• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Content

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Properties of Low-Fat Pork Patties Formulated with Carrageenan Alone or in Combination with Pectin or Potato Starch (Carrageenan에 pectin 및 potato starch를 혼합 첨가하여 제조한 저지방 돈육 patty의 특성연구)

  • Joo, Sin-Youn;Chung, Hai-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.360-366
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of low- fat pork patties containing fat replacers. Carrageenan(CA) in combination with pectin(PE) or potato starch(PO) was added as fat replacers and physicochemical properties were evaluated in low-fat pork patties cooked by oven-roasting or pan-frying. Uncooked and cooked pork patties formulated with fat replacers were higher in moisture and ash content and lower in fat content than those of control. The cooking yield and reduction in diameter of pork patties were significantly improved by the addition of fat replacers(p<0.05). Pork patties formulated with CA had the highest fat retention, while CA+PE had the highest water holding capacity. Hunter s L(lightness) value was not different from among patties and a(redness) and b(yellowness) values were higher in carrageenan-based patties than those of control patties. Hardness was higher in carrageenan-based patties than that of control and cohesiveness and springiness showed no difference among patties. Sensory analysis showed that flavor, juiciness and palatability of carrageenan-based patties were superior to control patties and combined use of CA with PE or PO provided improved acceptability of low-fat pork patties over that from using single carrageenan.

Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters

  • Kim, Cheon-Jei;Kim, Hyun-Wook;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Song, Dong-Heon;Ham, Youn-Kyung;Choi, Ji-Hun;Kim, Young-Boong;Choi, Yun-Sang
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.309-318
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties.

Effect of Testosterone Propionate and Estradiol -l7$\beta$ on the Biochemical Changes in the Fat Body and Haemolymph of the Bivoltine Silkworm Bombyx mori L.

  • Hugar, I.I.;Kaliwal, B.B.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.149-152
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    • 2001
  • Effect of topical application with 10, 20 and 30 ${\mu}g$/ml testosterone propionate and estradiol -17${\beta}$ on the fourth and fifth instar bivoltine NB18 silkworm larvae Bombyx mori, on the glycogen and protein contents of the Fat body and trehalose and protein contents of the haemolymph has been studied. Glycogen content of the fat body was significantly decreased in both testosterone propionate and estradiol -17${\beta}$ treatment groups except in the group treated with 30 ${\mu}g$ testosterone propionate where the increase was not significant when compared with those of carrier controls. The increase/decrease in haemolymph trehalose content did not show any significant difference in all the treated groups. Protein content of the fat body significantly increased in 10 and 20 mg testosterone propionate and estradiol -l7${\beta}$ treated groups but in 30 mg treated groups the increase was not significant when compared with those of carrier controls. There was no significant change in the haemolymph protein content in all the testosterone propionate and estradiol -17${\beta}$ treated groups except in group treated with 10 ${\mu}g$ estradiol -17${\beta}$ where it showed a significant decrease when compared with that of carrier control.

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Genome-wide association study for intramuscular fat content in Chinese Lulai black pigs

  • Wang, Yanping;Ning, Chao;Wang, Cheng;Guo, Jianfeng;Wang, Jiying;Wu, Ying
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.607-613
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    • 2019
  • Objective: Intramuscular fat (IMF) content plays an important role in meat quality. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes related to pig IMF, especially using pig populations with high IMF content variation, can help to establish novel molecular breeding tools for optimizing IMF in pork and unveil the mechanisms that underlie fat metabolism. Methods: We collected muscle samples of 453 Chinese Lulai black pigs, measured IMF content by Soxhlet petroleum-ether extraction method, and genotyped genome-wide SNPs using GeneSeek Genomic Profiler Porcine HD BeadChip. Then a genome-wide association study was performed using a linear mixed model implemented in the GEMMA software. Results: A total of 43 SNPs were identified to be significantly associated with IMF content by the cutoff p<0.001. Among these significant SNPs, the greatest number of SNPs (n = 19) were detected on Chr.9, and two linkage disequilibrium blocks were formed among them. Additionally, 17 significant SNPs are mapped to previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of IMF and confirmed previous QTLs studies. Forty-two annotated genes centering these significant SNPs were obtained from Ensembl database. Overrepresentation test of pathways and gene ontology (GO) terms revealed some enriched reactome pathways and GO terms, which mainly involved regulation of basic material transport, energy metabolic process and signaling pathway. Conclusion: These findings improve our understanding of the genetic architecture of IMF content in pork and facilitate the follow-up study of fine-mapping genes that influence fat deposition in muscle.

동물성(動物性) 섬유(纖維)의 화학적(化學的) 조성분(組成分)이 피복재료(被服材料)의 특성(特性)에 미치는 영향(影響) - I. 한국산(韓國産) 양모(羊毛)의 화학적(化學的) 조성분(組成分) -

  • Gang, Suk-Yeo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.14
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    • pp.209-213
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    • 1990
  • In the present research to evalulate the chemical composition of wool under Korean feeding conditions have been investicated. The experiment was designed two treatments (washed and non-washed wool) and devided inner and outer side wool each treatment. The criteria for evaluation of wool with chemical composition were protein, fat, ash, amino acid and mineral content. The results which were obtained as follows: 1. Average protein content of non-washed and washed wool were 76.05% and 92.31%, respectively. However it was not different in protein content between inner and outer side wool. 2. Average fat content of non-washed and washed wool were 12.43% and 5.77%, respectively. However inner side wool was more fat content than outer side wool. 3. Average ash content of non-washed and washed wool were 10.50% and 0.90%, respectively. However inner side wool was less ash content than outer side wool. 4. Amino acid composition was not different between inner side and outer side wool. However lysine, arginine, proline, and glycine content of inner side wool were higher than those of outer side wool. 5. Mineral content of non -washed wool were higher than those of washed wool. Potassium content of non-washed wool was very high compare with that of washed wool.

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Increase of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Level in Milk Eat by Bovine Feeding Regimen and Urea Fractionation

  • KIM, YOUNG JUN;KI WON LEE;HYONG JOO LEE
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2003
  • Increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in dairy products has been a research Interest due to the potential health benefits resulted from consuming CLA. Attempts were made to obtain high level natural CLA containing fatty acid fractions from milk fat through bovine feeding of sunflower oil (SO) and urea fractionation. SO feeding changed the fatty acid profile of milk fat. increasing the CLA content five-fold at eight weeks of trial. Milk fat obtained from S0-fed cows was hydrolyzed to free fatty acids, which were then fractionated with urea at various ratios. The profiles of fatty acids were also greatly influenced by urea fractionation. Long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, Including CLA, were concentrated in milk fat after the fractionation, whereas saturated long-chain counterparts were eliminated. The highest level of CLA was achieved by the fractionation at 2:1 urea/fatty acid ratio (UFR2). CLA level was elevated 2.5-fold, and the Cl8:1/C18:0 fatty acid ratio was increased 120 times after the fractionation. The level of CLA in high CLA-milk fat (24mg/g fat) obtained from the feeding study was further increased through urea fractionation up to 52mg/g fat, 10 folds as high as CLA in the control milk fat (5mg/g fat).

The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

  • Donaldson, Janine;Madziva, Michael Taurai;Erlwanger, Kennedy Honey
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.700-711
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods: Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil) for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results: High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion: Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds' tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

INFLUENCE OF SLAUGHTER WEIGHT, SIRE, CONCENTRATE FEEDING AND MUSCLE ON THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN JAPANESE BLACK BEEF

  • Mitsumoto, M.;Mitsuhashi, T.;Ozawa, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.629-634
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    • 1992
  • Seventeen Japanese Black steers were used to evaluate the influence of slaughter weight (550 kg, 600 kg or 650 kg), sire (two sires), concentrate feeding (barley or corn) and muscle (six muscles) on the following characteristics: pH value, cooking loss, shear value, moisture and crude fat contents. Crude fat contents were higher, and moisture content and shear values were lower in muscles from the large slaughter weight group 650 kg than those from other slaughter weight groups. Cooking loss, shear value, moisture and crude fat contents differed between sires. Corn feeding increased crude fat content in muscle compared to barley feeding. Muscles containing a large amount of intramuscular fat showed lower shear values and less cooking loss than those containing a small amount of intramuscular fat.

A Study of Frozen Desert Containing Canola and Soybean Oils as a Replacement for Milk Fat

  • Im, Ji-Soon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.226-230
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    • 1999
  • This study was done to determine how added vegetable oils affect the physical, chemical and microbial properties of experimental frozen desserts. There were no differences in the percentages of total fat and total solids in the seven frozen desserts. Freezing points did not differ among treatments. There were significant differences in viscosity among the frozen desserts containing up to 80% of vegetable oils. Oil substitution at 30% or higher significantly decreased viscosity when compared to the milk fat control. The hardness of frozen desserts decreased significantly with increasing addition of oils. Oil substitution at 20% or higher significantly decreased hardness. Substitution of canola and soybean oils for milk fat increased melting rate. Initiation of fluid release in the control was slower than in frozen products with added oils. The SPC values and coliform counts of all frozen products were not significantly changed. Cholesterol content decreased significantly in the products as the vegetable oil content was raised. Frozen desserts containing 10% or 60% of vegetable oils in the total fat contained 91.8%, 73.5% or 32.5%, respectively, of the cholesterol in the control.

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Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Poppy Seed Oil on Quality of Turkish Sucuk

  • Gok, Veli
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.240-247
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    • 2015
  • Sucuk is the most popular dry-fermented meat product. Sucuk has a relatively high fat. Poppy seed oil as animal fat replacer was used in Turkish sucuk and effects of its use on sucuk quality were investigated. There was a significant (p<0.5) treatment × ripening time interaction for moisture, pH (p<0.05) and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values (p<0.01). Increasing poppy seed oil level decreased (p<0.05) TBARS values. Addition of poppy seed oil to the sucuks had a significant effect (p<0.01) on hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and springiness values. Cholesterol content of sucuks decreased (p<0.05) with poppy seed oil addition. Using pre-emulsified poppy seed oil as partial fat replacer in Turkish sucuk decreased cholesterol and saturated fatty acid content, but increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poppy seed oil as partial animal fat replacer in Turkish sucuk may have significant health benefits.