• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Metabolism

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Effects of ethanolic extract of Ulmus davidiana Root on Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet Fed Mice (느릅나무 뿌리 에탄올 추출물이 고지방 식이를 섭취한 마우스의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Um, Min Young;Choi, Won Hee;Ahn, Jiyun;Ha, Tae Youl
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2013
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Ulmus davidiana root (UE) on lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet (HF) for 7 weeks. Forty male ICR mice were randomly divided into four groups; normal diet group (N), high-fat diet group (HF), HF with 0.5% UE (HF-L) and 1% UE (HF-H) group. Body weight, body weight gain, and liver weight in the HF group was significantly higher than in the N group, while those of the HF-L and HF-H group were unchanged. UE improved HF-induced dyslipidemia by reducing serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and the atherogenic index. There was no difference in serum HDL-cholesterol among experimental groups. However, the HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio was significantly increased in the HF-L and HF-H group. Histological analysis showed that HF-fed mice developed hepatocellular microvesicular vacuolation as a result of fat accumulation. These changes were attenuated by 1% UE supplementation. In addition, hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the HF-H group significantly reduced. Taken together, these results demonstrated that lipid levels in the blood and liver were reduced by UE, suggesting that it might be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and fatty liver.

Effects of Ramulus mori Extract on Obesity and Lipid Metabolism in High Fat Diet Rats (상지추출물이 고지방식이에 의한 체중 변화와 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 김현수;정지천
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.64-72
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    • 2002
  • Objective: Ramulus mori (RM) has been known to be effective for the treatment of obesity. To show the effectiveness of RM in a more scientific way, RM extract was prepared and evaluated in high fat diet rats by measuring the changes of body weight and lipid metabolism as described briefly below. Methods: 200 g of crushed RM was extracted withmethyl alcohol. The extract was evaporated under reduced pressure to give 33.4 g. For 10 weeks, control group rats were fed a high fat diet, while the test group rats were fed with the same diet plus RM extract. The normal group was fed with a normal diet. 150 mg of RM extract per 1 kg of body weight was added to the diet in the test group rats. Results: The control group rats on the high fat diet gained weight significantly, whereas the test group rats on the high fat diet plus RM extract gamed less weight. The significant increase of liver weight caused by the high fat diet was also inhibited by the RM extract treatment. Total lipid, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels of serum in the high fat diet rats were remarkably increased, whereastheir levels on the high fat diet plus RM extract were less increased. While serum HDL-cholesterol levels were remarkably decreased in the high fat diet, its level was less decreased in the high fat diet plus RM extract. Furthermore, we observed that the activities of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase increased under the high fat diet, while their activities under the high fat diet plus RM extract were getting back nearly to the normal levels of the normal diet rats. Conclusions: These result show that the obesity caused by a high fat diet was effectively inhibited by an RM extract. Our results also showed that the abnormal lipid metabolism caused by a high fat diet was effectively cured by adding RM extract.

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Enhancement of Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidant Defense Status in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet Supplemented with Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin Powder

  • Um, In-Chul;Rico, Catherine W.;Kweon, Hae-Yong;Kang, Mi-Young
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.95-100
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    • 2011
  • The effect of diet supplementation of Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk fibroin on the lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense status in high fat-fed mice was investigated. The animals were given normal control diet (NC group), high fat diet (HF group), or high fat diet supplemented with A. pernyi silk fibroin powder (HFS group) for 7 weeks. After the experimental period, the HF group showed significant increase in body weight, plasma and hepatic total cholesterol levels, and hepatic triglyceride concentration, and decreased activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes relative to NC group. However, the HFS group exhibited marked reduction in body weight, plasma cholesterol and hepatic triglyceride levels, hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation rate, and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level, fecal triglyceride content, and antioxidant enzymes activities compared with that of HF group. These findings demonstrate that dietary feeding of A. pernyi silk fibroin could improve the lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system via regulation of hepatic antioxidant and lipogenic enzymes activities. Hence, this silk fibroin may be beneficial as a functional biomaterial for the development of therapeutic agent against high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia and its related diseases.

Effects of Chitosan Treated with Enzymatic Methods on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Rats (키토산의 효소분해물질이 흰쥐의 당 및 지방대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 이종미;조우균;박혜진
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.7
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    • pp.1112-1120
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effets of chitosan and beef tallow at different level on glucose and lipid metabolism in rats. Dietary fot level was 20% and 40%, and chitosan was given at levels of 0%, 3%, and 5%(wt/wt) of diet. Chitosan supplement tended to decrease the serum total lipids, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. HDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol : total cholesterol ratio tended to increase with 5% chitosan supplementation. LDL cholesterol and VLDL triglyceride tended to decrease with chitosan supplementation. Lipid concentration of liver and epididymal fat pad(EEP) tended to decrease with medium dietary fat and chitosan treatment. fecal excretion of total lipid and triglyceride exhibited a tendency to increase with high fat levels and chitosan. Length of small intestine and gastrointestinal transit time were not affected by dietary fit levels or chitosan supplements. Therefore, it could be suggested that chitosan supplement had beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. (Korean J Nutrition 31(7) : 1112-1120, 1998)

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Expression of lipid metabolism genes provides new insights into intramuscular fat deposition in Laiwu pigs

  • Wang, Hui;Wang, Jin;Yang, Dan-dan;Liu, Zong-li;Zeng, Yong-qing;Chen, Wei
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.390-397
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to measure the special expression pattern of lipid metabolism genes and investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in Longissimus dorsi muscle of Laiwu pigs. Methods: Thirty-six pigs (Laiwu n = 18; Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire n = 18) were used for the measurement of the backfat thickness, marbling score, IMF content, and expression of lipid metabolism genes. Results: Significant correlations were found between IMF content and the mRNA expression of lipid metabolism genes. Of the 14 fat deposition genes measured, fatty acid synthase (FASN) showed the strongest correlation (r = 0.75, p = 0.001) with IMF content, and of the 6 fat removal genes, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1B (CPT1B) exhibited the greatest negative correlation (r = -0.66, p = 0.003) with IMF content in Laiwu pig. Multiple regression analysis showed that CPT1B, FASN, solute carrier family 27 member 1 (SLC27A1), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) contributed 38% of the prediction value for IMF content in Laiwu pigs. Of these four variables, CPT1B had the greatest contribution to IMF content (14%) followed by FASN (11%), SLC27A1 (9%), and FABP3 (4%). Conclusion: Our results indicate that the combined effects of an upregulation in fat deposition genes and downregulation in fat removal genes promotes IMF deposition in Laiwu pigs.

The Effects of Micro Crystalline Chitin and Palm Oil on the Lipid Metabolism in the Rat (미세결정화키틴과 팜유의 수준을 달리한 식이가 흰쥐의 지방대상에 미치는 영향)

  • 이종미
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.789-796
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    • 1997
  • The effects of MCC and palm oil at different levels on lipid metabolism were assessed in adolescent rat. Dietary fat levels were 20% and 40% (kcal/kcal) and MCC level were 0%, 2%, and 4% (wt/wt). The experimental period took 8 weeks. During the experiment, weight gain and food efficiency ration were not affected by dietary factors. The weight of thymus however, was lower in high fat groups than in middle fat groups. The contents of total lipid and total cholesterol in plasma and HDL-cholesterol in plasma and HDL-cholesterol were significantly affected by dietary factors. The concentrations of cholesterol in LDL and VLDL , and the triglyceride content of VLDL was higher in high fat groups than in middle fat groups. Adding MCC lowered the LDL triglyceride in the high fat groups. The analysis of plasma fatty acids generally reflected the composition of the dietary palm oil. MCC had significant effects on total lipid and triglyceride of feces, but not on total cholesterol . In conclusion, the level of MCC had little hypolipodemic effects on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet. the middle fat group that contained 4% MCC showed increased contents of fecal triglyceride than the others, indicating that MCC had an effect on lipid absorption. Therefore, the other physiological functions of MCC need to be tested for their useful applications.

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Effects of a Pre-Exercise Meal on Plasma Growth Hormone Response and Fat Oxidation during Walking

  • Shin, Young-Ho;Jung, Hyun-Lyung;Ryu, Jong-Woo;Kim, Pan-Soo;Ha, Tae-Yeol;An, Ji-Yoon;Kang, Ho-Youl
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.175-180
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a pre-exercise meal on the plasma human growth hormone (hGH) response and fat oxidation during walking. Subjects (n=8) were randomly provided with either 1 g/kg body weight of glucose in 200 mL water (CHO) or 200 mL water alone (CON) 30 min prior to exercise and subsequently walked on a treadmill at 50% of VO2max for 60 min. Plasma hGH concentrations were significantly higher in subjects who received CHO compared to those who received CON at 15 and 30 min. The fat oxidation rate in the CHO was significantly lower than the CON while walking for 5~15, 25~35 and 45~55 min. Plasma FFA levels were also significantly lower in the CHO compared to the CON at 30, 45 and 60 min. Plasma glucose levels in the CHO were significantly lower while plasma insulin levels were significantly higher than in the CON at 15 and 30 min. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that the elevation of plasma hGH levels due to the intake of a pre-exercise meal may not be strongly related to fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels during low-intensity exercise.

Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet

  • Lee, Hee-Sun;Park, Hoon-Jung;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.204-210
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to investigate effects of Chiarella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks, Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and albumin concentration were not different among groups. Serum total lipids and liver TG concentration were significantly lower in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (p<0.05). Serum TG, serum total cholesterol, liver total lipid and liver total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (p<0.05). Fecal total lipid, TG and total cholesterol excretions were significantly higher in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella groups in normal diet and high fat diet groups, respectively (p<0.05). These results suggest that Chlorella vulgaris is effective for prevention of dyslipidemia which may be due to the modulation of lipid metabolism and increased fecal excretion of lipid.

Lower Leg Fat Depots Are Associated with Albuminuria Independently of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Metabolic Syndrome (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008 to 2011)

  • Han, Eugene;Cho, Nan Hee;Kim, Mi Kyung;Kim, Hye Soon
    • Diabetes and Metabolism Journal
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.461-473
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    • 2019
  • Background: Although the involvement of obesity in metabolic disorders is well known, leg fat depot influences on albuminuria have not been determined. Methods: This population-based, cross-sectional study used a nationally representative sample of 2,076 subjects aged ≥20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2008 to 2011. The ratio of leg fat to total fat (LF/TF ratio) was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry, and albuminuria was defined as more than one positive dipstick test or an albumin-to-creatinine ratio of ≥30 mg/g. Results: Individuals whose LF/TF ratio was in the lowest tertile showed a higher proportion of albuminuria than those in the highest tertile (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01 to 3.96; P<0.001). This association was observed in both sexes, all age groups, and all subgroups stratified by body mass index, waist circumference, homeostasis model assessments of insulin resistance, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (all, P<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analyses also demonstrated that the lowest LF/TF ratio was independently associated with albuminuria risk (OR, 1.55 to 2.16; all, P<0.05). In addition, the risk of albuminuria was higher in sarcopenic individuals with lower LF/TF ratios than in the highest LF/TF ratio subjects without sarcopenia (OR, 3.73; 95% CI, 2.26 to 6.13). Conclusion: A lower LF/TF ratio was associated with an increased risk of albuminuria independent of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome, and when combined with sarcopenia, the albuminuria risk synergistically increased. Hence, our findings may have implications to improve risk stratification and recommendations on body fat distribution in the general population.

Effects of quercetin derivatives from mulberry leaves: Improved gene expression related hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism in short-term high-fat fed mice

  • Sun, Xufeng;Yamasaki, Masayuki;Katsube, Takuya;Shiwaku, Kuninori
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.137-143
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mulberry leaves contain quercetin derivatives, which have the effects of reducing obesity and improving lipid and glucose metabolism in mice with obesity. It is not clear whether or not mulberry leaves can directly affect metabolic disorders, in the presence of obesity, because of the interaction between obesity and metabolic disorders. The aim of the current study was to assess the direct action of quercetin derivatives on metabolic disorders in non-obese conditions in short-term high-fat diet fed mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: C57BL/6N mice were fed a high-fat diet, supplemented with either 0% (control), 1%, or 3% mulberry leaf powder (Mul) or 1% catechin powder for five days. Anthropometric parameters and blood biochemistry were determined, and hepatic gene expression associated with lipid and glucose metabolism was analyzed. RESULTS: Body and white fat weights did not differ among the four groups. Plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, and free fatty acids in the 1%, 3% Mul and catechin groups did not differ significantly from those of the controls, however, plasma glucose and 8-isoprostane levels were significantly reduced. Liver gene expression of gp91phox, a main component of NADPH oxidase, was significantly down-regulated, and PPAR-${\alpha}$, related to ${\beta}$-oxidation, was significantly up-regulated. FAS and GPAT, involved in lipid metabolism, were significantly down-regulated, and Ehhadh was significantly up-regulated. Glucose-metabolism related genes, L-PK and G6Pase, were significantly down-regulated, while GK was significantly up-regulated in the two Mul groups compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the Mul quercetin derivatives can directly improve lipid and glucose metabolism by reducing oxidative stress and enhancing ${\beta}$-oxidation. The 1% Mul and 1% catechin groups had similar levels of polyphenol compound intake ($0.4{\times}10^{-5}$ vs $0.4{\times}10^{-5}$ mole/5 days) and exhibited similar effects, but neither showed dose-dependent effects on lipid and glucose metabolism or oxidative stress.