism. However there is no study that compare the effect of caloric restriction with that of testosterone treatment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of caloric restriction and that of testosterone treatment on body fat distribution, serum lipids and glucose metabolism in male patients with CAD. Forty five middle-aged overweight-obese men with CAD participated in 12 weeks' program. They were matched with age, body weight, body mass index (BMI) and divided into three groups : control group (n = 15) , caloric restriction group (-300 kcal/day, n = 15) and testosterone treatment group (testosterone undecanoate tablets, n = 15) . After 12 weeks, control group did not have any changes in anthropometries, lipid profile, body fat distribution, glucose metabolism and hormonal status. Expectedly, caloric restriction group showed decreases in body weight, BMI, waist to hip ratio, % body fat. Ten percentage of total cholesterol and 23% of triglyceride in serum were also decreased. In body fat distribution, total fat areas at both L1 and L4 levels were significantly reduced in this group without reduction in muscle of thigh and calf. However, testosterone treatment group did not have any significant changes in body weight, % body fat, serum lipid profile and abdominal fat distribution. In conclusion, weight reduction by caloric restriction is more beneficial in body fat distribution and serum lipid level than testosterone treatment in overweight male patients with CAD. This result suggests that modest weight reduction is possible to help decrease risk factors of CAD.

Nutritional Factors Affecting Abdominal Fat Deposition in Poultry: A Review

  • Fouad, A.M.;El-Senousey, H.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1057-1068
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    • 2014
  • The major goals of the poultry industry are to increase the carcass yield and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly the abdominal fat pad. The increase in poultry meat consumption has guided the selection process toward fast-growing broilers with a reduced feed conversion ratio. Intensive selection has led to great improvements in economic traits such as body weight gain, feed efficiency, and breast yield to meet the demands of consumers, but modern commercial chickens exhibit excessive fat accumulation in the abdomen area. However, dietary composition and feeding strategies may offer practical and efficient solutions for reducing body fat deposition in modern poultry strains. Thus, the regulation of lipid metabolism to reduce the abdominal fat content based on dietary composition and feeding strategy, as well as elucidating their effects on the key enzymes associated with lipid metabolism, could facilitate the production of lean meat and help to understand the fat-lowering effects of diet and different feeding strategies.

Intracutaneous Delivery of Gelatins Reduces Fat Accumulation in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

  • An, Sung-Min;Kim, Min Jae;Seong, Keum-Yong;Jeong, Jea Sic;Kang, Hyeon-Gu;Kim, So Young;Kim, Da Som;Kang, Da Hee;Yang, Seung Yun;An, Beum-Soo
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.395-402
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    • 2019
  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) accumulation is a constitutional disorder resulting from metabolic syndrome. Although surgical and non-surgical methods for reducing SAT exist, patients remain non-compliant because of potential adverse effects and cost. In this study, we developed a new minimally-invasive approach to achieve SAT reduction, using a microneedle (MN) patch prepared from gelatin, which is capable of regulating fat metabolism. Four gelatin types were used: three derived from fish (SA-FG, GT-FG 220, and GT-FG 250), and one from swine (SM-PG 280). We applied gelatin-based MN patches five times over 4 weeks to rats with high-fat diet (HD)-induced obesity, and determined the resulting amount of SAT. We also investigated the histological features and determined the expression levels of fat metabolism-associated genes in SAT using hematoxylin and eosin staining and western blotting, respectively. SAT decreased following treatment with all four gelatin MN patches. Smaller adipocytes were observed in the regions treated with SA-FG, GT-FG 250, and SM-PG 280 MNs, demonstrating a decline in fat accumulation. The expression levels of fat metabolism-associated genes in the MN-treated SAT revealed that GT-FG 220 regulates fatty acid synthase (FASN) protein levels. These findings suggest that gelatin MN patches aid in decreasing the quantity of unwanted SAT by altering lipid metabolism and fat deposition.

Effects of disturbed liver growth and oxidative stress of high-fat diet-fed dams on cholesterol metabolism in offspring mice

  • Kim, Juyoung;Kim, Juhae;Kwon, Young Hye
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.386-392
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Changes in nutritional status during gestation and lactation have detrimental effects on offspring metabolism. Several animal studies have shown that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) can predispose the offspring to development of obesity and metabolic diseases, however the mechanisms underlying these transgenerational effects are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the effect of maternal HFD consumption on metabolic phenotype and hepatic expression of involved genes in dams to determine whether any of these parameters were associated with the metabolic outcomes in the offspring. MATERIALS/METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD: 10% calories from fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD: 45% calories from fat) for three weeks before mating, and during pregnancy and lactation. Dams and their male offspring were studied at weaning. RESULTS: Dams fed an HFD had significantly higher body and adipose tissue weights and higher serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels than dams fed an LFD. Hepatic lipid levels and mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism, including $LXR{\alpha}$, SREBP-2, FXR, LDLR, and ABCG8 were significantly changed by maternal HFD intake. Significantly lower total liver DNA and protein contents were observed in dams fed an HFD, implicating the disturbed liver adaptation in the pregnancy-related metabolic demand. HFD feeding also induced significant oxidative stress in serum and liver of dams. Offspring of dams fed an HFD had significantly higher serum cholesterol levels, which were negatively correlated with liver weights of dams and positively correlated with hepatic lipid peroxide levels in dams. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal HFD consumption induced metabolic dysfunction, including altered liver growth and oxidative stress in dams, which may contribute to the disturbed cholesterol homeostasis in the early life of male mice offspring.

Korean pine nut oil replacement decreases intestinal lipid uptake while improves hepatic lipid metabolism in mice

  • Zhu, Shuang;Park, Soyoung;Lim, Yeseo;Shin, Sunhye;Han, Sung Nim
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.477-486
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Consumption of pine nut oil (PNO) was shown to reduce weight gain and attenuate hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of PNO on both intestinal and hepatic lipid metabolism in mice fed control or HFD. MATERIALS/METHODS: Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed control diets containing 10% energy fat from either Soybean Oil (SBO) or PNO, or HFD containing 15% energy fat from lard and 30% energy fat from SBO or PNO for 12 weeks. Expression of genes related to intestinal fatty acid (FA) uptake and channeling (Cd36, Fatp4, Acsl5, Acbp), intestinal chylomicron synthesis (Mtp, ApoB48, ApoA4), hepatic lipid uptake and channeling (Lrp1, Fatp5, Acsl1, Acbp), hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) lipolysis and FA oxidation (Atgl, Cpt1a, Acadl, Ehhadh, Acaa1), as well as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly (ApoB100) were determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: In intestine, significantly lower Cd36 mRNA expression (P<0.05) and a tendency of lower ApoA4 mRNA levels (P = 0.07) was observed in PNO-fed mice, indicating that PNO consumption may decrease intestinal FA uptake and chylomicron assembly. PNO consumption tended to result in higher hepatic mRNA levels of Atgl (P = 0.08) and Cpt1a (P = 0.05). Significantly higher hepatic mRNA levels of Acadl and ApoB100 were detected in mice fed PNO diet (P<0.05). These results suggest that PNO could increase hepatic TAG metabolism; mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and VLDL assembly. CONCLUSIONS: PNO replacement in the diet might function in prevention of excessive lipid uptake by intestine and improve hepatic lipid metabolism in both control diet and HFD fed mice.

Effects of Laminariae Thallus Extracts on Body Weight and Lipid Metabolism in High Fat Diet Rats (곤포(昆布)추출물이 고지방 식이에 의한 체중변화와 체내 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong Ji-Cheon;Nam Won-Gi;Shin Hyeon-Cheol
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.1296-1302
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    • 2005
  • Laminariae Thallus has been known to be effective for the treatment of obesity. Te show the effectiveness of Laminariae Thallus in a more scientific way, Laminariae Thallus extract was prepared and evaluated in high fat diet rats by measuring the changes of body weight and lipid metabolism as described briefly below. 200 g of crushed Laminariae Thallus was extracted with methyl alcohol. The extract was evaporated under reduced pressure to give 14.4g. For 10 weeks, control group rat were ingested high fat diet, while the test group rat were fed with a fat diet pius Laminariae Thallus extract. Normal group was fed with normal diet. 150 mg of Laminariae Thallus extract per 1 kg of body weight was added to the diet in a test group rats. Control group rats on a high fat diet gained weight significantly, whereas the test group rats on a high fat diet plus Laminariae Thallus extract gained weight less. Significant increase of liver weight caused in a high fat diet was also inhibited by the Laminariae Thallus extract treatment. Total lipid, triglyceride, phospholipid and total cholesterol levels of serum in the high fat diet rats were remarkably increased, whereas their levels on a high fat diet plus Laminariae Thallus extract were less increased. While serum HDL-cholesterol levels was remarkably decreased in a high fat diet, its level was less decreased in a high fat diet plus Laminariae Thallus extract. Furthermore, we observed that the activities of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase increased in a high fat diet, while their activities in a high fat diet plus Laminariae Thallus extract were getting back nearly to the normal levels of normal diet rats. These result showed that the obesity caused by a high fat diet was effectively inhibited by a Laminariae Thallus extract. Our results also showed that the abnormal lipid metabolism caused by a high fat diet was effectively cured by adding Laminariae Thallus extract.

Effect of Dietary Fat on Metabolism of Albino rats (식이내 지방이 흰쥐의 체내대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Yang-Ja;Shin, Hyun-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 1979
  • The present study was undertaken to determine the metabolic effect of various levels and kinds of fat in the diet. Body lipid metabolism at different period of rat's life was also studied by sacrificing rats and collecting samples initially, at second and fourth week of experimental period. Body weight, FER, PER were low in the group fed 30% fat diet. The weight of internal organ and epididymal fat pad was low in high fat diet group. The level of total serum cholesterol of rats in butter group showed higher than that of soybean oil group when the level of dietary fat content was same. The ratio of total cholesterol and total lipid in serum of rats in butter group appear to be higher than that of soybean oil group.

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Effects of Extrasct of Pueraria radix on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed High Fat Diet (갈근추출물이 고지방식이를 섭취한 흰쥐의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 이정숙;이경희;정재홍
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.218-224
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    • 1999
  • This study was designed to investigate the effect of Pueraria radix extract on lipid metabolism in the rats fed high fat diet. Male sprague dawley rats were given 5% Pueraria radix extract and fed diet containing 20 weight % fat. The results obtained were summarized as follows. Serum ALT and AST activities were reduced by Pueraria radix extract. Levels of total lipid, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the serum were higher in the HF group than in the control, but showed no significant differences between control and HF Pue group. Liver total lipid, total cholesterol and triglyceride contents were increased by high fat diet, but were lower in the HF Pue group than in the HF group. Fat absorption rate was increased with high fat diet feeding and higher in the HF Pue group than in the HF group.

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Effects of Jebikong (Dolichos lablab) Extract on Serum Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High Fat Diet (제비콩 추출물이 고지방 식이 급여에 의한 흰쥐의 혈청 지질 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Sung Hee;Kim, Hyun Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.409-414
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    • 2013
  • This study investigated the effect of Dolichos lablab extract on the lipid metabolism of rats fed a high fat and cholesterol diet. S-D male rats (n=48) were given 40, 400, or 4000 mg/kg of Dolichos lablab extract and fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet for four weeks (DL-HFC group). As a result, serum levels of total lipids, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were higher in the high fat and high cholesterol group (HFC-group) than the control, and significant differences were observed between the control and the DL-HFC (40, 400, 4000 mg/kg) group. The fat absorption rate increased with a high fat diet feeding, but was higher in the DL-HFC (40, 400, 4000 mg/kg) group.