• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Content

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Effects of konjac gel with vegetable powders as fat replacers in frankfurter-type sausage

  • Kim, Dong Hyun;Shin, Dong Min;Seo, Han Geuk;Han, Sung Gu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1195-1204
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether addition of konjac gel with three different vegetable powders can increase quality of low-fat frankfurter-type sausage. Methods: Low-fat frankfurter-type sausages were manufactured with formulations containing konjac gel and three vegetable powders (aloe vera, cactus pear, or wheat sprout) as pork fat replacers. The formulations of frankfurters were as follows: NF (normal-fat; 20% pork fat), LF (low-fat; 10% pork fat), KG (low-fat; 10% pork fat+10% konjac gel), and konjac gel with three vegetable powders (KV), such as KV-AV (10% pork fat+10% konjac gel with aloe vera), KV-CP (10% pork fat+10% konjac gel with cactus pear), and KV-WS (10% pork fat+10% konjac gel with wheat sprout). Proximate analysis, pH value, color evaluation, cooking loss, water-holding capacity, emulsion stability, apparent viscosity, texture profile analysis, and sensory evaluation were determined. Results: The konjac gel containing groups showed lower fat content (p<0.05) and higher moisture content than NF group (p<0.05). The pH value of frankfurters was decreased in three KV groups (p<0.05). The three KV groups had increased dark color (p<0.05) compared with KG, and KV-CP had the highest redness (p<0.05). The water-holding capacity and emulsion stability were higher in the three KV groups than KG and LF (p<0.05). Cooking loss was generally decreased in the three KV groups, compared with KG (p<0.05). The apparent viscosity of KV groups was similar with NF group and overall texture properties were improved in KV-CP. In the sensory evaluation, the highest overall acceptability was found in KV-CP groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The four fat replacers improved physicochemical properties of low-fat frankfurters. Particularly, konjac gel with cactus pear powder seems more acceptable as a pork fat replacer.

Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

  • Lee, Hyun-Jin;Jung, Eun-Hee;Lee, Sang-Hwa;Kim, Jong-Hee;Lee, Jae-Joon;Choi, Yang-Il
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.130-136
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers.

Proximate Composition and Calorie of Korean Instant Noodles (라면의 일반성분과 열량)

  • Kim, Min-Ji;Shin, Soong-Nyong;Kim, Sung-Kon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.1043-1050
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    • 2000
  • The nutritional value of commercial instant noodles produced in summer and winter seasons were investigated. Only the noodle itself was used for the analysis. The content of carbohydrate was calculated by difference. The calorie was estimated by using a conversion factor of 4.32 for protein, 9.21 for fat and 4.20 for carbohydrate. Bag-type instant noodles had higher moisture, but lower content of fat and calorie compared with bowl-type products. No seasonal variations on composition and calorie were found. The calorie was negatively correlated with moisture or carbohydrate content, and positively correlated with fat content. The calorie estimated from linear regression equation of calorie vs. moisture was similar to the value calculated using a conversion factor, which implies that the calorie of the instant noodle can be simply estimated from the moisture content. The intakes of calorie from fat accounted for 30.8% and 34.1% from bag-type and bowl-type noodles, respectively. The content of ash and fat, and calorie were significantly decreased upon cooking, which were more pronounced in the bowl-type products. At the same moisture contents the loss of calorie for bag-type products was 3.5% and for bowl-type ones was 7.7%.

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Effects of Fat Reduction on the Stability, Microstructure, Rheological and Color Characteristics of White-Brined Cheese Emulsion with Different Emulsifying Salt Amounts

  • Urgu, Muge;Unluturk, Sevcan;Koca, Nurcan
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.866-877
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    • 2018
  • Cheese emulsion is an intermediate product for the production of cheese powder and needs to be stable, homogeneous and pumpable characteristics to convey to the spray drier. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fat reduction and emulsifying salt (ES) amount in cheese emulsion systems on the physicochemical characteristics. Reduced-fat (RF) and full-fat (FF) white-brined cheese emulsions were produced with different dry matters (DM; 15%-25% excluding ES) and ES concentrations (0%-3% based on cheese weight). Stable cheese emulsion was obtained at lower DM in RF cheese emulsion than that of FF cheese emulsion. Reduction in the amount of ES resulted in instability of both emulsions. Apparent viscosity with pseudoplastic flow behavior significantly increased with the decrease of fat content in stable cheese emulsions. Microstructure of emulsions appeared to be related to the fat content, stability and degree of emulsification. Reduction of fat content caused to get less lightness and more greenness in color, whereas yellowness was significantly decreased by increase in the amount of ES. In conclusion, fat reduction resulted in higher viscosities of cheese emulsion due to inducing the increment of protein, and the addition amount of ES considered as very important factor to produce stable cheese emulsion without protein precipitation or cream separation. Therefore, for preparation of RF cheese emulsion using a variety of white-brined cheese, lower amounts of DM would be suggested in this study to obtain homogenous droplets in the atomizing process of spray drying.

Comparative Monthly Analysis of Goat Milk Components by Individual Farms (우리나라 산양유의 농장별 및 계절별 성분 비교분석)

  • Ahn, Jong-Ho;Park, Woong-Yeoul
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.321-330
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    • 2008
  • In order to investigate any differences of the characteristics of goat milk according to seasons and individual farms, we analysed and compared the components of fat, protein lactose, total solid, solid-not fat (SNF) and cells of goat milk collected from 8 individual farms between December 2006 and June 2007. Milk fat content has shown higher values in December to March than in other seasons, and SNF appeared especially higher in February. However, lactose content was not different according to seasons. Regional differences of milk components were not big at all either. Milk components from goats were in general similar to cow milk except a little lower fat content, but appeared higher than mare milk. Production of goat milk is in difficulty in aspects of balancing demand and supply due to its seasonal reproductive system. For the future of goat milk industry, it is necessary to develop various products of longer storage life.

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Effects of Automatic Milking Systems on Raw Milk Quality and Milk Fat Properties with or without Feeding Protected Fat (자동착유시스템(AMS) 착유 및 보호지방 첨가 급여가 원유의 품질 및 유지방 특성에 미치는 효과)

  • Moon, Ju Yeon;Chang, Kyeong-Man;Nam, In-Sik;Park, Seong-Min;Oh, Nam Su;Son, Yong-Suk
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2014
  • Automatic milking systems (AMS) have been increasingly introduced to Korean dairy farms. However, in comparison with conventional milking systems (CMS), some negative changes in milk quality are being observed. The use of AMS leads to an increase in milking frequency, which in turn might result in higher physical stress on the milk, possibly causing changes in the milk fat globule (MFG) membrane. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the different milking systems on the milk quality, with a focus on milk fat properties. At the same time, we studied the effect of feeding the dairy cows with protected fat. Raw milk samples were taken monthly from individual cows as well as from bulk tanks at four AMS and four CMS dairy farms. We measured quality-related parameters such as MFG size distribution, free fatty acid content and composition, and acid values. Although most results showed no significant differences with regard to the milking system, we found a relatively high positive correlation between MFG size and milk fat content. Moreover, larger MFG size was observed in the milk when cows had been fed protected fat. The significantly higher (P< 0.05) free fatty acid content of milk observed under this experimental condition could be attributed to higher milking frequency as a result of using AMS.

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The Effect of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Leaf, Stem, and Yeonjabang Powder Extract on the Biochemical Factors in Serum in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet (고지방식이 병행섭취 시 연잎, 연 줄기, 연자방 분말가루가 흰쥐의 혈중 생화학적 인자에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yong-Hwan;Choi, Kyung-Soon;Shin, Kyung-Ok
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.684-691
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we analyzed the biochemical factors in lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf, stem, and yeonjabang and their effects on serum factor levels in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. The loutus leaf showed $9.47{\pm}0.30%$ moisture content, $8.25{\pm}0.39%$ ash, $21.45{\pm}1.25%$ crude protein, and $2.21{\pm}0.13%$ crude fat content; the lotus stem showed $11.84{\pm}0.43%$ moisture, $10.21{\pm}0.64%$ ash, $17.55{\pm}0.92%$ crude protein, and $4.16{\pm}0.23%$ crude fat content; and the lotus yeonjabang showed $11.86{\pm}0.50%$ moisture, $6.81{\pm}0.51%$ ash, $18.71{\pm}1.02%$ crude protein, and $3.95{\pm}0.15%$ crude fat. Blood triglyceride levels were higher in the HF group ($146.43{\pm}38.81mg/dL$), and lower in the HF+yeonjabang groups ($98.00{\pm}17.18mg/dL$). In particular, blood triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the groups that had 10% dry yeonjabang powder added to the high-fat diet. The inclusion of excessive high-fat diet increased concentrations of serum insulin and leptin. Serum leptin concentrations were highest in the HF group mice ($3.00{\pm}1.35ng/dL$), whereas they were significantly lower in the HF+yeonjabang groups by $1.34{\pm}0.52ng/dL$ (p<0.05). Thus, addition of dry yeonjabang powder to the high-fat diet was more effective in regulating the levels of serum triglycerides and leptin in mice. Additional studies would help in the development of yeonjabang as a functional food.

The effects of $Angelica$ $keiskei$ $Koidz$ on the expression of antioxidant enzymes related to lipid profiles in rats fed a high fat diet

  • Kim, Eun-Mi;Choi, Jin-Ho;Yeo, Ik-Hyun
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to examine the feeding effects of $Angelica$ $keiskei$ $Koidz$ (AK) and its processed products on serum, liver, and body fat content and the expression of antioxidant genes in rats fed a high fat diet. AK and its processed products were added at 3-5% to a high fat diet and fed to adult rats for 6 weeks. In experiment 1 (EXP 1), the rats were fed with one of six diets including a control diet (normal fat), high fat diet (HF), and HF + AK additives groups (four groups). In experiment 2 (EXP 2), the rats were separated into three groups of HF, HF + AK whole leaves, and HF + fermented juice (FS) + squeeze (SA). Body weight was not different among the groups in either experiment. The liver weight was lower in the FS and SA groups compared to that in the other groups (P<0.05). Serum luteolin was higher in the AK and processed products groups compared to that in the HF group (P<0.05). Gene expression of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione-s-reductase in the liver was higher in the AK processed products group than that in the other groups (P<0.05). The results suggest that the intake of AK and its processed products increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in animals fed a high fat diet, reduced hepatic cholesterol content, and increased the effective absorption of luteolin.

A Comparison of the Methodologies in Food Consumption Surveys and Daily Dietary Fat Intake between America and Korea (한국과 미국의 식품 섭취 조사 방법 및 지방섭취량의 비교)

  • 박선민
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1121-1131
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    • 1996
  • The nutritional status is America has been monitored by National Monitoring System since 1960's, mainly conducted by United States Department of Agriculture. The data from these programs were computerized and distributed to researchers. Researchers have manipulated and recalculated the data to produce meaningful results. Korean nutritional status has been investigated by National Nutrition Survey ever year, including food consumption, biochemical measurements and demographic variables. The Korean Nutritional Survey has not been organized and integrated as much as the nutritional survey in the United States and its results have been presented no more than as a report. Its raw data should be distributed to researchers and researchers could use the data to get more information. The purpose of this study is to compare the measurement of food consumption in Korean and America using Korean Nutrition Survey and Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals(CSFII), respectively, and to compare the consumption of fat and foods with a high fat content. The fat consumption in the Unite States has been decreased from more than 40% of total energy intake to 35%, while Koreas have consumed more fat according to the economic growth. However, the fat consumption in Korea was still much lower than that in the United States. Korean should pay attention to saturated fat consumption(animal fat), especially rich middle aged men, since they ate meat as much as much as men in the United States according to a recent study. In America availability of food with a low fat content(e.g. low-fat milk) and new recipes along with nutritional education has decreased fat consumption, especially animal fat, any more. Also, each consumption of polyunsaturated fat and saturated fat should be measured since the ratio of them are more important for preventing heart disease and some cancers.

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Influence of Supplementing Dairy Cows Grazing on Pasture with Feeds Rich in Linoleic Acid on Milk Fat Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Content

  • Khanal, R.C.;Dhiman, T.R.;Boman, R.L.;McMahon, D.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.1374-1388
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    • 2007
  • Three experiments were conducted to investigate the hypothesis that cows grazing on pasture produce the highest proportion of c-9 t-11 CLA in milk fat and no further increase can be achieved through supplementation of diets rich in linoleic acid, such as full-fat extruded soybeans or soybean oil. In experiment 1, 18 lactating Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design with measurements made from wk 4 to 6 of the experiment. In experiment 2, three cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a $3{\times}3$ Latin square design. Each period was 4 wk with measurements made in the final wk of each period. Cows in both experiments were assigned at random to treatments: a, conventional total mixed ration (TMR); b, pasture (PS); or c, PS supplemented with 2.5 kg/cow per day of full-fat extruded soybeans (PES). In both experiments, feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and fatty acid profile of milk and blood serum were measured, along with fatty acid composition of bacteria harvested from rumen digesta in experiment 2. In experiment 3, 10 cows which had continuously grazed a pasture for six weeks were assigned to two groups, with one group (n = 5) on pasture diet alone (PS) and the other group (n = 5) supplemented with 452 g of soy oil/cow per day for 7 d (OIL). In experiment 1, cows in PS treatment produced 350% more c-9, t-11 CLA compared with cows in TMR treatment (1.70 vs. 0.5% of fat), with no further increase for cows in PES treatment (1.50% of fat). Serum c-9, t-11 CLA increased by 233% in PS treatment compared with TMR treatment (0.21 vs. 0.09% of fat) with no further increase for cows in PES treatment (0.18% of fat). In experiment 2, cows in PS treatment produced 300% more c-9 t-11 CLA in their milk fat compared with cows in TMR treatment (1.77 vs. 0.59% of fat), but no further increase for cows in PES treatment (1.84% of fat) was observed. Serum c-9, t-11 CLA increased by 250% for cows in PS treatment compared with cows in TMR treatment (0.27 vs. 0.11% of fat), with no further increase for cows in PES treatment (0.31% of fat). The c-9, t-11 CLA content of ruminal bacteria for cows in PS treatment was 200% or more of TMR treatment, but no further increase in bacterial c-9, t-11 CLA for cows in PES treatment was observed. Supplementation of soy oil in experiment 3 also did not increase the c-9 t-11 CLA content of milk fat compared with cows fed a full pasture diet (1.60 vs. 1.54% of fat). Based on these findings, it was concluded that supplementing with feeds rich in linoleic acid, such as full-fat extruded soybeans or an equivalent amount of soy oil, to cows grazing perennial ryegrass pasture may not increase milk fat c-9 t-11 CLA contents.